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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e934220, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the subsequent release of intracellular muscle constituents into the bloodstream. Although the specific cause is frequently evident from the history or from the immediate events, such as a trauma, extraordinary physical exertion, or a recent infection, sometimes there are hidden risk factors that have to be identified. For instance, individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) have been reported to be at increased risk for rare conditions, including rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, there have been a few case reports of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related rhabdomyolysis. CASE REPORT We present a case of a patient affected by unknown SCT and admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, who suffered non-traumatic non-exertional rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), requiring acute hemodialysis (HD). The patients underwent 13 dialysis session, of which 12 were carried out using an HFR-Supra H dialyzer. He underwent kidney biopsy, where rhabdomyolysis injury was ascertained. No viral traces were found on kidney biopsy samples. The muscle biopsy showed the presence of an "open nucleolus" in the muscle cell, which was consistent with virus-infected cells. After 40 days in the hospital, his serum creatinine was 1.62 mg/dL and CPK and Myoglobin were 188 U/L and 168 ng/mL, respectively; therefore, the patient was discharged. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in severe rhabdomyolysis with AKI requiring acute HD. Since SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger sickle-related complications like rhabdomyolysis, the presence of SCT needs to be ascertained in African patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Rhabdomyolysis , Sickle Cell Trait , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Humans , Male , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sickle Cell Trait/complications
2.
Applied Cognitive Psychology ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1411750

ABSTRACT

Associations between facial appearance and hiring decisions are well‐documented within job literature as a source of decision misjudgment with economic and human costs. Notwithstanding, this aspect is yet to be investigated in healthcare. We collected 90 pictures of new‐graduates nurses faces to be judged on different facial appearance‐based traits by an independent sample. Six months after graduation, the same new‐graduates were interviewed about their job situation. Binomial logistic regression was conducted to examine whether facial appearance ratings would predict the probability to be hired as nurse. Results showed that applicants with a face conveying a feeling of familiarity were more likely to be hired. Considering that people might be inclined to these biases during societal crises and the exceptional need to quickly recruit health professionals during COVID‐19 pandemic, our study recommends special attention to prevent the influence of facial appearance‐based evaluations not reflecting real skills to limit potentially adverse consequences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Applied Cognitive Psychology is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

3.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323104

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 77-year-old woman affected by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) who developed an occlusive arterial disease of the lower limb requiring a left leg amputation. We studied the mechanisms of vascular damage by SARS-CoV-2 by means of a comprehensive multi-technique in situ analysis on the diseased popliteal arterial district, including immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and miRNA analysis. At histological analyses, we observed a lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate, oedema and endothelialitis of adventitial vasa vasorum while the media was normal and the intima had only minor changes. The vasa vasorum expressed the ACE2 receptor and factor VIII; compared with the controls, VEGFR2 staining was reduced. TEM analyses showed endothelial injury and numerous Weibel-Palade bodies in the cytoplasm. No coronavirus particle was seen. IL-6 protein and mRNA, together with miR-155-5p and miRs-27a-5p, which can target IL-6, were significantly increased compared with that in the controls. Our case report suggests an involvement of adventitial artery microcirculation by inflammation in the course of COVID-19. Without evident signs of current infection by SARS-CoV-2, endothelial cells show a spectrum of structural and functional alterations that can fuel the cardiovascular complications observed in people infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Aged , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Leg/blood supply , Leg/pathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Microcirculation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(12-S): e2020012, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: COVID-19 is characterized by super spread events occurring in communities, e.g., hospitals. To limit virus diffusion among healthcare workers the use of personal protective equipment and screening tests are highly advised; also, isolation of virus positive professionals while monitoring their health condition is recommended. This study aims to assess, in a cohort of COVID-19 positive quarantined healthcare workers, the perceived source of infection and exposure risk as well as the clinical evolution of the disease through a surveillance interview. METHODS: A retrospective observational study accounting 896 observations on 93 healthcare professionals tested positive for COVID-19. Data were collected from the Nursing and Technical Directorate of Romagna, Ravenna, Local Health Company, Italy. RESULTS: 99.5% of the positive workers accepted phone interviews with management staff. 2.6% of workers were positive with increasing records in the specialist medical area. Nurses and social health professionals were mostly affected.  Patient exposure at a distance <1 m and a contact time > 2 hours was the first cause of positivity. In COVID-19 and territorial emergency departments, the first cause was the contact with colleagues. At the time of the infection, most of the staff wore a surgical mask. Cough, asthenia, fever, anosmia, dysgeusia, and rhinitis were common symptoms. Asymptomatic percentage was about 10%. The self-perceived physical condition was high (>7) and improved during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: The diffusion rate of COVID-19 among healthcare workers is relatively low, probably due to the use of personal protective equipment. The distancing, also among colleagues, is a fundamental measure to reduce the possibility of infection. Symptoms are mild and can be controlled by surveillance measures. Constant contact with the organization is an essential strategy for promoting recovering of workers and reducing the spread of the virus within the healthcare organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Quarantine , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies
5.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-206035

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm is an abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines, due to the over-activation of the innate immune response. This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections. Thus, an immunomodulatory approach targeting the over-production of cytokines could be proposed for viral aggressive pulmonary disease treatment. In this regard, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, a member of the PPAR transcription factor family, could represent a potential target. Beside the well-known regulatory role on lipid and glucose metabolism, PPAR-γ also represses the inflammatory process. Similarly, the PPAR-γ agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs), like pioglitazone, are anti-inflammatory drugs with ameliorating effects on severe viral pneumonia. In addition to the pharmacological agonists, also nutritional ligands of PPAR-γ, like curcuma, lemongrass, and pomegranate, possess anti-inflammatory properties through PPAR-γ activation. Here, we review the main synthetic and nutritional PPAR-γ ligands, proposing a dual approach based on the strengthening of the immune system using pharmacological and dietary strategies as an attempt to prevent/treat cytokine storm in the case of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , PPAR gamma/agonists , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Fish Oils/pharmacology , Humans , Ligands , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Seafood/analysis , Spices/analysis
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