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Hospital Pharmacy ; : 00185787211073465, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1666553
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 163-172, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142062


The current 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an emerging infectious disease, is undoubtedly the most challenging pandemic in the 21st century. A total of 92,977,768 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 1,991,289 deaths were reported globally up to January 14, 2021. COVID-19 also affects people's mental health and quality of life. At present, there is no effective therapeutic strategy for the management of this disease. Therefore, in the absence of a specific vaccine or curative treatment, it is an urgent need to identify safe, effective and globally available drugs for reducing COVID-19 morbidity and fatalities. In this review, we focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: a class of antidepressant drugs with widespread availability and an optimal tolerability profile) that can potentially be repurposed for COVID-19 and are currently being tested in clinical trials. We also summarize the existing literature on what is known about the link between serotonin (5-HT) and the immune system. From the evidence reviewed here, we propose fluoxetine as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for COVID-19 based on its known immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Fluoxetine may potentially reduce pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokines levels (such as CCL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, fluoxetine may help to attenuate neurological complications of COVID-19.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 273-281, 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006068


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is undoubtedly the most challenging pandemic in the current century. A total of 73,953,702 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 1,644,416 deaths were reported globally up to December 17, 2020. Therefore, in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine, it is urgent to identify a novel antiviral drug to effectively treat patients with COVID-19. On October 22, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity, for adults and children (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 40 kg) who need to be admitted to hospital for covid-19 treatment. In order to monitor the optimization of patient clinical response profile, as well as address the challenges associated with remdesivir metabolism, highly sensitive, selective and accurate analytical methods are necessary. This review clearly covers all the analytical methods developed for the identification and quantitative determination of remdesivir and its metabolites in biological matrices, which helps the researchers in developing new methods for the analysis of remdesivir by considering the pros and cons of the previously reported methods.

Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome