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3.
Marchesi, Francesco, Salmanton-Garcia, Jon, Emarah, Ziad, Piukovics, Klára, Nucci, Marcio, Lopez-Garcia, Alberto, Racil, Zdenek, Farina, Francesca, Popova, Marina, Zompi, Sofia, Audisio, Ernesta, Ledoux, Marie-Pierre, Verga, Luisa, Weinbergerova, Barbora, Szotkowski, Tomas, Silva, Maria, Fracchiolla, Nicola Stefano, De Jonge, Nick, Collins, Graham, Marchetti, Monia, Magliano, Gabriele, GarcÍA-Vidal, Carolina, Biernat, Monika, Doesum, Jaap van, Machado, Marina, Demirkan, Fatih, Khabori, Murtadha Al, Zak, Pavel, Visek, Benjamin, Stoma, Igor, MÉNdez, Gustavo-Adolfo, Maertens, Johan, Khanna, Nina, Espigado, Ildefonso, Dragonetti, Giulia, Fianchi, Luana, Principe, Maria Ilaria Del, Cabirta, Alba, Ormazabal-VÉLez, Irati, Jaksic, Ozren, Buquicchio, Caterina, Bonuomo, Valentina, Batinić, Josip, Omrani, Ali, Lamure, Sylvain, Finizio, Olimpia, FernÁNdez, Noemí, Falces-Romero, Iker, Blennow, Ola, Bergantim, Rui, Ali, Natasha, Win, Sein, Praet, Jens V. A. N.; Tisi, Maria Chiara, Shirinova, Ayten, SchÖNlein, Martin, Prattes, Juergen, Piedimonte, Monica, Petzer, Verena, NavrÁTil, Milan, Kulasekararaj, Austin, Jindra, Pavel, Jiří, Glenthøj, Andreas, Fazzi, Rita, de Ramón, Cristina, Cattaneo, Chiara, Calbacho, Maria, Bahr, Nathan, El-Ashwl, Shaimaa Saber, Córdoba, Raúl, Hanakova, Michaela, Zambrotta, Giovanni, Sciumè, Mariarita, Booth, Stephen, Nunes-Rodrigues, Raquel, Sacchi, Maria Vittoria, GarcÍA-PoutÓN, Nicole, MartÍN-GonzÁLez, Juan-Alberto, Khostelidi, Sofya, GrÄFe, Stefanie, Rahimli, Laman, busca, alessandro, Corradini, Paolo, Hoenigl, Martin, Klimko, Nikolai, Koehler, Philipp, Pagliuca, Antonio, Passamonti, Francesco, Cornely, Oliver, pagano, Livio.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328805

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died. Death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%). Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed. Patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between January and August 2020 had a significantly lower survival. COVID-19 in AML patients was associated with a high mortality rate and modifications of therapeutic algorithms. The best approach to improve survival was to delay AML treatment.

4.
Haematologica ; 107(8): 1840-1849, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574349

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have shown remarkable efficacy and thus constitute an important preventive option against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in fragile patients. We aimed to systematically analyze the outcomes of patients with hematological malignancies who received vaccination and to identify specific groups with differences in outcomes. The primary end point was antibody response after full vaccination (2 doses of mRNA or one dose of vectorbased vaccines). We identified 49 studies comprising 11,086 individuals. Overall risk of bias was low. The pooled response for hematological malignancies was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-69; I²=93%) versus 96% (95% CI: 92-97; I²=44%) for solid cancer and 98% (95% CI: 96-99; I²=55%) for healthy controls (P<0.001). Outcome was different across hematological malignancies (P<0.001). The pooled response was 50% (95% CI: 43-57; I²=84%) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 76% (95% CI: 67-83; I²=92%) for multiple myeloma, 83% (95% CI: 69-91; I²=85%) for myeloproliferative neoplasms, 91% (95% CI: 82-96; I²=12%) for Hodgkin lymphoma, and 58% (95% CI: 44-70; I²=84%) for aggressive and 61% (95% CI: 48-72; I²=85%) for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The pooled response for allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation was 82% and 83%, respectively. Being in remission and prior COVID-19 showed significantly higher responses. Low pooled response was identified for active treatment (35%), anti-CD20 therapy ≤1 year (15%), Bruton kinase inhibition (23%), venetoclax (26%), ruxolitinib (42%), and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (42%). Studies on timing, value of boosters, and long-term efficacy are needed. This study is registered with PROSPERO (clinicaltrials gov. Identifier: CRD42021279051).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294749

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have shown remarkable efficacy and thus constitute an important preventive option against COVID-19, especially in fragile patients. We aimed to systematically analyse the outcomes of patients with haematological malignancies who received COVID-19 vaccination and to identify specific groups with differences in outcomes.Methods: We developed a living systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that reported data on the outcomes of adult patients with haematological malignancies that received COVID-19 vaccination, reported between July 1, 2020, and September 15, 2021. Studies with ten patients or fewer were excluded and summary data were extracted from the reports. The primary end point was the number of patients with antibody response after full vaccination. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021279051).Findings: We identified 43 studies comprising 10416 patients. Overall risk of bias was low. The pooled response for haematological malignancies was 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60-70;I²=93%) compared with 95% (95% CI, 92-97;I²=27%) for solid cancer and 98% (95% CI, 96-99;I² =60%) for healthy controls (P<0·0001). The pooled response was 51% (95% CI, 41-61;I² =90%) for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 76% (95% CI, 65-83;I² =92%) for multiple myeloma, 78% (95% CI, 60-89;I²=86%) for myeloproliferative neoplasms, 94% (95% CI, 86-98;I² =0%) for Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and 65% (95% CI, 49-78;I² =81%) for aggressive and 65% (95% CI, 49-79;I²=86%) for indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (P<0·0001). Patients in remission and with COVID-19 before vaccination showed significantly higher responses. The pooled response for allogeneic and autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation was 82% and 83%, respectively. Markedly low pooled response was identified for active treatment (35%), anti-CD20 therapy ≤1 year (15%), Bruton kinase inhibition (23%), venetoclax (26%), ruxolitinib (41%), and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (47%).Interpretation: The evidence for reduced antibody response to full COVID-19 vaccination overall and stratified according to disease and treatment can be used to guide patient selection. Studies on timing, value of boosters, and long-term efficacy are needed.Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: None to declare.

6.
Clin Hematol Int ; 3(3): 77-82, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533606

ABSTRACT

The use of convalescent plasma (CP) from individuals recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a promising therapeutic modality for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CP has been in use for at least a century to provide passive immunity against a number of diseases, and was recently proposed by the World Health Organization for human Ebola virus infection. Only a few small studies have so far been published on patients with COVID-19 and concomitant hematological malignancies (HM). The Italian Hematology Alliance on HM and COVID-19 has found that HM patients with COVID-19 clinically perform more poorly than those with either HM or COVID-19 alone. A COVID-19 infection in patients with B-cell lymphoma is associated with impaired generation of neutralizing antibody titers and lowered clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Treatment with CP was seen to increase antibody titers in all patients and to improve clinical response in 80% of patients examined. However, a recent study has reported impaired production of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in an immunosuppressed individual treated with CP, possibly supporting the notion of virus escape, particularly in immunocompromised individuals where prolonged viral replication occurs. This may limit the efficacy of CP treatment in at least some HM patients. More recently, it has been shown that CP may provide a neutralising effect against B.1.1.7 and other SARS-CoV-2 variants, thus expanding its application in clinical practice. More extensive studies are needed to further assess the use of CP in COVID-19-infected HM patients.

9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438523

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) started in December 2019 in China and then become pandemic in February 2020. Several publications investigated the possible increased rate of COVID-19 infection in hematological malignancies. Based on the published data, strategies for the management of chronic Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are provided. The risk of severe COVID-19 seems high in MPN, particularly in patients with essential thrombocythemia, but not negligible in myelofibrosis. MPN patients are at high risk of both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications and this must be accounted in the case of COVID-19 deciding on a case-by-case basis. There are currently no data to suggest that hydroxyurea or interferon may influence the risk or severity of COVID-19 infection. Conversely, while the immunosuppressive activity of ruxolitinib might pose increased risk of infection, its abrupt discontinuation during COVID-19 syndrome is associated with worse outcome. All MPN patients should receive vaccine against COVID-19; reassuring data are available on efficacy of mRNA vaccines in MPNs.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e737-e745, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several small studies on patients with COVID-19 and haematological malignancies are available showing a high mortality in this population. The Italian Hematology Alliance on COVID-19 aimed to collect data from adult patients with haematological malignancies who required hospitalisation for COVID-19. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with diagnosis of a WHO-defined haematological malignancy admitted to 66 Italian hospitals between Feb 25 and May 18, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed and symptomatic COVID-19. Data cutoff for this analysis was June 22, 2020. The primary outcome was mortality and evaluation of potential predictive parameters of mortality. We calculated standardised mortality ratios between observed death in the study cohort and expected death by applying stratum-specific mortality rates of the Italian population with COVID-19 and an Italian cohort of 31 993 patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19 (data up to March 1, 2019). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556, and the prospective part of the study is ongoing. FINDINGS: We enrolled 536 patients with a median follow-up of 20 days (IQR 10-34) at data cutoff, 85 (16%) of whom were managed as outpatients. 440 (98%) of 451 hospitalised patients completed their hospital course (were either discharged alive or died). 198 (37%) of 536 patients died. When compared with the general Italian population with COVID-19, the standardised mortality ratio was 2·04 (95% CI 1·77-2·34) in our whole study cohort and 3·72 (2·86-4·64) in individuals younger than 70 years. When compared with the non-COVID-19 cohort with haematological malignancies, the standardised mortality ratio was 41·3 (38·1-44·9). Older age (hazard ratio 1·03, 95% CI 1·01-1·05); progressive disease status (2·10, 1·41-3·12); diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (3·49, 1·56-7·81), indolent non-Hodgin lymphoma (2·19, 1·07-4·48), aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2·56, 1·34-4·89), or plasma cell neoplasms (2·48, 1·31-4·69), and severe or critical COVID-19 (4·08, 2·73-6·09) were associated with worse overall survival. INTERPRETATION: This study adds to the evidence that patients with haematological malignancies have worse outcomes than both the general population with COVID-19 and patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19. The high mortality among patients with haematological malignancies hospitalised with COVID-19 highlights the need for aggressive infection prevention strategies, at least until effective vaccination or treatment strategies are available. FUNDING: Associazione italiana contro le leucemie, linfomi e mieloma-Varese Onlus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , Italy/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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