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1.
Popul Health Manag ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097274

ABSTRACT

Oral antivirals for COVID-19 can be game changers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Challenges that may hinder current and future oral antiviral rollouts span use in special populations, drug-drug and herb-drug interactions, adverse events, development of resistance, black markets, and equity in access and prescribing. Future antivirals may address some of these barriers; however, health systems around the world should be equipped to receive and administer COVID-19 oral antivirals. Improvements in manufacturing capacity, community engagement, capacity for testing and linkage to care, and systems for surveillance and safety monitoring could "change the game" for LMICs, irrespective of any specific antiviral drug. Investments in health care infrastructure can promote resilience, not only for COVID-19 but also for future local and global health crises.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(43): 1384-1385, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091067

ABSTRACT

Equitable access to COVID-19 therapeutics is a critical aspect of the distribution program led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).* Two oral antiviral products, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid)† and molnupiravir (Lagevrio),§ received emergency use authorization (EUA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2021, to reduce the risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death for those patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at higher risk for severe illness (1,2). HHS has been distributing these medications at no cost to recipients since their authorization. Data collected from provider sites during December 23, 2021-May 21, 2022, indicated substantial disparities in the population-adjusted dispensing rates in high social vulnerability (high-vulnerability) zip codes compared with those in medium- and low-vulnerability zip codes (3). Specifically, dispensing rates for the 4-week period during April 24-May 21, 2022, were 122 per 100,000 residents (19% of overall population-adjusted dispensing rates) in high-vulnerability zip codes compared with 247 (42%) in medium-vulnerability and 274 (39%) in low-vulnerability zip codes. This report provides an updated analysis of dispensing rates by zip code-level social vulnerability and highlights important intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Social Vulnerability , Ritonavir , Hospitalization
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(33): 1057-1064, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994637

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, continues to circulate globally, high levels of vaccine- and infection-induced immunity and the availability of effective treatments and prevention tools have substantially reduced the risk for medically significant COVID-19 illness (severe acute illness and post-COVID-19 conditions) and associated hospitalization and death (1). These circumstances now allow public health efforts to minimize the individual and societal health impacts of COVID-19 by focusing on sustainable measures to further reduce medically significant illness as well as to minimize strain on the health care system, while reducing barriers to social, educational, and economic activity (2). Individual risk for medically significant COVID-19 depends on a person's risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and their risk for developing severe illness if infected (3). Exposure risk can be mitigated through nonpharmaceutical interventions, including improving ventilation, use of masks or respirators indoors, and testing (4). The risk for medically significant illness increases with age, disability status, and underlying medical conditions but is considerably reduced by immunity derived from vaccination, previous infection, or both, as well as timely access to effective biomedical prevention measures and treatments (3,5). CDC's public health recommendations change in response to evolving science, the availability of biomedical and public health tools, and changes in context, such as levels of immunity in the population and currently circulating variants. CDC recommends a strategic approach to minimizing the impact of COVID-19 on health and society that relies on vaccination and therapeutics to prevent severe illness; use of multicomponent prevention measures where feasible; and particular emphasis on protecting persons at high risk for severe illness. Efforts to expand access to vaccination and therapeutics, including the use of preexposure prophylaxis for persons who are immunocompromised, antiviral agents, and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, should be intensified to reduce the risk for medically significant illness and death. Efforts to protect persons at high risk for severe illness must ensure that all persons have access to information to understand their individual risk, as well as efficient and equitable access to vaccination, therapeutics, testing, and other prevention measures. Current priorities for preventing medically significant illness should focus on ensuring that persons 1) understand their risk, 2) take steps to protect themselves and others through vaccines, therapeutics, and nonpharmaceutical interventions when needed, 3) receive testing and wear masks if they have been exposed, and 4) receive testing if they are symptomatic, and isolate for ≥5 days if they are infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e37479, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 threatens to disrupt global progress toward HIV epidemic control. Opportunities exist to leverage ongoing public health responses to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on HIV services, and novel approaches to care provision might help address both epidemics. OBJECTIVE: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, novel approaches to maintain comprehensive HIV prevention service delivery are needed. The aim of this study was to summarize the related literature to highlight adaptations that could address potential COVID-19-related service interruptions. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and searched six databases, OVID/Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Embase, for studies published between January 1, 2010, and October 26, 2021, related to recent technology-based interventions for virtual service delivery. Search terms included "telemedicine," "telehealth," "mobile health," "eHealth," "mHealth," "telecommunication," "social media," "mobile device," and "internet," among others. Of the 6685 abstracts identified, 1259 focused on HIV virtual service delivery, 120 of which were relevant for HIV prevention efforts; 48 pertained to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and 19 of these focused on evaluations of interventions for the virtual service delivery of PrEP. Of the 16 systematic reviews identified, three were specific to PrEP. All 35 papers were reviewed for outcomes of efficacy, feasibility, and/or acceptability. Limitations included heterogeneity of the studies' methodological approaches and outcomes; thus, a meta-analysis was not performed. We considered the evidence-based interventions found in our review and developed a virtual service delivery model for HIV prevention interventions. We also considered how this platform could be leveraged for COVID-19 prevention and care. RESULTS: We summarize 19 studies of virtual service delivery of PrEP and 16 relevant reviews. Examples of technology-based interventions that were effective, feasible, and/or acceptable for PrEP service delivery include: use of SMS, internet, and smartphone apps such as iText (50% [95% CI 16%-71%] reduction in discontinuation of PrEP) and PrEPmate (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.24-5.5.4); telehealth and eHealth platforms for virtual visits such as PrEPTECH and IowaTelePrEP; and platforms for training of health care workers such as Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO). We suggest a virtual service delivery model for PrEP that can be leveraged for COVID-19 using the internet and social media for demand creation, community-based self-testing, telehealth platforms for risk assessment and follow-up, applications for support groups and adherence/appointment reminders, and applications for monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Innovations in the virtual service provision of PrEP occurred before COVID-19 but have new relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The innovations we describe might strengthen HIV prevention service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the long run by engaging traditionally hard-to-reach populations, reducing stigma, and creating a more accessible health care platform. These virtual service delivery platforms can mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services, which can be leveraged to facilitate COVID-19 pandemic control now and for future responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a severe condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we applied the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition to identify diagnosed and undiagnosed MIS-A cases among adults discharged April 2020-January 2021 from four Atlanta, Georgia hospitals affiliated with a single medical center. Non-MIS-A COVID-19 hospitalizations were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision encounter code U07.1. We calculated the ratio of MIS-A to COVID-19 hospitalizations, compared demographic characteristics of the two cohorts, and described clinical characteristics of MIS-A patients. RESULTS: We identified 11 MIS-A cases, none of which were diagnosed by the treatment team, and 5,755 COVID-19 hospitalizations (ratio 1: 523). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-A were more likely to be younger than 50 years (72.7% vs. 26.1%, p < 0.01) and to be non-Hispanic Black persons (81.8% vs. 50.0%, p = 0.04). Ten patients with MIS-A (90.9%) had at least one underlying medical condition. Two MIS-A patients (18.2%) had a previous episode of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, occurring 37 and 55 days prior to admission. All MIS-A patients developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction. None had documented mucocutaneous involvement. All required intensive care, all received systemic corticosteroids, eight (72.7%) required mechanical ventilation, two (18.2%) required mechanical cardiovascular circulatory support, and none received intravenous immunoglobulin. Two (18.2%) died or were discharged to hospice. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A is severe but likely underrecognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved recognition of MIS-A is needed to quantify its burden and identify populations at highest risk.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332948

ABSTRACT

Objective: When novel diseases such as COVID-19 emerge, predictors of clinical outcomes might be unknown. Using data from electronic medical records (EMR) allows evaluation of potential predictors without selecting specific features a priori for a model. We evaluated different machine learning models for predicting outcomes among COVID-19 inpatients using raw EMR data. Materials and Methods: In Premier Healthcare Data Special Release: COVID-19 Edition (PHD-SR COVID-19, release date March, 24 2021), we included patients admitted with COVID-19 during February 2020 through April 2021 and built time-ordered medical histories. Setting the prediction horizon at 24 hours into the first COVID-19 inpatient visit, we aimed to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admission , hyperinflammatory syndrome (HS), and death. We evaluated the following models: L2-penalized logistic regression, random forest, gradient boosting classifier, deep averaging network, and recurrent neural network with a long short-term memory cell. Results: There were 57,355 COVID-19 patients identified in PHD-SR COVID-19. ICU admission was the easiest outcome to predict (best AUC=79%), and HS was the hardest to predict (best AUC=70%). Models performed similarly within each outcome. Discussion: Although the models learned to attend to meaningful clinical information, they performed similarly, suggesting performance limitations are inherent to the data. Conclusion: Predictive models using raw EMR data are promising because they can use many observations and encompass a large feature space;however, traditional and deep learning models may perform similarly when few features are available at the individual patient level.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitigation measures for the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and burden on health systems created challenges for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) service delivery. We examined PrEP uptake in PEPFAR programs before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We studied two PEPFAR program monitoring indicators, using routine Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting (MER) indicators capturing uptake of PrEP (PrEP_NEW) and overall use of PrEP (PrEP_CURR). We also analyzed descriptive program narratives to understand successes and challenges field teams encountered after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess changes in coverage of PrEP across 21 countries, we calculated the "PrEP to need ratio" (PnR) using a published methodology. We defined the pre-COVID time period as April 1, 2019 -March 31, 2020 and the COVID time period as April 1, 2020 -March 31, 2021. FINDINGS: The total number of persons who initiated PrEP increased by 157% from 233,250 in the pre-COVID-19 period compared with 599,935 in the COVID-19 period. All countries, except five, noted significant increases in PrEP uptake. PrEP uptake among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) increased by 159% from 80,452 AGYW in the pre-COVID-19 period to 208,607 AGYW in the COVID-19 period. There were 77,430 key populations (KP) initiated on PrEP in the pre-COVID-19 period and 209,114 KP initiated in the COVID-19 period (a 170% increase). The PnR increased 214% in the COVID-19 period across all PEPFAR-supported countries. Adaptations, such as multi-month dispensing (MMD) of PrEP; virtual demand creation activities; decentralized, community-based and virtual service delivery, were implemented to maintain PrEP services. CONCLUSIONS: PEPFAR programs continued to maintain and initiate new clients on PrEP despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Adaptations such as MMD of PrEP and use of technology were vital in expanding service delivery and increasing PrEP coverage. FUNDING: This project has been supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adolescent , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e26, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683880

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a hyperinflammatory illness related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The characteristics of patients with this syndrome and the frequency with which it occurs among patients hospitalised after SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-A, we created ICD-10-CM code and laboratory criteria to identify potential MIS-A patients in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, a database containing patient-level information on hospital discharges across the United States. Modified MIS-A criteria were applied to hospitalisations with discharge from March to December 2020. The proportion of hospitalisations meeting electronic health record criteria for MIS-A and descriptive statistics for patients in the potential MIS-A cohort were calculated. Of 34 515 SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations with complete clinical and laboratory data, 53 met modified criteria for MIS-A (0.15%). The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-74). Most patients met the severe cardiac illness criterion through either myocarditis (66.0%) or new-onset heart failure (35.8%). A total of 79.2% of patients required ICU admission, while 43.4% of patients in the cohort died. MIS-A appears to be a rare but severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additional studies are needed to investigate how this syndrome differs from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126456, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432338

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) has not been well described. Improved diagnosis and treatment of MIS-A might mitigate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MIS-A. EVIDENCE REVIEW: This systematic review identified patients with MIS-A using 3 strategies: (1) literature review from May 1, 2020, to May 25, 2021, by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Academic Search Complete, Scopus, World Health Organization Global COVID-19 Literature Database, and Google Scholar; (2) voluntary reports of MIS-A to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and (3) reports among persons aged 18 to 20 years in the CDC surveillance system for MIS in children. FINDINGS: Of 221 patients with MIS-A, the median age was 21 (interquartile range [IQR], 19-34) years, and 154 of 219 (70%) with data available were men. Sixty of 169 patients (36%) were non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 122 of 209 (58%) had no underlying comorbidity. One hundred two of 149 patients (68%) noted a previous symptomatic COVID-19-like illness (median, 28 [IQR, 20-36] days previously). Most patients with MIS-A presented with fever (197 of 205 [96%]), hypotension (133 of 220 [60%]), cardiac dysfunction (114 of 210 [54%]), shortness of breath (102 of 198 [52%]), and/or diarrhea (102 of 197 [52%]). The median number of organ systems involved was 5 (IQR, 4-6). Median hospital stay was 8 (IQR, 5-12) days; 115 of 201 patients (57%) were admitted to the intensive care unit; 101 of 213 (47%) required respiratory support, and 15 of 220 (7%) died. Most patients (176 of 195 [90%]) had elevated markers of coagulopathy and/or inflammation and a positive SARS-CoV-2 serologic finding (139 of 194 [72%]). Ten patients with MIS-A presented with Kawasaki disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that MIS-A is a serious hyperinflammatory condition that presents approximately 4 weeks after onset of acute COVID-19 with extrapulmonary multiorgan dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389856

ABSTRACT

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e400-e406, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. METHODS: We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 years of age, termed children) with onset March 2020 to February 2021 to that of children with COVID-19 and in the general population. Analysis was restricted to 369 counties with high completeness of race and ethnicity reporting for MIS-C and COVID-19. For each racial and ethnic group, observed numbers of patients with MIS-C were compared with expected numbers (observed/expected ratio) in children with COVID-19 and in the general population within these counties. RESULTS: Compared with children in the general population, MIS-C was more frequent among Hispanic (139% of expected) and non-Hispanic Black children (183%) and less frequent among non-Hispanic White (64%) and non-Hispanic Asian children (48%). Compared with children with COVID-19, MIS-C was more frequent in non-Hispanic Black children (207% of expected) and less frequent in non-Hispanic White children (68%); however, frequency was not different among Hispanic (102%) and non-Hispanic Asian (74%) children. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MIS-C by race and ethnicity exist, even after controlling for COVID-19 disparities and geographic variations. The high proportion of MIS-C among Hispanic children and low proportion among non-Hispanic Asian children align with COVID-19 rates, while the high proportion among non-Hispanic Black children and low proportion among non-Hispanic White children are not explainable by COVID-19 rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/history , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 837-845, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168812

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19. Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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