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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1591339

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBetween 1 March and 15 June, France experienced the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which 29 549 deaths occurred among COVID-19 patients, 17 250 of whom died in hospital. Our hypothesis is that crude mortality rates are not sufficient to assess the impact of the epidemic on public health. The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential years of life lost (YLL) of patients who died from COVID-19.MethodWe realised a retrospective analysis of the exhaustive sample of COVID-19 PCR-positive patients who died in public hospitals of Marseille during this first wave. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities and care pathways were collected from medical records. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to assess what would have been the probability of dying within 1 year of these patients in the absence of COVID-19 and to estimate total YLL.ResultsAmong the 1631 patients who were hospitalised for COVID-19, 178 patients died, at an average age of 80 years. According to CCI, 88.8% of the deceased patients had an 85% probability of dying within 1 year before COVID-19. Among the 11.2% who had a lower CCI probability, 18 out of 20 had at least one additional comorbidity known to be a major risk factor of mortality in COVID-19 disease. Cumulative total number of YLL was estimated to be 541 in this deceased population, that is, an average of 3 YLL.ConclusionAlthough our results should be interpreted with caution, this analysis confirms that mortality due to COVID-19 translates into a limited number of YLL due to both old age and preexisting comorbidities in the most vulnerable patients. This fact should be better considered in public health management of the pandemic both for risk communication and design of the most appropriate protective measures.

2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.

4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 625732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291351

ABSTRACT

The etiological agent of COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2, is primarily a pulmonary-tropic coronavirus. Infection of alveolar pneumocytes by SARS-CoV-2 requires virus binding to the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) monocarboxypeptidase. ACE2, present on the surface of many cell types, is known to be a regulator of blood pressure homeostasis through its ability to catalyze the proteolysis of Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. We therefore hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 could trigger variations of ACE2 expression and Ang II plasma concentration in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We report here, that circulating blood cells from COVID-19 patients express less ACE2 mRNA than cells from healthy volunteers. At the level of circulating cells, this ACE2 gene dysregulation mainly affects the monocytes, which also show a lower expression of membrane ACE2 protein. Moreover, soluble ACE2 (sACE2) plasma concentrations are lower in prolonged viral shedders than in healthy controls, while the concentration of sACE2 returns to normal levels in short viral shedders. In the plasma of prolonged viral shedders, we also found higher concentrations of Ang II and angiotensin I (Ang I). On the other hand, the plasma levels of Ang-(1-7) remains almost stable in prolonged viral shedders but seems insufficient to prevent the adverse effects of Ang II accumulation. Altogether, these data evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 may affect the expression of blood pressure regulators with possible harmful consequences on COVID-19 outcome.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin I/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , Virus Shedding
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an opportunity to use low- and non-radiating chest imaging techniques on a large scale in the context of an infectious disease, which has never been done before. Previously, low-dose techniques were rarely used for infectious diseases, despite the recognised danger of ionising radiation. METHOD: To evaluate the role of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and lung ultrasound (LUS) in managing COVID-19 pneumonia, we performed a review of the literature including our cases. RESULTS: Chest LDCT is now performed routinely when diagnosing and assessing the severity of COVID-19, allowing patients to be rapidly triaged. The extent of lung involvement assessed by LDCT is accurate in terms of predicting poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19-infected patients. Infectious disease specialists are less familiar with LUS, but this technique is also of great interest for a rapid diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 and is effective at assessing patient prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is currently accelerating the transition to low-dose and "no-dose" imaging techniques to explore infectious pneumonia and their long-term consequences.

8.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227067

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding contributes to the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among 3271 COVID-19 patients treated at the Hospital University Institute Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France from 3 March to 27 April 2020, tested at least twice by qRT-PCR, the median SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding duration was 6 days (range 2-54 days). Compared with short shedders (qRT-PCR positivity < 10 days), 34 (1.04%) persistent shedders (qRT-PCR positivity ≥ 17 days; mean ± SD: 23.3 ± 3.8 days) were significantly older, with associated comorbidities, exhibiting lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased D-dimer and increased troponin (p < 0.05), and were hospitalized in intensive care unit in 17.7% vs. 1.1% of cases (p < 0.0001). Viral culture was positive in six persistent shedders after day 10, including in one patient after day 17, and no viral co-pathogen was detected in 33 tested patients. Persistent shedders received azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine ≥ 3 days in 26/34 (76.5%) patients, a figure significantly lower than in short shedders (86.6%) (p = 0.042). Accordingly, mortality was 14.7% vs. 0.5% (p < 0.0001). Persistent shedding was significantly associated with persistent dyspnea and anosmia/ageusia (p < 0.05). In the context of COVID-19 treatment, including treatment with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal shedding was a rare event, most frequently encountered in elderly patients with comorbidities and lacking azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/metabolism , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1309-1317, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116613

ABSTRACT

ELISA and chemiluminescence serological assays for COVID-19 are currently incorporating only one or two SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We developed an automated Western immunoblotting as a complementary serologic assay for COVID-19. The JessTM Simple Western system, an automated capillary-based assay, was used, incorporating an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 lineage 20a strain as the source of antigen, and total immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) detection. In total, 602 sera were tested including 223 from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 76 from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and 303 from coronavirus-negative control sera. We also compared this assay with the EUROIMMUN® SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA kit. Among 223 sera obtained from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 180/223 (81%) exhibited reactivity against the nucleocapsid and 70/223 (31%) against the spike protein. Nucleocapsid reactivity was further detected in 9/76 (14%) samples collected from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and in 15/303 (5%) coronavirus-negative control samples. In the subset of sera collected more than 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms, the sensitivity was 94% and the specificity 93%, the latter value probably reflecting cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 with other coronaviruses. The automated Western immunoblotting presented a substantial agreement (90%) with the compared ELISA (Cohen's Kappa=0.64). Automated Western immunoblotting may be used as a second line test to monitor exposure of people to HCoVs including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(1): 105949, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. PATIENTS AND METHODS: French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. RESULTS: Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported in the litterature for untreated patients. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. CONCLUSION: Despite its small sample size, our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 233-238, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe and evaluate the outcome of a coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patient without shortness of breath. DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed and cared for in Marseille, France. We selected data from patients who at admission, had a low dose CT scanner, dyspnea status, and oxygen saturation available. Blood gas was analyzed in a sample subset of patients. RESULTS: Among 1712 patients with COVID-19, we report that 1107 (64.7%) do not complain of shortness of breath at admission. The low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan showed signs compatible with pneumonia in 757/1,107 (68.4%) of patients without dyspnea. In a subset of patients who had underwent at least one blood gas analysis (n = 161) and presented without dyspnea at admission, 28.1% (27/96) presented with a hypoxemia/hypocapnia syndrome. Asymptomatic hypoxia was associated with a very poor outcome (33.3% were transferred to the ICU and 25.9% died). CONCLUSION: The absence of shortness of breath in an old patient with comorbidity merit medical attention and should not be considered as a good sign of well-being. The poor prognosis of asymptomatic hypoxia, highlight the severity of this mild clinical presentation. In these patients, pulse oximetry is an important mean to predict the outcome along with news score and LDCT scanner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(12): 1159-1184, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032979

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 presents benign forms in young patients who frequently present with anosmia. Infants are rarely infected, while severe forms occur in patients over 65 years of age with comorbidities, including hypertension and diabetes. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombopenia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, troponin, C-reactive protein, D-dimers and low zinc levels are associated with severity.Areas covered: The authors review the literature and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the natural history of and therapeutic options for COVID-19. Expert opinion: Diagnosis should rely on PCR and not on clinical presumption. Because of discrepancies between clinical symptoms, oxygen saturation or radiological signs on CT scans, pulse oximetry, and radiological investigation should be systematic. The disease evolves in successive phases: an acute virological phase, and, in some patients, a cytokine storm phase; an uncontrolled coagulopathy; and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therapeutic options include antivirals, oxygen therapy, immunomodulators, anticoagulants and prolonged mechanical treatment. Early diagnosis, care, and implementation of an antiviral treatment; the use of immunomodulators at a later stage; and the quality of intensive care are critical regarding mortality rates. The higher mortality observed in Western countries remains unexplained. Pulmonary fibrosis may occur in some patients. Its future is unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 470-471, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014555

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all mass gathering (MG) events have been cancelled. The Grand Magal took place on October 6, 2020, in Touba, Senegal, which was the only MG event organized in 2020. This Muslim pilgrimage gathers about four million Muslim Mourides from Senegal and beyond. No significant increase in COVID-19 cases was therefore observed at the national level in the weeks following the Grand Magal. This successful strategy is an invitation to better promote community commitments by public authorities in their various strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Islam , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Crowding , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiology , Travel
17.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 117, 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose chest CT (LDCT) showed high sensitivity and ability to quantify lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for lung involvement in 247 patients with a visual score and assess the prevalence of incidental findings. METHODS: For 12 days in March 2020, 250 patients with RT-PCR positive tests and who underwent LDCT were prospectively included. Clinical and imaging findings were recorded. The extent of lung involvement was quantified using a score ranging from 0 to 40. A logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with a score ≥ 10. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were analyzed; 138 (54%) showed lung involvement. The mean score was 4.5 ± 6.5, and the mean score for patients with lung involvement was 8.1 ± 6.8 [1-31]. The mean age was 43 ± 15 years, with 121 males (48%) and 17 asymptomatic patients (7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 54 years (odds ratio 4.4[2.0-9.6] p < 0.001) and diabetes (4.7[1.0-22.1] p = 0.049) were risk factors for a score ≥ 10. Multivariate analysis including symptoms showed that only age > 54 years (4.1[1.7-10.0] p = 0.002) was a risk factor for a score ≥ 10. Rhinitis (0.3[0.1-0.7] p = 0.005) and anosmia (0.3[0.1-0.9] p = 0.043) were protective against lung involvement. Incidental imaging findings were found in 19% of patients, with a need for follow-up in 0.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of lung involvement was 54% in a predominantly paucisymptomatic population. Age ≥ 55 years and diabetes were risk factors for significant parenchymal lung involvement. Rhinitis and anosmia were protective against LDCT abnormalities.

18.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(6): 106219, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to report the results of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based screening campaigns conducted on dependent elderly residents (compared with staff members) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Marseille, France, and the follow-up of positive cases. METHODS: Data from 1691 elderly residents and 1000 members of staff were retrospectively collected through interviewing the medical teams in 24 LTCFs and using the hospitals' electronic health recording systems. RESULTS: Elderly residents were predominantly female (64.8%) with a mean age of 83.0 years. SARS-CoV-2 detection among residents (226, 13.4%) was significantly higher than among staff members (87, 8.7%) (P < 0.001). Of the 226 infected residents, 37 (16.4%) were detected on a case-by-case basis due to their COVID-19 symptoms and 189 (83.6%) were detected through mass screening. Most (77.0%) had possible COVID-19 symptoms, including respiratory symptoms and signs (44.5%) and fever (46.5%); 23.0% were asymptomatic. A total of 116 (51.4%) patients received a course of oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) for ≥ 3 days; 47 (20.8%) died. Through multivariate analysis, the death rate was positively associated with being male (30.7% vs. 14.0%, OR = 3.95, P = 0.002), aged > 85 years (26.1% vs. 15.6%, OR = 2.43, P = 0.041) and receiving oxygen therapy (39.0% vs. 12.9%, OR = 5.16, P < 0.001) and negatively associated with being diagnosed through mass screening (16.9% vs. 40.5%, OR = 0.20, P= 0.001) and receiving HCQ-AZM treatment ≥ 3 days (15.5% vs. 26.4%, OR = 0.37, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The high proportion of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and independent factors for mortality suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients in LTCFs may be effective in saving lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241407, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to assess the ability of low-dose CT (LDCT) to determine lung involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and to describe a COVID19-LDCT severity score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR were retrospectively analysed. Clinical data, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and imaging features were recorded. Lung features included ground-glass opacities (GGO), areas of consolidation and crazy paving patterns. The COVID19-LDCT score was calculated by summing the score of each segment from 0 (no involvement) to 10 (severe impairment). Univariate analysis was performed to explore predictive factor of high COVID19-LDCT score. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare groups and a Spearman correlation used with p<0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Eighty patients with positive RT-PCR were analysed. The mean age was 55 years ± 16, with 42 males (53%). The most frequent symptoms were fever (60/80, 75%) and cough (59/80, 74%), the mean NEWS was 1.7±2.3. All LDCT could be analysed and 23/80 (28%) were normal. The major imaging finding was GGOs in 56 cases (67%). The COVID19-LDCT score (mean value = 19±29) was correlated with NEWS (r = 0.48, p<0.0001). No symptoms were risk factor to have pulmonary involvement. Univariate analysis shown that dyspnea, high respiratory rate, hypertension and diabetes are associated to a COVID19-LDCT score superior to 50. CONCLUSIONS: COVID19-LDCT score did correlate with NEWS. It was significantly different in the clinical low-risk and high-risk groups. Further work is needed to validate the COVID19-LDCT score against patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
20.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(4): 247-249, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789162

ABSTRACT

The Grand Magal is a religious pilgrimage that takes place in Senegal. An estimated 4-5 million individuals yearly gather in the holy city of Touba. Pilgrims comes from the whole Senegal and surrounding countries and from countries outside of Africa where Mouride Senegalese emigrated. It is the largest Mass Gathering (MG) event of the Mouride community and the largest Muslim religious MG in West Africa. The context of the Grand Magal MG is unique given its location in a tropical developing country and its international component which may favour the globalization of local endemic diseases and warrants investment in modern methods for public health surveillance and planning of the event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiological Monitoring , Islam , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Public Health , Senegal/epidemiology
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