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J Clin Oncol ; 39(34): 3778-3788, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690843


PURPOSE: The Pediatric Oncology COVID-19 Case Report registry supplies pediatric oncologists with data surrounding the clinical course and outcomes in children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This observational study captured clinical and sociodemographic characteristics for children (≤ 21 years) receiving cancer therapy and infected with SARS-CoV-2 from the pandemic onset through February 19, 2021. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort were compared with population-level pediatric oncology data (SEER). Multivariable binomial regression models evaluated patient characteristics associated with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and changes in cancer therapy. RESULTS: Ninety-four institutions contributed details on 917 children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. Median age at SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11 years (range, 0-21 years). Compared with SEER, there was an over-representation of Hispanics (43.6% v 29.7%, P < .01), publicly insured (59.3% v 33.5%, P < .01), and patients with hematologic malignancies (65.8% v 38.3%, P < .01) in our cohort. The majority (64.1%) were symptomatic; 31.2% were hospitalized, 10.9% required respiratory support, 9.2% were admitted to the ICU, and 1.6% died because of SARS-CoV-2. Cancer therapy was modified in 44.9%. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with changes in cancer-directed therapy (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6]). Presence of comorbidities was associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) and ICU admission (aRR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.6). Hematologic malignancies were associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.1). CONCLUSION: These findings provide critical information for decision making among pediatric oncologists, including inpatient versus outpatient management, cancer therapy modifications, consideration of monoclonal antibody therapy, and counseling families on infection risks in the setting of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The over-representation of Hispanic and publicly insured patients in this national cohort suggests disparities that require attention.

COVID-19/complications , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/virology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-187893


The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a worldwide pandemic. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 has mostly affected the elderly or those with underlying medical conditions. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with no past medical history who presented with fever, cough, and vomiting. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe thrombocytopenia and elevated markers of inflammation. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, and testing results for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 returned positive. Because of the severity of her thrombocytopenia, she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids with prompt improvement in platelets. The patient's severe acute respiratory distress syndrome was managed with mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and then airway pressure release ventilation. After azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were given without improvement, our patient received tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, and remdesivir, a broad antiviral agent, with significant clinical benefit soon afterward. Given that severe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 is rare, we hope to inform pediatric providers on the clinical course and management considerations as this pandemic continues to spread.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy