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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117690

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) has emerged as a new global pandemic, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. Furthermore, the existence of antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies (Abs) and ultimately patient death may be linked to the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to investigate if there was a link between the presence of APL Abs and the severity of COVID-19 disease in patients at the Vali-Asr Hospital in Zanjan from June to July 2021. Real-time PCR was used to diagnose COVID-19 in 76 hospitalized patients. A total of 38 patients were hospitalized in the internal medicine ward and another 38 people were admitted to the intensive care unit of the Vali-Asr Educational Hospital in Iran's Zanjan region. Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) detection was done using the dilute Russell viper venom time method, and tests for anticardiolipin (ACL) Abs, IgG and IgM, and anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 Abs, IgG and IgM, were done on blood and plasma samples of linked patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. SPSS 24 was used to analyze data. Our findings showed that the presence of LAC was associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients (p = 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between APL Abs and mortality in patients affected with COVID-19. The evaluation of APL Abs, particularly LAC, in COVID-19 patients appears to be helpful in predicting the severity of the disease.

2.
DNA Cell Biol ; 41(6): 544-563, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890821

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression through recognition of cognate sequences and interference of transcriptional, translational, or epigenetic processes. Hundreds of miRNA genes have been found in diverse viruses, and many of these are phylogenetically conserved. Respiratory viruses are the most frequent causative agents of disease in humans, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the role of miRNAs in respiratory viral gene regulation, as well as host gene regulation during disease progression, has become a field of interest. This review highlighted the importance of various miRNAs and their potential role in fighting with respiratory viruses as therapeutic molecules with a focus on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Viruses , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/genetics
3.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 59(3):173-176, 2021.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1761373

ABSTRACT

The 2019 global Coronavirus syndrome pandemic (COVID-19) has entered more than two hundred countries around the world, involving <82 million persons and >1,800,000 deaths (until January, 1st 2021). We report on COVID-19 infection in the context of a Cushing's syndrome (CS) from Iran. A 36-year-old man with proximal myopathy, plethora, and striae with central obesity was evaluated for Cushing's syndrome. During the high dose dexamethasone test, the patient developed symptoms of cough, low-grade fever, and weakness then was admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Despite treatment according to national protocols for COVID-19, the patient unfortunately died. In this report, we intend to discuss the various aspects of Cushing's syndrome and severe COVID-19 infection.

4.
J Investig Med ; 70(3): 766-772, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642898

ABSTRACT

The novel COVID-19 outbreak is a major health threat to human beings with multiorgan injuries. However, its endocrine system manifestations are much less studied. In this study, we aimed to reassess the available findings on the association between cortisol level and severity of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a systematic search on Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. To pool data, a random-effects model was performed depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out by removing each study systematically. In addition, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed depending on the presence of the variables of sex and age. Subsequently, 11 studies (5 observational studies and 6 case reports) were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis on the observational studies showed significantly higher levels of cortisol in patients with severe COVID-19 in comparison with those with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (standardized mean difference: 1.48 µg/dL; 95% CI (0.51 to 2.46); p=0.003). Assessment of the results of case reports revealed that the patients with severe COVID-19 demonstrated higher cortisol levels than the patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. No publication bias was observed using the Begg's (p=0.08) and Egger's tests (p=0.09). Meta-regression illustrated a significant correlation between cortisol levels with sex. The serum cortisol level seems to be higher in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. This finding could be helpful to detect patients with poor prognosis at early stages of the disease, although age and sex may modify this level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrocortisone , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
5.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 67: 53-64, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091673

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis refers to the clinical and histological characteristics of a diverse range of inflammatory cellular pathophysiological conditions which result in cardiac dysfunction. Myocarditis is a major cause of mortality in individuals less than 40 years of age and accounts for approximately 20% of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Myocarditis contributes to dilated cardiomyopathy in 30% of patients and can progress to cardiac arrest, which has a poor prognosis of <40% survival over 10 years. Myocarditis has also been documented after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The most commonly used lipid-lowering therapies, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), decrease CVD-related morbidity and mortality. In addition to their lipid-lowering effects, increasing evidence supports the existence of several additional beneficial, 'pleiotropic' effects of statins. Recently, several studies have indicated that statins may attenuate myocarditis. Statins modify the lipid oxidation, inflammation, immunomodulation, and endothelial activity of the pathophysiology and have been recommended as adjuvant treatment. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of action of statins and their effects on myocarditis, SARS-CoV-2 and CVD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Myocarditis/etiology
6.
J Gene Med ; 23(2): e3303, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus tentatively named SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, a central city in China, was announced by the World Health Organization. SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that has become a major public health concern after the outbreak of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and 2012, respectively. As of 29 October 2020, the total number of COVID-19 cases had reached over 44 million worldwide, with more than 1.17 million confirmed deaths. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients usually present with severe viral pneumonia. Similar to SARS-CoV, the virus enters respiratory tract cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2. The structural proteins play an essential role in budding the virus particles released from different host cells. To date, an approved vaccine or treatment option of a preventive character to avoid severe courses of COVID-19 is still not available. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we provide a brief review of the general biological features of CoVs and explain the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and diagnostic approaches regarding monitoring future infectivity and prevent emerging COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Microarray Analysis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
7.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059433

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: In December 2019, a highly pathogenic coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 (formerly identified as 2019-nCoV) appeared in Wuhan, China, and has since been spreading rapidly around the world. we reviewed the neurological manifestations of this infection and the potential of ACE2 in the nervous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, WHO, and google scholar) were searched and screened by the authors for having appropriate information about covid-19. Finally, 72 studies were identified, summarized and reviewed. RESULT: The most specific manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 patients is pulmonary distress, and several patients admitted to intensive care units were not able to breathe spontaneously. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has a significant effect on nervous systems and may even lead to serious neurological damage. The neuroinvasive pathobiology is still not fully elucidated and thus the effect of CoV infections on the nervous system needs to be explored. The spike protein of the virus and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) lead to the presence of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the cells and, subsequently, decreased ACE2 expression. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic possibilities of ACE2 antibody, ACE2-derived peptides, and small molecule blockers of ACE2 include a receptor-binding domain blocking approach. Hence, future studies of ACE2 may be very helpful in discovering a therapy for SARS-CoV-2.

8.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1741-1753, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679863

ABSTRACT

On December 31, 2019, a novel coronavirus, being the third highly infective CoV and named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, was announced by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 has a 2% mortality rate, is known as the third extremely infective CoV infection, and has a mortality rate less than MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The CoV family comprises a chief number of positive single-stranded ss (+) RNA viruses that are recognized in mammals. The 2019-nCoV patients showed that the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) was the same for SARS-CoV. Structural proteins have an essential role in virus released and budding to various host cells. Notably, evidence indicated human-to-human transmission, along with several exported patients of virus infection worldwide. Nowadays, no licensed antivirals drugs or vaccines for being utilized against these coronavirus infections are recognized. There is an urgent requirement for an extensive research of CoV infections to disclose the route of extension, pathogenesis, and diagnosis and then to recognize the therapeutic targets to facilitate disease control and surveillance. In this article, we present an overview of the common biological criteria of CoVs and explain pathogenesis with a focus on the therapeutic approach to suggest potential goals for treating and monitoring this emerging zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
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