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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3716, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984382

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the development of numerous diagnostic tools to monitor infection and to determine immune response. Although assays to measure binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are widely available, more specific tests measuring neutralization activities of antibodies are immediately needed to quantify the extent and duration of protection that results from infection or vaccination. We previously developed a 'Serological Assay based on a Tri-part split-NanoLuc® (SATiN)' to detect antibodies that bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we expand on our previous work and describe a reconfigured version of the SATiN assay, called Neutralization SATiN (Neu-SATiN), which measures neutralization activity of antibodies directly from convalescent or vaccinated sera. The results obtained with our assay and other neutralization assays are comparable but with significantly shorter preparation and run time for Neu-SATiN. As the assay is modular, we further demonstrate that Neu-SATiN enables rapid assessment of the effectiveness of vaccines and level of protection against existing SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and can therefore be readily adapted for emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Luciferases , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146798, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694847

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of infection during SARS-CoV-2 viral waves, the factors associated with infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection among Canadian adults remain undocumented. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2 viral waves in Canada by measuring seropositivity among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study conducted 2 rounds of an online survey about COVID-19 experience and analyzed immunoglobulin G levels based on participant-collected dried blood spots (DBS) to assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first and second viral waves in Canada. A sample of 19 994 Canadian adults (aged ≥18 years) was recruited from established members of the Angus Reid Forum, a public polling organization. The study comprised 2 phases (phase 1 from May 1 to September 30, 2020, and phase 2 from December 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021) that generally corresponded to the first (April 1 to July 31, 2020) and second (October 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021) viral waves. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seropositivity (using a chemiluminescence assay) by major geographic and demographic variables and correlation with COVID-19 symptom reporting. Results: Among 19 994 adults who completed the online questionnaire in phase 1, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (15.4) years, and 10 522 participants (51.9%) were female; 2948 participants (14.5%) had self-identified racial and ethnic minority group status, and 1578 participants (8.2%) were self-identified Indigenous Canadians. Among participants in phase 1, 8967 had DBS testing. In phase 2, 14 621 adults completed online questionnaires, and 7102 of those had DBS testing. Of 19 994 adults who completed the online survey in phase 1, fewer had an educational level of some college or less (4747 individuals [33.1%]) compared with the general population in Canada (45.0%). Survey respondents were otherwise representative of the general population, including in prevalence of known risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among unvaccinated adults increased from 1.9% in phase 1 to 6.5% in phase 2. The seropositivity pattern was demographically and geographically heterogeneous during phase 1 but more homogeneous by phase 2 (with a cumulative incidence ranging from 6.4% to 7.0% in most regions). The exception was the Atlantic region, in which cumulative incidence reached only 3.3% (odds ratio [OR] vs Ontario, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). A total of 47 of 188 adults (25.3%) reporting COVID-19 symptoms during phase 2 were seropositive, and the OR of seropositivity for COVID-19 symptoms was 6.15 (95% CI, 2.02-18.69). In phase 2, 94 of 444 seropositive adults (22.2%) reported having no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in phase 1 who were retested in phase 2, 111 individuals (81.8%) remained seropositive. Participants who had a history of diabetes (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90) had lower odds of having detectable antibodies in phase 2. Conclusions and Relevance: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study found that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada was modest until March 2021, and this incidence was lower than the levels of population immunity required to substantially reduce transmission of the virus. Ongoing vaccination efforts remain central to reducing viral transmission and mortality. Assessment of future infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity is practicable through the use of serial online surveys and participant-collected DBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322524

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of infection in Canada’s COVID-19 viral waves, the predictors of infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection remain undocumented.Methods: We organized serial online surveys of a representative group of Canadian adults about their COVID experience in the first (n=19 994;April-July 2020) and second viral wave (n=14 621;October 2020-March 2021). We paired these with IgG analysis of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in self-collected dried blood spots after the first (n=8967) and second (n=7102) waves.Findings: Canada’s cumulative seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among unvaccinated adults rose from ~2% after the first wave to 7% after the second. The seropositivity pattern was heterogeneous demographically and geographically during the first wave, but more homogeneous by the second (except in the four Atlantic Provinces, cumulative seroprevalence ~3%). Seroprevalence among visible minorities rose sharply from about 2% to >8% from the first to second wave. About a quarter of those reporting COVID symptoms during the second wave were seropositive, and in both waves the odds ratio (OR) of seropositivity for COVID symptoms exceeded six. About one-fifth of seropositives reported no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in the first wave who were retested after the second, 83% (111) remained seropositive at least seven months later. Current smokers and people with a history of diabetes had lower ORs of infection. We calculated the absolute numbers of seropositive adults nationwide, which nearly quadrupled from 0.57 million to 1.90 million, with the largest increases among older adults. Infection fatality rates fell from 3.7 to 2.6/1000 infections, most notably at older ages.Interpretation: Canada’s COVID pandemic grew substantially between the first and second viral waves. Home-based DBS collection offers a practicable way to document evolving demographic and geographic patterns and to assess the levels and durability of population immunity, including from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.Funding: Pfizer Global Medical, Unity Health Foundation, and the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The Ab-C study was approved by the Unity Health Toronto Ethics Review Board.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296756

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the development of numerous diagnostic tools to monitor infection and to determine immune response. Although assays to measure binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are widely available, more specific tests measuring neutralization activities of antibodies are immediately needed to quantify the extent and duration of protection that results from infection or vaccination. We previously developed a ‘Serological Assay based on a Tri-part split-NanoLuc® (SATiN)’ to detect antibodies that bind to the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we expand on our previous work and describe a reconfigured version of the SATiN assay that can measure neutralization activity of antibodies directly from convalescent or vaccinated sera. The sensitivity is comparable to cell-based pseudovirus neutralization assays but with significantly shorter preparation and assay run time. As the assay is modular, we further demonstrate that Neutralization SATiN (Neu-SATiN) enables rapid assessment of the effectiveness of vaccines and level of protection against existing SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and can therefore be readily adapted for emerging variants.

6.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(1): 57-65, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In North America, both messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2, and Moderna mRNA-1273, each utilizing a 2-dose regimen, have started to be administered to individuals. METHODS: We evaluated the quantitative serologic antibody response following administration of either a single dose or both doses of an mRNA severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine in a cohort of 98 participants (88 healthcare workers [HCW] and 10 solid organ transplant [SOT] recipients). Antibody levels were compared across 3 immunoassays: Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics), SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG (DiaSorin), and SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott). RESULTS: Among HCW, sensitivity ranged from 100% (Roche), 99% (Abbott) and 98% (DiaSorin). The SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant and SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assays showed good agreement with a Pearson correlation coefficient of R = 0.95. Pearson correlation coefficients of R = 0.82 and 0.83 were obtained for Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S vs SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG and SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant vs Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S, respectively. Significant differences in antibody levels between HCW and SOT recipients were observed. A decrease in antibody levels from time of vaccine administration to blood draw was evident. Among those with a second dose, an increase in antibody levels with increased time between administration of the first and second dose was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute values generated from each of the assay platforms are not interchangeable. Antibody levels differed with increased time between vaccine administration and with increased time between administration of the first and second dose. Further, significant differences in antibody levels between HCW and SOT recipients were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoassay
7.
Canadian Journal of Pathology ; 13(1):22-32, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1085801

ABSTRACT

There is emerging interest in the possible connection between vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease (COVID-19). Here, we discuss some hypotheses as to how vitamin D may contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 illness. Vitamin D is thought to be involved in mediating inflammation and regulating the immune system. This may be particularly important in the context of the cytokine storm seen in some cases of COVID-19, which can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality. We also analyse the potential connection between vitamin D and higher COVID-19 incidence and mortality in areas that receive less sun (higher latitude), and in populations that are known to have low vitamin D levels. On constate un intérêt croissant pour le lien qui pourrait être établi entre la vitamine D et la maladie infectieuse due au SRAS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Dans cet article, nous nous penchons sur certaines des hypothèses relatives à la façon dont la vitamine D pourrait contribuer à la physiopathologie de la COVID-19. Il a été suggéré que la vitamine D pourrait jouer un rôle dans la réduction de l'inflammation et la régulation du système immunitaire. Cette découverte est particulièrement significative dans le contexte du choc cytokinique observé dans certains cas de COVID-19 et associé à des formes graves du syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë, voire au décès de patients. Nous analysons également le lien potentiel entre la vitamine D et les taux supérieurs d'incidence et de mortalité associés à la COVID-19 dans les régions moins ensoleillées (plus hautes latitudes), et au sein des populations reconnues pour leur faible production de vitamine D.

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