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1.
Nat Immunol ; 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284754

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells are essential for protection against viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity of CD4+ T cells to mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is poorly understood. Here, we isolated 159 SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell clones from healthcare workers previously infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) and defined 21 epitopes in spike, membrane and nucleoprotein. Lack of CD4+ T cell cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic beta-coronaviruses suggested these responses arose from naïve rather than pre-existing cross-reactive coronavirus-specific T cells. Of the 17 epitopes located in the spike protein, 10 were mutated in VOCs and CD4+ T cell clone recognition of 7 of them was impaired, including 3 of the 4 epitopes mutated in omicron. Our results indicated that broad targeting of epitopes by CD4+ T cells likely limits evasion by current VOCs. However, continued genomic surveillance is vital to identify new mutations able to evade CD4+ T cell immunity.

2.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e067910, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of colchicine and high-intensity rosuvastatin in addition to standard of care on the progression of COVID-19 disease in hospitalised patients. DESIGN: A pragmatic, open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted from October 2020 to September 2021. Follow-up was conducted at 30 and 60 days. The electronic medical record was used at all stages of the trial including screening, enrolment, randomisation, event ascertainment and follow-up. SETTING: Four centres in the Yale New Haven Health System. PARTICIPANTS: Non-critically ill hospitalised patients with COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised 1:1 to either colchicine plus high-intensity rosuvastatin in addition to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Assigned treatment was continued for the duration of index hospitalisation or 30 days, whichever was shorter. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The prespecified primary endpoint was progression to severe COVID-19 disease (new high-flow or non-invasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, need for vasopressors, renal replacement therapy or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or death) or arterial/venous thromboembolic events (ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) evaluated at 30 days. RESULTS: Among the 250 patients randomised in this trial (125 to each arm), the median age was 61 years, 44% were women, 15% were Black and 26% were Hispanic/Latino. As part of the standard of care, patients received remdesivir (87%), dexamethasone (92%), tocilizumab (18%), baricitinib (2%), prophylactic/therapeutic anticoagulation (98%) and aspirin (91%). The trial was terminated early by the data and safety monitoring board for futility. No patients were lost to follow-up due to electronic medical record follow-up. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint at 30 days between the active arm and standard of care arm (15.2% vs 8.8%, respectively, p=0.17). CONCLUSIONS: In this small, open-label, randomised trial of non-critically ill hospitalised patients with COVID-19, the combination of colchicine and rosuvastatin in addition to standard of care did not appear to reduce the risk of progression of COVID-19 disease or thromboembolic events, although the trial was underpowered due to a lower-than-expected event rate. The trial leveraged the power of electronic medical records for efficiency and improved follow-up and demonstrates the utility of incorporating electronic medical records into future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04472611.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Rosuvastatin Calcium , SARS-CoV-2 , Colchicine , Treatment Outcome
3.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26407, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939389

ABSTRACT

Atrial myxomas are the most common primary tumor of the heart and can occasionally present as an ischemic stroke with neurologic symptoms secondary to embolic phenomena. We present a case of a 42-year-old male with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection two months prior who presented to the emergency department with unilateral left-sided weakness and paresthesia. After being diagnosed with multifocal ischemic strokes, further evaluation utilizing a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) revealed a 5 × 2 cm left atrial myxoma prolapsing the mitral valve, which was the presumed cause of the patient's strokes. The myxoma was successfully removed via robotic thoracoscopy. Our case demonstrates the importance of considering atrial myxoma in the evaluation of stroke in young and middle-aged patients even in the presence of multiple cardiovascular and thrombotic risk factors.

4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106547, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite improvement in the standard of care (SOC) for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, rates of morbidity and mortality remain high. There continues to be a need for easily available and cost-effective treatments. Colchicine and rosuvastatin are both safe and well-studied medications with anti-inflammatory and other pleiotropic effects that may provide additional benefits to hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Colchicine/Statin for the Prevention of COVID-19 Complications (COLSTAT) trial is a pragmatic, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial comparing the combination of colchicine and rosuvastatin in addition to SOC to SOC alone in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Four centers in the Yale New Haven Health network will enroll a total of 466 patients with 1:1 randomization. The trial will utilize the electronic health record (Epic® Systems, Verona, Wisconsin, USA) at all stages including screening, randomization, intervention, event ascertainment, and follow-up. The primary endpoint is the 30-day composite of progression to severe COVID-19 disease as defined by the World Health Organization ordinal scale of clinical improvement and arterial/venous thromboembolic events. The secondary powered endpoint is the 30-day composite of death, respiratory failure requiring intubation, and myocardial injury. CONCLUSIONS: The COLSTAT trial will provide evidence on the efficacy of repurposing colchicine and rosuvastatin for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is designed to be a pragmatic trial that will demonstrate the power of using electronic health records to improve efficiency and enrollment in clinical trials in an adapting landscape. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04472611 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04472611).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Future Sci OA ; 7(7): FSO733, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270969

ABSTRACT

AIM: We propose a method for screening full blood count metadata for evidence of communicable and noncommunicable diseases using machine learning (ML). MATERIALS & METHODS: High dimensional hematology metadata was extracted over an 11-month period from Sysmex hematology analyzers from 43,761 patients. Predictive models for age, sex and individuality were developed to demonstrate the personalized nature of hematology data. Both numeric and raw flow cytometry data were used for both supervised and unsupervised ML to predict the presence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection and COVID-19. Heart failure was used as an objective to prove method generalizability. RESULTS: Chronological age was predicted by a deep neural network with R2: 0.59; mean absolute error: 12; sex with AUROC: 0.83, phi: 0.47; individuality with 99.7% accuracy, phi: 0.97; pneumonia with AUROC: 0.74, sensitivity 58%, specificity 79%, 95% CI: 0.73-0.75, p < 0.0001; urinary tract infection AUROC: 0.68, sensitivity 52%, specificity 79%, 95% CI: 0.67-0.68, p < 0.0001; COVID-19 AUROC: 0.8, sensitivity 82%, specificity 75%, 95% CI: 0.79-0.8, p = 0.0006; and heart failure area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC): 0.78, sensitivity 72%, specificity 72%, 95% CI: 0.77-0.78; p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: ML applied to hematology data could predict communicable and noncommunicable diseases, both at local and global levels.

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