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1.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103809, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mathematical modelling may aid in understanding the complex interactions between injury and immune response in critical illness. METHODS: We utilize a system biology model of COVID-19 to analyze the effect of altering baseline patient characteristics on the outcome of immunomodulatory therapies. We create example parameter sets meant to mimic diverse patient types. For each patient type, we define the optimal treatment, identify biologic programs responsible for clinical responses, and predict biomarkers of those programs. FINDINGS: Model states representing older and hyperinflamed patients respond better to immunomodulation than those representing obese and diabetic patients. The disparate clinical responses are driven by distinct biologic programs. Optimal treatment initiation time is determined by neutrophil recruitment, systemic cytokine expression, systemic microthrombosis and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in older patients, and by RAS, systemic microthrombosis and trans IL6 signalling for hyperinflamed patients. For older and hyperinflamed patients, IL6 modulating therapy is predicted to be optimal when initiated very early (<4th day of infection) and broad immunosuppression therapy (corticosteroids) is predicted to be optimally initiated later in the disease (7th - 9th day of infection). We show that markers of biologic programs identified by the model correspond to clinically identified markers of disease severity. INTERPRETATION: We demonstrate that modelling of COVID-19 pathobiology can suggest biomarkers that predict optimal response to a given immunomodulatory treatment. Mathematical modelling thus constitutes a novel adjunct to predictive enrichment and may aid in the reduction of heterogeneity in critical care trials. FUNDING: C.V. received a Marie Sklodowska Curie Actions Individual Fellowship (MSCA-IF-GF-2020-101028945). R.K.J.'s research is supported by R01-CA208205, and U01-CA 224348, R35-CA197743 and grants from the National Foundation for Cancer Research, Jane's Trust Foundation, Advanced Medical Research Foundation and Harvard Ludwig Cancer Center. No funder had a role in production or approval of this manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Models, Immunological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
2.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 87, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238021

ABSTRACT

As predicting the trajectory of COVID-19 is challenging, machine learning models could assist physicians in identifying high-risk individuals. This study compares the performance of 18 machine learning algorithms for predicting ICU admission and mortality among COVID-19 patients. Using COVID-19 patient data from the Mass General Brigham (MGB) Healthcare database, we developed and internally validated models using patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) between March-April 2020 (n = 3597) and further validated them using temporally distinct individuals who presented to the ED between May-August 2020 (n = 1711). We show that ensemble-based models perform better than other model types at predicting both 5-day ICU admission and 28-day mortality from COVID-19. CRP, LDH, and O2 saturation were important for ICU admission models whereas eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were the most important variables for predicting mortality. Implementing such models could help in clinical decision-making for future infectious disease outbreaks including COVID-19.

3.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(13): 1533-1540, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148197

ABSTRACT

Novel 2019 coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory syndrome it causes, have shaken the world to its core by infecting and claiming the lives of many people since originating in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. World Health Organization and several states have declared a pandemic situation and state of emergency, respectively. As there is no treatment for COVID-19, several research institutes and pharmaceutical companies are racing to find a cure. Advances in computational approaches have allowed the screening of massive antiviral compound libraries to identify those that may potentially work against SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral agents developed in the past to combat other viruses are being repurposed. At the same time, new vaccine candidates are being developed and tested in preclinical/clinical settings. This review provides a detailed overview of select repurposed drugs, their mechanism of action, associated toxicities, and major clinical trials involving these agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010129

ABSTRACT

Understanding the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 progression and the impact of various pharmaceutical interventions is crucial for the clinical management of the disease. We developed a comprehensive mathematical framework based on the known mechanisms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, incorporating the renin-angiotensin system and ACE2, which the virus exploits for cellular entry, key elements of the innate and adaptive immune responses, the role of inflammatory cytokines, and the coagulation cascade for thrombus formation. The model predicts the evolution of viral load, immune cells, cytokines, thrombosis, and oxygen saturation based on patient baseline condition and the presence of comorbidities. Model predictions were validated with clinical data from healthy people and COVID-19 patients, and the results were used to gain insight into identified risk factors of disease progression including older age; comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension; and dysregulated immune response. We then simulated treatment with various drug classes to identify optimal therapeutic protocols. We found that the outcome of any treatment depends on the sustained response rate of activated CD8+ T cells and sufficient control of the innate immune response. Furthermore, the best treatment-or combination of treatments-depends on the preinfection health status of the patient. Our mathematical framework provides important insight into SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and could be used as the basis for personalized, optimal management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Models, Theoretical , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
J Pediatr ; 227: 45-52.e5, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As schools plan for re-opening, understanding the potential role children play in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the factors that drive severe illness in children is critical. STUDY DESIGN: Children ages 0-22 years with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presenting to urgent care clinics or being hospitalized for confirmed/suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at Massachusetts General Hospital were offered enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric COVID-19 Biorepository. Enrolled children provided nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and/or blood specimens. SARS-CoV-2 viral load, ACE2 RNA levels, and serology for SARS-CoV-2 were quantified. RESULTS: A total of 192 children (mean age, 10.2 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled. Forty-nine children (26%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; an additional 18 children (9%) met the criteria for MIS-C. Only 25 children (51%) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with fever; symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, if present, were nonspecific. Nasopharyngeal viral load was highest in children in the first 2 days of symptoms, significantly higher than hospitalized adults with severe disease (P = .002). Age did not impact viral load, but younger children had lower angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression (P = .004). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were increased in severe MIS-C (P < .001), with dysregulated humoral responses observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that children may be a potential source of contagion in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic despite having milder disease or a lack of symptoms; immune dysregulation is implicated in severe postinfectious MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
9.
Kidney Med ; 2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857254

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a pandemic and a public health emergency. The overwhelming rise in the number of cases has brought significant challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are highly vulnerable with the multiple comorbidities that make them susceptible to adverse outcomes with COVID-19. Over 2 million people worldwide receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD) at outpatient centers. Effectively preventing the spread of infection among HD centers, healthcare personnel, and patients is essential to ensure the continued delivery of dialysis to ESKD patients. This article discusses dialysis patients' care during COVID-19, addressing measures for patient and health care personnel protection and care of dialysis patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 74(12): e13685, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719372

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of COVID-19 cases worldwide has overwhelmed the healthcare system. Physicians are struggling to allocate resources and to focus their attention on high-risk patients, partly because early identification of high-risk individuals is difficult. This can be attributed to the fact that COVID-19 is a novel disease and its pathogenesis is still partially understood. However, machine learning algorithms have the capability to analyse a large number of parameters within a short period of time to identify the predictors of disease outcome. Implementing such an algorithm to predict high-risk individuals during the early stages of infection would be helpful in decision making for clinicians such that irreversible damage could be prevented. Here, we propose recommendations to develop prognostic machine learning models using electronic health records so that a real-time risk score can be developed for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Machine Learning , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis
13.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2386-2387, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324301
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