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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(5): e27039, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global health emergency generated by the COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to health care workers, who are facing heavy workloads under psychologically difficult situations. Mental mobile Health (mHealth) interventions are now being widely deployed due to their attractive implementation features, despite the lack of evidence about their efficacy in this specific population and context. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational, mindfulness-based mHealth intervention to reduce mental health problems in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a blinded, parallel-group, controlled trial in Spain. Health care workers providing face-to-face health care to patients with COVID-19 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive the PsyCovidApp intervention (an app targeting emotional skills, healthy lifestyle behavior, burnout, and social support) or a control app (general recommendations about mental health care) for 2 weeks. The participants were blinded to their group allocation. Data were collected telephonically at baseline and after 2 weeks by trained health psychologists. The primary outcome was a composite of depression, anxiety, and stress (overall score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 [DASS-21]). Secondary outcomes were insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey), posttraumatic stress (Davidson Trauma Scale), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and DASS-21 individual scale scores. Differences between groups were analyzed using general linear modeling according to an intention-to-treat protocol. Additionally, we measured the usability of the PsyCovidApp (System Usability Scale). The outcome data collectors and trial statisticians were unaware of the treatment allocation. RESULTS: Between May 14 and July 25, 2020, 482 health care workers were recruited and randomly assigned to PsyCovidApp (n=248) or the control app (n=234). At 2 weeks, complete outcome data were available for 436/482 participants (90.5%). No significant differences were observed between the groups at 2 weeks in the primary outcome (standardized mean difference -0.04; 95% CI -0.11 to 0.04; P=.15) or in the other outcomes. In our prespecified subgroup analyses, we observed significant improvements among health care workers consuming psychotropic medications (n=79) in the primary outcome (-0.29; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.09; P=.004), and in posttraumatic stress, insomnia, anxiety, and stress. Similarly, among health care workers receiving psychotherapy (n=43), we observed improvements in the primary outcome (-0.25; 95% CI -0.49 to -0.02; P=.02), and in insomnia, anxiety, and stress. The mean usability score of PsyCovidApp was high (87.21/100, SD 12.65). After the trial, 208/221 participants in the intervention group (94.1%) asked to regain access to PsyCovidApp, indicating high acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: In health care workers assisting patients with COVID-19 in Spain, PsyCovidApp, compared with a control app, reduced mental health problems at 2 weeks only among health care workers receiving psychotherapy or psychotropic medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04393818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04393818.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
2.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(6): 2898-2907, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119240

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the impact of a psychoeducational, mobile health intervention based on cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based approaches on the mental health of healthcare workers at the frontline against COVID-19 in Spain. DESIGN: We will carry out a two-week, individually randomized, parallel group, controlled trial. Participants will be individually randomized to receive the PsyCovidApp intervention or control App intervention. METHODS: The PsyCovidApp intervention will include five modules: emotional skills, lifestyle behaviour, work stress and burnout, social support, and practical tools. Healthcare workers having attended patients with COVID-19 will be randomized to receive the PsyCovidApp intervention (intervention group) or a control App intervention (control group). A total of 440 healthcare workers will be necessary to assure statistical power. Measures will be collected telephonically by a team of psychologists at baseline and immediately after the 2 weeks intervention period. Measures will include stress, depression and anxiety (DASS-21 questionnaire-primary endpoint), insomnia (ISI), burnout (MBI-HSS), post-traumatic stress disorder (DTS), and self-efficacy (GSE). The study was funded in May 2020, and was ethically approved in June 2020. Trial participants, outcome assessors and data analysts will be blinded to group allocation. DISCUSSION: Despite the increasing use of mobile health interventions to deliver mental health care, this area of research is still on its infancy. This study will help increase the scientific evidence about the effectiveness of this type of intervention on this specific population and context. IMPACT: Despite the lack of solid evidence about their effectiveness, mobile-based health interventions are already being widely implemented because of their low cost and high scalability. The findings from this study will help health services and organizations to make informed decisions in relation to the development and implementation of this type of interventions, allowing them pondering not only their attractive implementability features, but also empirical data about its benefits. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04393818 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier). APPROVED FUNDING: May 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 347-357, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at examining the impact of providing healthcare during health emergencies caused by viral epidemic outbreaks on healthcare workers' (HCWs) mental health; to identify factors associated with worse impact, and; to assess the available evidence base regarding interventions to reduce such impact. METHOD: Rapid systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO (inception to August 2020). We pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence of specific mental health problems, and used GRADE to ascertain the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: We included 117 studies. The pooled prevalence was higher for acute stress disorder (40% (95%CI 39 to 41%)), followed by anxiety (30%, (30 to 31%)), burnout (28% (26 to 31%)), depression (24% (24 to 25%)), and post-traumatic stress disorder (13% (13 to 14%)). We identified factors associated with the likelihood of developing those problems, including sociodemographic (younger age and female gender), social (lack of social support, stigmatization), and occupational (working in a high-risk environment, specific occupational roles, and lower levels of specialised training and job experience) factors. Four studies reported interventions for frontline HCW: two educational interventions increased confidence in pandemic self-efficacy and in interpersonal problems solving (very low certainty), whereas one multifaceted intervention improved anxiety, depression, and sleep quality (very low certainty). LIMITATIONS: We only searched three databases, and the initial screening was undertaken by a single reviewer. CONCLUSION: Given the very limited evidence regarding the impact of interventions to tackle mental health problems in HCWs, the risk factors identified represent important targets for future interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
5.
Gac Sanit ; 35(4): 389-394, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-264367

ABSTRACT

Crises, emergencies and times of unrest have been linked to increased interpersonal violence, including violence against women. Following the declaration of alarm status and quarantine, different measures have been implemented to mitigate the possible effect of gender violence (Contingency Plan against Gender-Based Violence in Coronavirus Crisis or Royal Decree Law on Emergency Measures). This document reviews the measures adopted so far by the government of Spain, the autonomous governments and the initiatives formulated in different countries. In the absence of concrete economic measures to date, and the scenario of economic uncertainty, we conclude that it is not possible to prevent gender-based violence in a comprehensive way, without considering the increase in unemployment, temporary and instability employment, economic dependency or the overload of household chores and reproductive tasks, among other elements that facilitate it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Gender-Based Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Counseling/organization & administration , Crisis Intervention/organization & administration , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/organization & administration , Emergency Shelter/organization & administration , Europe , Female , Health Resources/organization & administration , Hotlines/organization & administration , Humans , Information Dissemination/legislation & jurisprudence , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Latin America , Mobile Applications , Police , Quarantine , Social Support , Spain/epidemiology , United States , Women's Health Services/organization & administration
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