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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 20: 100455, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914784

ABSTRACT

Background: How international migrants access and use primary care in England is poorly understood. We aimed to compare primary care consultation rates between international migrants and non-migrants in England before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2015-2020). Methods: Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD, we identified migrants using country-of-birth, visa-status or other codes indicating international migration. We linked CPRD to Office for National Statistics deprivation data and ran a controlled interrupted time series (ITS) using negative binomial regression to compare rates before and during the pandemic. Findings: In 262,644 individuals, pre-pandemic consultation rates per person-year were 4.35 (4.34-4.36) for migrants and 4.60 (4.59-4.60) for non-migrants (RR:0.94 [0.92-0.96]). Between 29 March and 26 December 2020, rates reduced to 3.54 (3.52-3.57) for migrants and 4.2 (4.17-4.23) for non-migrants (RR:0.84 [0.8-0.88]). The first year of the pandemic was associated with a widening of the gap in consultation rates between migrants and non-migrants to 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.94) times the ratio before the pandemic. This widening in ratios was greater for children, individuals whose first language was not English, and individuals of White British, White non-British and Black/African/Caribbean/Black British ethnicities. It was also greater in the case of telephone consultations, particularly in London. Interpretation: Migrants were less likely to use primary care than non-migrants before the pandemic and the first year of the pandemic exacerbated this difference. As GP practices retain remote and hybrid models of service delivery, they must improve services and ensure primary care is accessible and responsive to migrants' healthcare needs. Funding: This study was funded by the Medical Research Council (MC_PC 19070 and MR/V028375/1) and a Wellcome Clinical Research Career Development Fellowship (206602).

2.
Nanotheranostics for Treatment and Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897594

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases are the infections that could be newly appeared or have existed demographic area with rapidly increasing in some geographic range. Among various types of emerging infectious diseases like Ebola, chikungunya, tuberculosis, SARS, MERS, avian flu, swine flu, Zika, and so on, very recently we have witnessed the emergence of recently recognized coronavirus infection as Covid-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, which rapidly spread around the world. Various emerging factors precipitating disease emergence include environmental, demographic, or ecological that increase the contact of people with unfamiliar microbial agents or their host or promote dissemination. Here in this chapter, we reviewed the various emerging considerations of infectious diseases including factors responsible for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases as well as drug delivery challenges to treat infectious diseases and various strategies to deal with these challenges including nanotheranostics. Nanotheranostics are showing potential toward real-time understanding, diagnosis, and monitoring the response of the chemotherapy during treatment with reduced nontarget toxicity and enhanced safety level in the recent research studies.

3.
Thunderbird International Business Review ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1866567

ABSTRACT

Drawing from the positive organizational change theory, this paper aims to explore how Indian flexpatriates responded to the change brought by the pandemic of COVID-19 and what is the new normal according to them. Thematic analysis of 19 in-depth interviews with flexpatriates from the IT industry revealed four explicit phases of change process ? reflection, communication, collaboration, and transformation. Further, the analysis brought out four tenets of the new normal. First, it is time to blend physical and virtual work;second, the ?personal? touch of Indians in international assignments is irreplaceable;third, working from home amidst the entire household being housebound is the new normal;and last, international travel will resume soon with some changed protocols. This is the first qualitative study combining the issue of global talent management with Indian flexpatriates vis-à-vis the impact of COVID-19, the findings of which expand the positive organizational change theory and have important implications.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection varies across occupations; however, investigation into factors underlying differential risk is limited. We aimed to estimate the total effect of occupation on SARS-CoV-2 serological status, whether this is mediated by workplace close contact, and how exposure to poorly ventilated workplaces varied across occupations. METHODS: We used data from a subcohort (n=3775) of adults in the UK-based Virus Watch cohort study who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies (indicating natural infection). We used logistic decomposition to investigate the relationship between occupation, contact and seropositivity, and logistic regression to investigate exposure to poorly ventilated workplaces. RESULTS: Seropositivity was 17.1% among workers with daily close contact vs 10.0% for those with no work-related close contact. Compared with other professional occupations, healthcare, indoor trade/process/plant, leisure/personal service, and transport/mobile machine workers had elevated adjusted total odds of seropositivity (1.80 (1.03 to 3.14) - 2.46 (1.82 to 3.33)). Work-related contact accounted for a variable part of increased odds across occupations (1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) - 1.23 (1.09 to 1.40)). Occupations with raised odds of infection after accounting for work-related contact also had greater exposure to poorly ventilated workplaces. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related close contact appears to contribute to occupational variation in seropositivity. Reducing contact in workplaces is an important COVID-19 control measure.

5.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 16: 100352, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799798

ABSTRACT

Background: Workplaces are an important potential source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure; however, investigation into workplace contact patterns is lacking. This study aimed to investigate how workplace attendance and features of contact varied between occupations across the COVID-19 pandemic in England. Methods: Data were obtained from electronic contact diaries (November 2020-November 2021) submitted by employed/self-employed prospective cohort study participants (n=4,616). We used mixed models to investigate the effects of occupation and time for: workplace attendance, number of people sharing workspace, time spent sharing workspace, number of close contacts, and usage of face coverings. Findings: Workplace attendance and contact patterns varied across occupations and time. The predicted probability of intense space sharing during the day was highest for healthcare (78% [95% CI: 75-81%]) and education workers (64% [59%-69%]), who also had the highest probabilities for larger numbers of close contacts (36% [32%-40%] and 38% [33%-43%] respectively). Education workers also demonstrated relatively low predicted probability (51% [44%-57%]) of wearing a face covering during close contact. Across all occupational groups, workspace sharing and close contact increased and usage of face coverings decreased during phases of less stringent restrictions. Interpretation: Major variations in workplace contact patterns and mask use likely contribute to differential COVID-19 risk. Patterns of variation by occupation and restriction phase may inform interventions for future waves of COVID-19 or other respiratory epidemics. Across occupations, increasing workplace contact and reduced face covering usage is concerning given ongoing high levels of community transmission and emergence of variants. Funding: Medical Research Council; HM Government; Wellcome Trust.

6.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 46(4): 614-620, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current undergraduate radiology education predominantly integrates radiology with other disciplines during preclerkship years and is often taught by nonradiologists. Early exposure to radiology and profound understanding of scientific fundamentals of imaging modalities and techniques are essential for a better understanding and interest in the specialty. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic-related impact on in-person medical education aggravated the need for alternative virtual teaching initiatives to provide essential knowledge to medical students. METHODS: The authors designed an online 7-session course on the principles of imaging modalities for medical students and fresh graduates in the United States and abroad. The course was delivered online and taught by radiologists from different US institutions. Pretests and posttests were delivered before and after each session, respectively, to assess change in knowledge. At the end of the course, a survey was distributed among students to collect their assessment and feedback. RESULTS: A total of 162 students and interns initially enrolled in the program by completing a sign-up interest form. An average of 65 participants attended each live session, with the highest attendance being 93 live attendees. An average of 44 attendees completed both the pretest and posttest for each session. There was a statistically significant increase in posttest scores compared with pretest scores ( P < 0.01) for each session; on average, the posttest scores were 48% higher than the pretest scores. A total of 84 participants answered the end-of-course survey. A total of 11% of the respondents described themselves as first year, 17% as second year, 18% as third year, 21% as fourth year, and 33% as "other." Attendees were enrolled in medical schools across 21 different countries with 35% of the respondents studying medicine in the United States. More than 76% of the respondents stated that they "strongly agree" that the program increased their understanding of radiology, increased their interest in radiology, and would be useful in their clinical practice in the future. Eighty-three percent of the respondents stated that they "strongly agree" that "this course was a worthwhile experience." Particularly, more than 84% of the respondents stated that among the most important components in enhancing their understanding of radiology were "the interpretation of normal imaging" and "interpretation of clinical cases." Ninety-two percent of the respondents stated that "the amount of effort to complete the requirements for this program was just right." Participants were also asked to rate each of the 8 sessions using the following scale: poor = 1 point, fair = 2, good = 3, and excellent = 4. The average rating for all 8 sessions was 3.61 points (SD = 0.55), which translates to 96% of the sessions being rated good or excellent. Eighty percent of the participants reported that the topics presented in the program were "excellent and clinically important to learn," and 20% of the participants reported that the topics presented were "good and somewhat important to learn." The participants were asked to evaluate their confidence regarding basic radiology skills before and after the program using the following scale: not confident at all = 1 point, somewhat confident = 2, moderately confident = 3, and very confident = 4. Figure 2 summarizes the responses of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: An online course to teach the fundamentals of imaging modalities could be delivered through a webinar format to medical students and interns in several countries to address the potential gaps in radiology education, therefore increasing their understanding of the different imaging modalities and their proper use in medicine.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Radiology , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Educational Measurement , Humans , Pandemics , Radiology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , United States/epidemiology
7.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780277

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Increased transmissibility of B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in the UK may explain its rapid emergence and global spread. We analysed data from putative household infector - infectee pairs in the Virus Watch Community cohort study to assess the serial interval of COVID-19 and whether this was affected by emergence of the B.1.1.7 variant. Methods: The Virus Watch study is an online, prospective, community cohort study following up entire households in England and Wales during the COVID-19 pandemic. Putative household infector-infectee pairs were identified where more than one person in the household had a positive swab matched to an illness episode. Data on whether or not individual infections were caused by the B.1.1.7 variant were not available. We therefore developed a classification system based on the percentage of cases estimated to be due to B.1.1.7 in national surveillance data for different English regions and study weeks. Results: Out of 24,887 illnesses reported, 915 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 186 likely 'infector-infectee' pairs in 186 households amongst 372 individuals were identified. The mean COVID-19 serial interval was 3.18 (95%CI: 2.55 - 3.81) days. There was no significant difference (p=0.267) between the mean serial interval for VOC hotspots (mean = 3.64 days, (95%CI: 2.55 - 4.73)) days and non-VOC hotspots, (mean = 2.72 days, (95%CI: 1.48 - 3.96)). Conclusions: Our estimates of the average serial interval of COVID-19 are broadly similar to estimates from previous studies and we find no evidence that B.1.1.7 is associated with a change in serial intervals.  Alternative explanations such as increased viral load, longer period of viral shedding or improved receptor binding may instead explain the increased transmissibility and rapid spread and should undergo further investigation.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332465

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, can infect the eyes or pass into the nose via the nasolacrimal duct. The importance of transmission via the eyes is unknown but might plausibly be reduced in those who wear glasses. Previous studies have mainly focussed on protective eyewear in healthcare settings. Methods Participants from the Virus Watch prospective community cohort study in England and Wales responded to a questionnaire on the use of glasses and contact lenses. This included frequency of use, purpose, and likelihood of wearing a mask with glasses. Infection was confirmed through data linkage with Second Generation Surveillance System (Pillar 1 and Pillar 2), weekly questionnaires to self-report positive polymerase chain reaction or lateral flow results, and, for a subgroup, monthly capillary blood testing for antibodies (nucleocapsid and spike). A multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for age, sex, income and occupation, was used to identify odds of infection depending on the frequency and purpose of using glasses or contact lenses. Findings 19,166 Virus Watch participants responded to the questionnaire, with 13,681 (71.3%, CI 70.7-72.0) reporting they wore glasses. A multivariable logistic regression model showed a 15% lower odds of infection for those who reported using glasses always for general use (OR 0.85, 95% 0.77-0.95, p = 0.002) compared to those who never wore glasses. The protective effect was reduced in those who said that wearing glasses interfered with mask wearing. No protective effect was seen for contact lens wearers. Interpretation People who wear glasses have a moderate reduction in risk of COVID-19 infection highlighting the importance of the eye as a route of infection. Eye protection may make a valuable contribution to the reduction of transmission in community and healthcare settings.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330385

ABSTRACT

Background How international migrants access and use primary care in England is poorly understood. We aimed to compare primary care consultation rates between international migrants and non-migrants in England before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2015– 2020). Methods Using linked data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD and the Office for National Statistics, we identified migrants using country-of-birth, visa-status or other codes indicating international migration. We ran a controlled interrupted time series (ITS) using negative binomial regression to compare rates before and during the pandemic. Findings In 262,644 individuals, pre-pandemic consultation rates per person-year were 4.35 (4.34-4.36) for migrants and 4.6 (4.59-4.6) for non-migrants (RR:0.94 [0.92-0.96]). Between 29 March and 26 December 2020, rates reduced to 3.54 (3.52-3.57) for migrants and 4.2 (4.17-4.23) for non-migrants (RR:0.84 [0.8–0.88]). Overall, this represents an 11% widening of the pre-pandemic difference in consultation rates between migrants and non-migrants during the first year of the pandemic (RR:0.89, 95%CI:0.84–0.94). This widening was greater for children, individuals whose first language was not English, and individuals of White British, White non-British and Black/African/Caribbean/Black British ethnicities. Interpretation Migrants were less likely to use primary care before the pandemic and the first year of the pandemic exacerbated this difference. As GP practices retain remote and hybrid models of service delivery, they must improve services and ensure they are accessible and responsive to migrants’ healthcare needs. Funding This study was funded by the Medical Research Council (MR/V028375/1) and Wellcome Clinical Research Career Development Fellowship (206602).

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330045

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding symptomatology and accuracy of clinical case definitions for community COVID-19 cases is important for Test, Trace and Isolate (TTI) and future targeting of early antiviral treatment.   Methods: : Community cohort participants prospectively recorded daily symptoms and swab results (mainly undertaken through the UK TTI system).  We compared symptom frequency, severity, timing, and duration in test positive and negative illnesses.  We compared the test performance of the current UK TTI case definition (cough, high temperature, or loss of or altered sense of smell or taste) with a wider definition adding muscle aches, chills, headache, or loss of appetite.     Results: : Among 9706 swabbed illnesses, including 973 SARS-CoV-2 positives, symptoms were more common, severe and longer lasting in swab positive than negative illnesses.  Cough, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches were the most common symptoms in positive illnesses but also common in negative illnesses. Conversely, high temperature, loss or altered sense of smell or taste and loss of appetite were less frequent in positive illnesses, but comparatively even less frequent in negative illnesses.  The current UK definition had 81% sensitivity and 47% specificity versus 93% and 27% respectively for the broader definition. 1.7-fold more illnesses met the broader case definition than the current definition.  Conclusions: : Symptoms alone cannot reliably distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory illnesses. Adding additional symptoms to case definitions could identify more infections, but with a large increase in the number needing testing and the number of unwell individuals and contacts self-isolating whilst awaiting results.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327509

ABSTRACT

The two most commonly-used SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the UK, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), employ different immunogenic mechanisms. Compared to BNT162b2, two-dose immunisation with ChAdOx1 induces substantially lower peak anti-spike antibody (anti-S) levels and is associated with a higher risk of breakthrough infections. To provide preliminary indication of how a third booster BNT162b2 dose impacts anti-S levels, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using capillary blood samples from vaccinated adults (aged ≥18 years) participating in Virus Watch, a prospective community cohort study in England and Wales. Blood samples were analysed using Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay. We analysed anti-S levels by week since the third dose for vaccines administered on or after September 1, 2021 and stratified the results by second dose vaccine type (ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2), age, sex and clinical vulnerability. Anti-S levels peaked at two weeks post-booster for BNT162b2 (22,185 U/mL;95%CI: 21,406-22,990) and ChAdOx1 second dose recipients (19,203 U/mL;95%CI: 18,094-20,377). These were higher than the corresponding peak antibody levels post-second dose for BNT162b2 (12,386 U/mL;95%CI: 9,801-15,653, week 2) and ChAdOx1 (1,192 U/mL;95%CI: 818-1735, week 3). No differences emerged by second dose vaccine type, age, sex or clinical vulnerability. Anti-S levels declined post-booster for BNT162b2 (half-life=44 days) and ChAdOx1 second dose recipients (half-life=40 days). These rates of decline were steeper than those post-second dose for BNT162b2 (half-life=54 days) and ChAdOx1 (half-life=80 days). Our findings suggest that peak anti-S levels are higher post-booster than post-second dose, but that levels are projected to be similar after six months for BNT162b2 recipients. Higher peak anti-S levels post-booster may partially explain the increased effectiveness of booster vaccination compared to two-dose vaccination against symptomatic infection with the Omicron variant. Faster waning trajectories post third-dose may have implications for the timing of future booster campaigns or four-dose vaccination regimens for the clinically vulnerable.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327441

ABSTRACT

Importance The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has increased SARs-CoV-2 infections in double vaccinated individuals globally, particularly in ChAdOx1 recipients. To tackle rising infections, the UK accelerated booster vaccination programmes used mRNA vaccines irrespective of an individual’s primary course vaccine type with booster doses rolled out according to clinical priority. There is limited understanding of the effectiveness of different primary vaccination courses on mRNA based booster vaccines against SARs-COV-2 infections and how time-varying confounders can impact the evaluations comparing different vaccines as primary courses for mRNA boosters. Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of ChAdOx1 versus BNT162b2 as primary doses against SARs-CoV-2 in booster vaccine recipients whilst accounting for time-varying confounders. Design Trial emulation was used to reduce time-varying confounding-by-indication driven by prioritising booster vaccines based upon age, vulnerability and exposure status e.g. healthcare worker. Trial emulation was conducted by meta-analysing eight cohort results whose booster vaccinations were staggered between 16/09/2021 to 05/01/2022 and followed until 23/01/2022. Time from booster vaccination until SARS-CoV-2 infection, loss of follow-up or end-of-study was modelled using Cox proportional hazards models for each cohort and adjusted for age, sex, minority ethnic status, clinically vulnerability, and deprivation. Setting Prospective observational study using the Virus Watch community cohort in England and Wales. Participants People over the age of 18 years who had their booster vaccination between 16/09/2021 to 05/01/2022 without prior natural immunity. Exposures ChAdOx1 versus BNT162b2 as a primary dose, and an mRNA booster vaccine. Results Across eight cohorts, 19,692 mRNA vaccine boosted participants were analysed with 12,036 ChAdOx1 and 7,656 BNT162b2 primary courses with a median follow-up time of 73 days (IQR:54-90). Median age, clinical vulnerability status and infection rates fluctuate through time. 7.2% (n=864) of boosted adults with ChAdOx1 primary course experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to 7.6% (n=582) of those with BNT162b2 primary course during follow-up. The pooled adjusted hazard ratio was 0.99 [95%CI:0.88-1.11], demonstrating no difference between the incidence of SARs-CoV-2 infections based upon the primary vaccine course. Conclusion and Relevance In mRNA boosted individuals, we found no difference in protection comparing those with a primary course of BNT162b2 to those with aChAdOx1 primary course. This contrasts with pre-booster findings where previous research shows greater effectiveness of BNT162b2 than ChAdOx1 in preventing infection.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327349

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Seroprevalence studies can provide a measure of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but a better understanding of antibody dynamics following infection is needed to assess longevity of detectability. Infection is characterised by detection of spike (anti-S) and nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibodies, whereas vaccination only stimulates anti-S. Consequently, in the context of a highly vaccinated population, presence of anti-N can be used as a marker of previous infection but waning over time may limit its use. Methods: Adults aged 18 years and older, from households enrolled in the Virus Watch prospective community cohort study in England and Wales, provided monthly capillary blood samples which were tested for anti-S and anti-N. Participants self-reported vaccination dates and past medical history. Prior polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swabs were obtained through Second Generation Surveillance System (SGSS) linkage data. Primary outcome variables were seropositivity (antibodies at or above the manufacturer's cut-off for positivity) and total anti-N and anti-S levels after PCR confirmed infection. Outcomes were analysed by days since infection, self-reported demographic and clinical factors. Results: A total of 13,802 eligible individuals, median age 63, provided 58,770 capillary blood samples. 537 of these had a prior positive PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 0-269 days before the antibody sample date. 432 out of the 537 (80.44%) were anti-N positive and detection remained stable through-out follow-up. Median anti-N levels peaked between days 90 and 119 post PCR results and then began to decline. Logistic regression models, both univariable and multivariable, only showed higher odds of positive anti-N result between 0-269 days for 35-49 year olds, compared to 18-34 year olds. There is evidence of anti-N waning from 120 days onwards, with earlier waning for females and younger age categories. Discussion: Approximately 4 in 5 participants with prior PCR-confirmed infection were anti-N positive, and this remained stable through follow-up for at least 269 days. However, median antibody levels began to decline from about 120 days post-infection. This suggests that anti-N have around 80% sensitivity for identifying previous COVID-19 infection and that this sensitivity is maintained through 269 days of follow up.

14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327279

ABSTRACT

Background: It is poorly understood which workers lack access to sick pay in England and Wales. This evidence gap has been of particular interest in the context of the Covid-19 epidemic given the relationship between presenteeism and infectious disease transmission. Method: This cross-sectional analysis is nested within a large community cohort study of Covid-19 epidemiology in England and Wales (Virus Watch). An online survey in February 2021 asked participants if they had access to paid sick leave. We use a fixed effect logistic regression model to examine sociodemographic factors associated with lacking access to sick pay. Results: 8,874 participants in work responded to the survey item about access to sick pay. Of those, 5,864 (66%) report having access to sick pay, 2,218 (25%) report no access to sick pay and 792 (8.9%) were unsure. Workers aged 45-64 (OR 1.72) and over 65 (OR 5.26) are more likely to lack access to sick pay compared to workers aged 25-44. South Asian workers (OR 1.40) and those from Other minority ethnic backgrounds (OR 2.93) are more likely to lack access to sick pay compared to White British workers. Workers in low income households (OR 1.43-2.53) and those with working class occupations (OR 2.04-5.29) are also more likely to lack access to sick pay compared to those in high income households and managerial occupations. Discussion: Unwarranted age and race inequalities in sick pay access are suggestive of labour market discrimination. Occupational differences are also cause for concern. Policymakers should consider expanding access to sick pay to mitigate transmission of Covid-19 and other endemic infectious disease epidemics in the community.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316846

ABSTRACT

Following the recent emergence of COVID-19, numerous individuals have depended on delivering their homemade face covers because of supply deficiencies and to permit medical care laborers the legitimate PPE required by them in medical care. The viability of custom made face masks is a contested point as of late with a great deal of falsehood spreading, regularly with no huge logical support. The goal of this project is to create a low priced device that can obtain quantitative results and tell us how effective a homemade or surgical face mask is at removing particulates The particulate sensor that was used in the project can observe particles that are of size 1.0 μm, 2.5 μm and 10.0 μm in diameter and along with it to measure the quality of air around us using the MQ-135 air quality sensor.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310991

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Increased transmissibility of B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in the UK may explain its rapid emergence and global spread. We analysed data from putative household infector - infectee pairs in the Virus Watch Community cohort study to assess the serial interval of COVID-19 and whether this was affected by emergence of the B.1.1.7 variant. Methods: The Virus Watch study is an online, prospective, community cohort study following up entire households in England and Wales during the COVID-19 pandemic. Putative household infector-infectee pairs were identified where more than one person in the household had a positive swab matched to an illness episode. Data on whether or not individual infections were caused by the B.1.1.7 variant were not available. We therefore developed a classification system based on the percentage of cases estimated to be due to B.1.1.7 in national surveillance data for different English regions and study weeks. Results: Out of 24,887 illnesses reported, 915 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 186 likely ‘infector-infectee’ pairs in 186 households amongst 372 individuals were identified. The mean COVID-19 serial interval was 3.18 (95%CI: 2.55 - 3.81) days. There was no significant difference (p=0.267) between the mean serial interval for VOC hotspots (mean = 3.64 days, (95%CI: 2.55 – 4.73)) days and non-VOC hotspots, (mean = 2.72 days, (95%CI: 1.48 – 3.96)). Conclusions: Our estimates of the average serial interval of COVID-19 are broadly similar to estimates from previous studies and we find no evidence that B.1.1.7 is associated with a change in serial intervals.  Alternative explanations such as increased viral load, longer period of viral shedding or improved receptor binding may instead explain the increased transmissibility and rapid spread and should undergo further investigation.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306539

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the relative importance of different settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a large community cohort based on perceived location of infection for self-reported confirmed SARS-COV-2 cases. We demonstrate the importance of home, work and education as perceived venues for transmission. In children, education was most important and in older adults essential shopping was of high importance.  Our findings support public health messaging about infection control at home, advice on working from home and restrictions in different venues.

18.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615295

ABSTRACT

Background There is a worldwide deficit in teaching and training in the field of radiology for undergraduate medical students. This educational gap is prominent in many medical schools as most radiology curricula are a part of other specialty trainings, usually provided by non-radiologists. After COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increased trend in online education. However, questions have been raised about the efficacy and acceptance of online education. We developed a course on the principles of radiology and medical imaging basics to target Egyptian medical students. We then assessed the impact of these educational videos through several online surveys. Our "The Principles of Radiology Online Course" was delivered to students at various Egyptian medical schools;it was a prerecorded series composed of nine sessions, and each session followed the sequence of a pre-test, video, and post-test. There was a final survey to assess the overall feedback. Finally, we analyzed the results to give insight onto how teaching radiology through online lectures can help build better physicians. Results Among various medical schools around Egypt, 1396 Egyptian medical students joined this cohort. Cohort population percentage was 56% female and 44% male. Ninety-eight percent of the students agreed that this program increased their understanding of radiology. Eighty-four percent of the students found the platform friendly and easy to use. Seventy-nine percent found these webinars were more convenient compared to in-person education. Statistical significance (p-value < 0.05) was achieved in all sessions after comparing students’ pre and post-test scores, and in students’ confidence and knowledge level before and after the course. Conclusions Radiology is an underrepresented subject for a lot of medical students. Online radiology webinars have proven to be a promising method of teaching medical students key medical imaging concepts. An online course of radiology basics and principles can help improve a medical student’s knowledge and enhance overall future patient care.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296537

ABSTRACT

Background: Workplaces are an important potential source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure;however, investigation into workplace contact patterns is lacking. This study aimed to investigate how workplace attendance and features of contact varied between occupations and over time during the COVID-19 pandemic in England. Methods: Data were obtained from electronic contact diaries submitted between November 2020 and November 2021 by employed/self-employed prospective cohort study participants (n=4,616). We used mixed models to investigate the main effects and potential interactions between occupation and time for: workplace attendance, number of people in shared workspace, time spent sharing workspace, number of close contacts, and usage of face coverings. Findings: Workplace attendance and contact patterns varied across occupations and time. The predicted probability of intense space sharing during the day was highest for healthcare (78% [95% CI: 75-81%]) and education workers (64% [59%-69%]), who also had the highest probabilities for larger numbers of close contacts (36% [32%-40%] and 38% [33%-43%] respectively). Education workers also demonstrated relatively low predicted probability (51% [44%-57%]) of wearing a face covering during close contact. Across all occupational groups, levels of workspace sharing and close contact were higher and usage of face coverings at work lower in later phases of the pandemic compared to earlier phases. Interpretation: Major variations in patterns of workplace contact and mask use are likely to contribute to differential COVID-19 risk. Across occupations, increasing workplace contact and reduced usage of face coverings presents an area of concern given ongoing high levels of community transmission and emergence of variants.

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