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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991936

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed since the inception of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, at unprecedented speed. However, these rapidly developed vaccines raised many questions related to the efficacy and safety of vaccines in different communities across the globe. Various hypotheses regarding COVID-19 and its vaccines were generated, and many of them have also been answered with scientific evidence. Still, there are many myths/misinformation related to COVID-19 and its vaccines, which create hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination, and must be addressed critically to achieve success in the battle against the pandemic. AREA COVERED: The development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against COVID-19, their safety and efficacy, and myths/misinformation relating to COVID-19 and vaccines are presented. EXPERT OPINION: In this pandemic we have seen a global collaborative effort of researchers, governments, and industry, supported by billions of dollars in funding, have allowed the development of vaccines far more quickly than in the past. Vaccines go through rigorous testing, analysis, and evaluations in clinical settings prior to their approval, even if they are approved for emergency use. Despite the myths, vaccination represents an important strategy to get back to normality.

2.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2386, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990539

ABSTRACT

The effect of corticosteroid therapy is still controversial on prevention of mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of corticosteroids on mortality. This systematic review was performed as per preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. A systematic search was performed at different databases namely Medline/PubMed, Cochrane and Google scholar on 10 February 2022. A pooled estimate for effect of corticosteroid therapy on mortality was calculated as outcome of study. Risk bias analysis and Newcastle Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of randomized control trial (RCT) and cohort studies, respectively. Cochran's Q test and the I2 statistic were conducted for heterogeneity and accordingly study model was applied. A total 43 studies were included, having sample size of 96,852 patients. Amongst them, 19,426 and 77,426 patients received corticosteroid therapy (intervention group) or standard treatment without corticosteroid (control group), respectively. Mortality observed in the intervention and control group was 14.2% (2749) and 7.1% (5459), respectively. The pooled estimate 2.173 (95% CI: 2.0690-2.2820) showed significantly increased mortality in intervention as compared to control. The pooled estimate of methyprednisolone 1.206 (95% CI: 1.0770-1.3500) showed significantly increased mortality while the pooled estimate of dexamethasone 1.040 (95% CI: 0.9459-1.1440) showed insignificantly increased mortality as compared to control. In conclusion, corticosteroid therapy produced a negative prognosis as depicted by increased mortality among COVID-19 patients. The possible reasons might be delay in virus clearance and secondary infections due to corticosteroids initiated at high dose in the early stage of infection.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335533

ABSTRACT

Background: and Purpose: Corticosteroid therapy is still controversial to use for treatment of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The results of multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies are very diverse and contradictory, which arising difficulty in the clinical decision-making. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of corticosteroids on mortality by systematic review and meta-analysis. External Approach: A systematic search was performed on different databases namely Medline/PubMed, Cochrane and Google scholar on 10 February 2022, according to PRISMA guidelines. The 28-days mortality was considered as outcome of study. A pooled estimate was calculated with random effects and fixed effects models. Cochran’s Q test and the I2 statistic were conducted for statistical heterogeneity. Key Results: 38 studies were included, having sample size of 87,781 patients. Amongst them, 16437 patients received corticosteroid therapy (intervention group) while 71344 patients were standard (noncorticosteroids) therapy (control group). 12.68% (2084) mortality observed in the intervention group while 5.93% (4227) mortality observed in the control group. The overall pooled estimate showed a significantly (OR2.305;95%CI: 2.1810 to 2.4370) increased mortality in intervention group. A pooled fold change estimation showed significantly increased in the mortality in methylprednisolone (OR 1.206;95%CI: 1.0770 to 1.3500) and dexamethasone (OR 1.388;95% CI:1.1870 to 1.6220) therapy. Conclusion and Implication: In conclusion, corticosteroid therapy produced a negative prognosis as depicted by increased mortality among COVID-19 patients. The possible reasons might be delay in virus clearance and secondary infection due to initiation of the corticosteroids at high dose in the early stage of infection.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334409

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in human population. In the light of reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect the SARS-CoV-2 among species of Veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (Dog=195, cattle=64, horse=42, goat=41, buffalo=39, sheep=19, cat=6, camel=6 and monkey=1) were collected from different places of Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from samples and subjected to RT-qPCR based amplification of target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S) and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79 %) animals were found positive, comprised of 67 (34.35 %) dogs, 15(23.43 %) cattle and 13(33.33 %) buffaloes. Overall, nasal samples (N=80/412, 19.41 %) gave more positive results than rectal samples (N=70/407, 17.19 %) in RT-qPCR. The whole SRAS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done on one sample (ID-A4N;from dog) where 32 mutations, including 29 single nucleotide variation (SNV) and two deletions, were detected. Among them, 9 mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in amino acid sequence revealed that T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R mutation in S protein and D63G, R203M and D377Y in N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-1 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in non-human host.

5.
Healthline, Journal of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine ; 12(1):46-54, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717499

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of Covid-19 has led to a health emergency and economic crisis worldwide. Mortality in productive age further worsens the crisis, so it is important to understand reasons for death in productive age group.

6.
Cancer Med ; 11(4): 1192-1201, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oncology rapidly shifted to telemedicine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine can increase access to healthcare, but recent research has shown disparities exist with telemedicine use during the pandemic. This study evaluated health disparities associated with telemedicine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic among cancer patients in a tertiary care academic medical center. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated telemedicine use among adult cancer patients who received outpatient medical oncology care within a tertiary care academic healthcare system between January and September 2020. We used multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models to determine how telemedicine use varied by patient race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance status, and income level. We assessed geospatial links between zip-code level COVID-19 infection rates and telemedicine use. RESULTS: Among 29,421 patient encounters over the study period, 8,541 (29%) were delivered via telemedicine. Several groups of patients were less likely to use telemedicine, including Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.86, p = 0.03), Asian (aOR 0.79, p = 0.002), Spanish-speaking (aOR 0.71, p = 0.0006), low-income (aOR 0.67, p < 0.0001), and those with Medicaid (aOR 0.66, p < 0.0001). Lower rates of telemedicine use were found in zip codes with higher rates of COVID-19 infection. Each 10% increase in COVID-19 infection rates was associated with an 8.3% decrease in telemedicine use (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates racial/ethnic, language, and income-level disparities with telemedicine use, which ultimately led patients with the highest risk of COVID-19 infection to use telemedicine the least. Additional research to better understand actionable barriers will help improve telemedicine access among our underserved populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies
8.
Sci Signal ; 14(675)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186203

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a second messenger that releases Ca2+ from acidic organelles through the activation of two-pore channels (TPCs) to regulate endolysosomal trafficking events. NAADP action is mediated by NAADP-binding protein(s) of unknown identity that confer NAADP sensitivity to TPCs. Here, we used a "clickable" NAADP-based photoprobe to isolate human NAADP-binding proteins and identified Jupiter microtubule-associated homolog 2 (JPT2) as a TPC accessory protein required for endogenous NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signaling. JPT2 was also required for the translocation of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus through the endolysosomal system. Thus, JPT2 is a component of the NAADP receptor complex that is essential for TPC-dependent Ca2+ signaling and control of coronaviral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Affinity Labels , Animals , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Click Chemistry/methods , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , NADP/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Second Messenger Systems/physiology , Transcriptome , Virus Internalization
9.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(10): 607-614, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060961

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to enhance enrollment and the merger of national cooperative groups, < 5% of patients with cancer will enroll into a clinical trial. Additionally, clinical trials are affected by a lack of diversity inclusive of minority patients, rural residents, or low-income individuals. COVID-19 further exacerbated known barriers of reduced physician-patient interaction, physician availability, trial activation and enrollment, financial resources, and capacity for conducting research. Based on the cumulative insight of academic and community clinical researchers, we have created a white paper identifying existing challenges in clinical trial conduct and have provided specific recommendations of sustainable modifications to improve efficiency in the activation and conduct of clinical trials with an overarching goal of providing improved access and care to our patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Physicians , Humans , Minority Groups , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 71(1): 34-46, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804429

ABSTRACT

The delivery of cancer care has never changed as rapidly and dramatically as we have seen with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. During the early phase of the pandemic, recommendations for the management of oncology patients issued by various professional societies and government agencies did not recognize the significant regional differences in the impact of the pandemic. California initially experienced lower than expected numbers of cases, and the health care system did not experience the same degree of the burden that had been the case in other parts of the country. In light of promising trends in COVID-19 infections and mortality in California, by late April 2020, discussions were initiated for a phased recovery of full-scale cancer services. However, by July 2020, a surge of cases was reported across the nation, including in California. In this review, the authors share the response and recovery planning experience of the University of California (UC) Cancer Consortium in an effort to provide guidance to oncology practices. The UC Cancer Consortium was established in 2017 to bring together 5 UC Comprehensive Cancer Centers: UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC Irvine Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, and the UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center. The interventions implemented in each of these cancer centers are highlighted, with a focus on opportunities for a redesign in care delivery models. The authors propose that their experiences gained during this pandemic will enhance pre-pandemic cancer care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
11.
Curr Opin Physiol ; 17: 163-168, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712349

ABSTRACT

Two-pore channels (TPCs) are a ubiquitous class of Ca2+- and Na+-permeable ion channels expressed within the endo-lysosomal system. They have emerged as central regulators of a wide array of physiological processes intimately linked to information processing. In this short review, we highlight how molecular and chemical strategies have uncovered multiple roles for TPCs in regulating various aspects of endo-lysosomal trafficking associated with disease. We summarise advances in the identification of new small molecules to pharmacologically target TPCs for medical benefit. Lastly, we discuss possible underpinning molecular mechanism(s) that translate TPC-mediated ionic fluxes to function.

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