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1.
Depress Anxiety ; 39(6): 536-547, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is associated with worsening mental health among young adults, but further research is necessary to quantify the associations with depression and anxiety. METHODS: Using Monitoring the Future data (N = 1244 young adults, modal age: 19, Fall 2020 supplement), we examined internalizing symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 separately), dividing the sample into those without clinically significant scores, significant scores but minimal pandemic-attributed symptoms, and significant scores with substantial pandemic-attributed symptoms. Logistic regression analyses linked demographic factors, pandemic-related experiences, and coping methods to symptom groups. RESULTS: Internalizing symptoms were highly prevalent, with many occurring among a majority at least several days over the past 2 weeks. Major changes in education, employment, and resource availability predicted elevated symptom risk (e.g., lacking a place to sleep or money for rent, gas, or food led to 4.43 [95% confidence interval: 2.59-7.55] times the risk of high depressive symptoms significantly attributed to the pandemic). High internalizing symptoms were linked to underutilization of healthy coping behaviors, substance use overutilization, and dietary changes. High depressive and anxious symptoms attributed to the pandemic were marked by high levels of taking breaks from the news/social media and contacting healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic's associations with young adults' depressive and anxious symptoms warrants urgent attention through improved mental health treatment infrastructure and stronger structural support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Prev Med ; 159: 107059, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796001

ABSTRACT

Previous research has not examined increased vaping because of the pandemic using a national sample of young adults (YAs), which is a critical gap because pandemic-related increases in vaping among YAs could have important implications for nicotine dependence, prolonged regular use, and using substances to cope with stress. We examined self-reported increased vaping attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic among YAs, and its associations with outcomes that have important implications for future nicotine use. Data came from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) Vaping Supplement. Participants were selected from a nationally representative sample of US 12th-graders who were surveyed at age 19 in fall 2020 (N = 1244). Cross-sectional analyses of the 2020 survey included YAs who vaped nicotine in the past year (35%; N = 440). Weighted descriptive analyses and logistic regression models examined self-reported pandemic-related increased vaping (vs. decreased vaping, or no change), and its associations with current nicotine dependence, vaping behavior, and reasons for vaping. Among YAs who vaped nicotine in the past year, 16.8% reported increased and 44.4% reported decreased vaping due to the pandemic, while 38.9% reported no change. Increased vaping (vs. decreased and/or no change) was significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms, current regular nicotine vaping, and vaping to relax, get high, and because of boredom. Self-reported increased vaping because of the pandemic was associated with increased risk for current nicotine dependence and frequent use. Increased vaping may have been a form of coping with pandemic-related stressors, which increases risk for future substance use problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Use Disorder , Vaping , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nicotine/adverse effects , Pandemics , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(2): 340-344, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine predictors of using substances to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, including pandemic-related isolation, stress, economic hardship, demographics, and prepandemic substance use. METHODS: A U.S. national sample (N = 1,244) was followed from the 12th grade in Spring 2019 to Fall 2020 (M = 19.6 years) when young adults were asked about their use of marijuana, vaping, drinking, and other drugs to cope. RESULTS: In Fall 2020, 15.7% reported using marijuana, 8.9% increased vaping, and 8.2% increased drinking to cope with social distancing and isolation. In multivariable analyses controlling for demographics and prepandemic substance use, COVID-related isolation was associated with marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.63) and economic hardship with increased drinking (odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.92). There were few demographic differences. Most (>80%) who reported COVID-related substance use coping used that substance before pandemic. DISCUSSION: Young people reported using substances to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, especially if they reported prepandemic use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationships between daily affect, drinking motives, likelihood of drinking, and intensity of drinking, particularly high-intensity drinking (HID), in a sample of young adults. We also explored differences in our outcomes before versus during the early coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: In the springs of 2019 and 2020, young adult drinkers (N = 633) completed 14 consecutive morning surveys (each year) characterizing the prior day's affect, motives, and alcohol use. We examined between-person and within-person associations of affect and motives with two outcomes: any drinking and drinking intensity on drinking days (1 = moderate drinking [1-3 drinks for women, 1-4 drinks for men], 2 = binge drinking [4-7 for women, 5-9 for men], and 3 = HID [8 + for women, 10 + for men]). RESULTS: Young adults reported higher positive affect on drinking days and higher negative affect on nondrinking days. On days when young adults reported greater enhancement motives, positive affect was strongly related to HID. During the early COVID-19 pandemic, young adults were more likely to report drinking, but did not drink more heavily unless they also reported drinking for social motives. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that heightened social, coping, and enhancement motives are risk factors for drinking in young adults. They also suggest that young adults perceive their mood to be better on drinking days, particularly when they were drinking to enhance positive affect. Results are consistent with a positive affect regulation model (i.e., drinking to increase positive affect), but not a negative affect regulation model (i.e., drinking to cope with negative affect). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between COVID-19-related distress and mental health among first-year college students. PARTICIPANTS: Data for this longitudinal study (n = 727) were collected before the school year (August 2019), end of fall semester (December 2019), and soon after the university suspended in-person instruction (April 2020). METHODS: We used multivariable log-linear and logistic regressions to examine continuous and dichotomous outcomes on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. RESULTS: The most consistent predictor of during-pandemic mental health was feeling extremely isolated (versus not at all), which was associated with increased symptom severity of depression (proportional change[95% CI] = 2.43[1.87, 3.15]) and anxiety (2.02[1.50, 2.73]) and greater odds of new moderate depression (OR[95% CI] = 14.83[3.00, 73.41]) and anxiety (24.74[2.91, 210.00]). Greater COVID-19-related concern was also related to increased mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the need for mental health services during crises that lead to social isolation.

6.
Addict Behav ; 118: 106879, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with reports of increased substance use. College students are a population of concern for high risk binge drinking and their behavior may be particularly impacted by COVID-19 campus closures. Therefore, we examine first-year college students' binge drinking soon after their university's pandemic-related suspension of in-person operations. METHODS: Students from a single campus (N = 741; age: M = 18.05, SD = 0.22) completed one assessment in April-May 2020 post-campus closure (March 2020) including theoretically-informed measures (e.g., drinking motives, norms) and two items of self-reported pre- and post-closure binge drinking frequency, the focus of these analyses. RESULTS: About half of students consistently reported not binge drinking pre- and post-closure; 6.75% reported a consistent frequency of binge drinking pre- and post-closure. Many (39.41%) reported lower 30-day binge drinking post-campus closure compared to their pre-closure reports; few (4.18%) reported higher 30-day binge drinking frequency post-campus closure. Students reporting lower binge drinking post-closure showed differences in coping, social, and enhancement drinking motives and isolation. Students reporting greater post-closure binge drinking reported higher perceived drinking norms and were more likely to be in Greek life. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates self-reported patterns in binge drinking among first-year college students at the point of COVID-19 campus closures. Pandemic-related college closures may have been a temporary environmental intervention on this high-risk behavior for some students. Although many students were not binge drinking, some continued binge drinking after closure and may benefit from preventive interventions.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peer Group , Students , Universities
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