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J Arthroplasty ; 37(10): 2106-2113.e1, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821138


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a substantial number of patients to have their elective arthroplasty surgeries rescheduled. While it is established that patients with COVID-19 who are undergoing surgery have a significantly higher risk of experiencing postoperative complications and mortality, it is not well-known at what time after testing positive the risk of postoperative complications or mortality returns to normal. METHODS: PubMed (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE, and professional society websites were systematically reviewed on March 7, 2022 to identify studies and guidelines on the optimal timeframe to reschedule patients for elective surgery after preoperatively testing positive for COVID-19. Outcomes included postoperative complications such as mortality, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies and professional society guidelines met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Patients with asymptomatic COVID-19 should be rescheduled 4-8 weeks after testing positive (as long as they do not develop symptoms in the interim), patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 should be rescheduled 6-8 weeks after testing positive (with complete resolution of symptoms), and patients with severe/critical COVID-19 should be rescheduled at a minimum of 12 weeks after hospital discharge (with complete resolution of symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Given the negative association between preoperative COVID-19 and postoperative complications, patients should have elective arthroplasty surgery rescheduled at differing timeframes based on their symptoms. In addition, a multidisciplinary and patient-centered approach to rescheduling patients is recommended. Further study is needed to examine the impact of novel COVID-19 variants and vaccination on timeframes for rescheduling surgery.

COVID-19 , Arthroplasty , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7): 1253-1259, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783184


BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty who are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive at the time of surgery have a high risk of mortality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Care Excellence and the British Orthopaedic Association advise self-isolation for 14 days preoperatively in patients at a high risk of adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. The aim of the study is to assess whether preoperative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 could be performed at between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively with specific advice about minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 restricted to between PCR and admission. METHODS: A multicentre, international, observational cohort study of 1,000 lower limb arthroplasty cases was performed. The dual primary outcomes were 30-day conversion to SARS-CoV-2 positive and 30-day SARS-CoV-2 mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-day SARS-CoV-2 morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 1,000 cases, 935 (94%) had a PCR between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively. All cases were admitted to and had surgery through a COVID-free pathway. Primary knee arthroplasty was performed in 41% of cases, primary hip arthroplasty in 40%, revision knee arthroplasty in 11%, and revision hip arthroplasty in 9%. Six percent of operations were emergency operations. No cases of SARS-CoV-2 were identified within the first 30 days. CONCLUSION: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between 48 and 72 hours preoperatively with advice about minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 restricted to between PCR and admission in conjunction with a COVID-free pathway is safe for patients undergoing primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty. Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test alone may be safe but further adequately powered studies are required. This information is important for shared decision making with patients during the current pandemic.

Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
Narrat Inq Bioeth ; 11(1): E9-E10, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496314

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(8): 1691-1699, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132600


BACKGROUND: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are asymptomatic. The prevalence of COVID-19 in orthopaedic populations will vary depending on the time and place where the sampling is performed. The idea that asymptomatic carriers play a role is generalizable but has not been studied in large populations of patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. We therefore evaluated this topic in one large, metropolitan city in a state that had the ninth-most infections in the United States at the time this study was completed (June 2020). This work was based on a screening and testing protocol that required all patients to be tested for COVID-19 preoperatively. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the prevalence of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in patients planning to undergo orthopaedic surgery in one major city, in order to provide other surgeons with a framework for assessing COVID-19 rates in their healthcare system? (2) How did patients with positive test results for COVID-19 differ in terms of age, sex, and orthopaedic conditions? (3) What proportion of patients had complications treated, and how many patients had a symptomatic COVID-19 infection within 30 days of surgery (recognizing that some may have been missed and so our estimates of event rates will necessarily underestimate the frequency of this event)? METHODS: All adult patients scheduled for surgery at four facilities (two tertiary care hospitals, one orthopaedic specialty hospital, and one ambulatory surgery center) at a single institution in the Philadelphia metropolitan area from April 27, 2020 to June 12, 2020 were included in this study. A total of 1295 patients were screened for symptoms, exposure, temperature, and oxygen saturation via a standardized protocol before surgical scheduling; 1.5% (19 of 1295) were excluded because they had COVID-19 symptoms, exposure, or recent travel based on the initial screening questionnaire, leaving 98.5% (1276 of 1295) who underwent testing for COVID-19 preoperatively. All 1276 patients who passed the initial screening test underwent nasopharyngeal swabbing for COVID-19 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction before surgery. The mean age at the time of testing was 56 ± 16 years, and 53% (672 of 1276) were men. Eighty-seven percent (1106), 8% (103), and 5% (67) were tested via the Roche, Abbott, and Cepheid assays, respectively. All patients undergoing elective surgery were tested via the Roche assay, while those undergoing nonelective surgery received either the Abbott or Cepheid assay, based on availability. Patients with positive test results undergoing elective surgery had their procedures rescheduled, while patients scheduled for nonelective surgery underwent surgery regardless of their test results. Additionally, we reviewed the records of all patients at 30 days postoperatively for emergency room visits, readmissions, and COVID-19-related complications via electronic medical records and surgeon-reported complications. However, we had no method for definitively determining how many patients had complications, emergency department visits, or readmissions outside our system, so our event rate estimates for these endpoints are necessarily best-case estimates. RESULTS: A total of 0.5% (7 of 1276) of the patients tested positive for COVID-19: five via the Roche assay and two via the Abbott assay. Patients with positive test results were younger than those with negative results (39 ± 12 years versus 56 ± 16 years; p = 0.01). With the numbers available, we found no difference in the proportion of patients with positive test results for COVID-19 based on subspecialty area (examining the lowest and highest point estimates, respectively, we observed: trauma surgery [3%; 2 of 68 patients] versus hip and knee [0.3%; 1 of 401 patients], OR 12 [95% CI 1-135]; p = 0.06). No patients with negative preoperative test results for COVID-19 developed a symptomatic COVID-19 infection within 30 days postoperatively. Within 30 days of surgery, 0.9% (11 of 1276) of the patients presented to the emergency room, and 1.3% (16 of 1276) were readmitted for non-COVID-19-related complications. None of the patients with positive test results for COVID-19 preoperatively experienced complications. However, because some were likely treated outside our healthcare system, the actual percentages may be higher. CONCLUSION: Because younger patients are more likely to be asymptomatic carriers of disease, surgeons should emphasize the importance of taking proper precautions to prevent virus exposure preoperatively. Because the rates of COVID-19 infection differ based on city and time, surgeons should monitor the local prevalence of disease to properly advise patients on the risk of COVID-19 exposure. Further investigation is required to assess the prevalence in the orthopaedic population in cities with larger COVID-19 burdens. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Preoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
Arthroplast Today ; 7: 268-272, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131087


BACKGROUND: In March 2020, elective total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) were suspended across the United States in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We had previously published the results of a survey to the affected patients from 6 institutions. We now present the results of a larger distribution of this survey, through May and June 2020, to electively scheduled patients representing different regions of the United States. METHODS: Fifteen centers identified through the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Research Committee participated in a survey study of THA and TKA patients. Patients scheduled for primary elective THA or TKA but canceled due to the COVID-19 elective surgery stoppage (3/2020-5/2020) were included in the study. Descriptive statistics along with subgroup analysis with Wilcoxon rank were performed. RESULTS: In total, surveys were distributed to 2135 patients and completed by 848 patients (40%) from 15 institutions. Most patients (728/848, 86%) had their surgery postponed or canceled by the surgeon or hospital. Unknown length of surgical delay remained the highest source of anxiety among survey participants. Male patients were more likely to be willing to proceed with surgery in spite of COVID-19. There were minimal regional differences in responses. Only 61 patients (7%) stated they will continue to delay surgery for fear of contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital. CONCLUSION: Similar to the previous study, the most anxiety-provoking thought was the uncertainty, over if and when the canceled joint replacement surgery could be rescheduled. Patients suffering from the daily pain of hip and knee arthritis who have been scheduled for elective arthroplasty remain eager to have their operation as soon as elective surgery is allowed to resume.

J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S1-S2, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116259
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S49-S55, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102140


BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals in the United States were recommended to stop performing elective procedures. This stoppage has led to the cancellation of a large number of hip and knee arthroplasties. The effect of this on patients' physical mental and economic health is unknown. METHODS: A survey was developed by the AAHKS Research Committee to assess pain, anxiety, physical function, and economic ability of patients to undergo a delayed operation. Six institutions conducted the survey to 360 patients who had to have elective hip and knee arthroplasty cancelled between March and July of 2020. RESULTS: Patients were most anxious about the uncertainty of when their operation could be rescheduled. Although 85% of patients understood and agreed with the public health measures to curb infections, almost 90% of patients plan to reschedule as soon as possible. Age and geographic region of the patients affected their anxiety. Younger patients were more likely to have financial concerns and concerns about job security. Patients in the Northeast were more concerned about catching COVID-19 during a future hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from the pain of hip and knee arthritis continue to struggle with pain from their end-stage disease. They have anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic. Few patients feel they will be limited financially and 90% want to have surgery as soon as possible. Age and physical location of the patients affect their causes for anxiety around their future surgery.

Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
J Arthroplasty ; 35(7S): S28-S31, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101972


The COVID-19 pandemic has caused us all to stop our normal activities and consider how we can safely return to caring for our patients. There are many common practices (such as an increased use of personal protective equipment) which we are all familiar with that can be easily incorporated into our daily routines. Other actions, such as cleaning more surfaces with solutions such as dilute povidone iodine or changing the air filtration systems used within operating room theaters, may require more extensive efforts on our behalf. In this article, we have attempted to highlight some of the changes that arthroplasty surgeons may need to instigate when we are able to resume elective joint arthroplasty procedures in an effort to disrupt the chain of pathogen transfer.

Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Operating Rooms , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2