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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S756-S757, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189927


Background. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare facilities (HCFs) were overwhelmed with increasing patient volumes and limited resources. Reports of disruptions in routine practices at HCFs have emerged. We evaluated changes in policies, practices, and programs for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), infection prevention and control (IPC), and clinical microbiology across six HCF in South America following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We conducted a survey in 6 HCFs in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile;2 HCFs in each country. Data on 5 components (facility characteristics, antibiotic procurement and distribution, AMS activities, IPC activities, and clinical microbiology) were collected from designated specialists within each HCF from March 2018 - February 2021. We compared observations within these 5 components pre-pandemic (March 2018 - February 2020) to during pandemic (March 2020 - February 2021.) Results. During the pandemic, the number of ICU beds increased across all the 6 HCFs by 57-633%, and the number of ventilators increased by 15-317% in 5 out of the 6 HCFs. Healthcare personnel shortages were observed in all 6 HCFs, notably common for nurses and laboratory personnel (Table 1). Extended use of N95 respirators was reported across all 6 HCFs with 2 doing extended use of gowns and medical masks. The only PPE reused was N95 respirators in 2 HCFs. Difficulties in cohorting patients with multi-drug resistance organism (MDRO) was reported by one of the HCFs. Three HCFs reported shortages in drugs with coverage for MRSA, gramnegative bacteria, and fungal pathogens despite no reports of interruption in AMS activities in these HCFs. Two hospitals reported delays on microbiology results. Facility characteristics and reported changes during COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-February 2021) Conclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic led to substantial increases in ICU beds, number of ventilators, and extended use of PPE suggesting increases in admission of severe patients and suboptimal IPC practices in HCFs in South America. It is unclear if shortages in agents commonly used to treat MDRO was related to overuse or access difficulties. Additional evaluation is needed to determine the impact of these findings on antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S59-S60, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189524


Background. Reports showing high rates of antibiotic use (AU) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) despite low rates of secondary bacterial infection have emerged from various countries across the globe. We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AU in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Methods. We conducted an ecologic evaluation of AU in inpatient adult acute care wards (excluding maternity wards) in 6 HCFs in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile;2 HCFs per country. AU data for intravenously administered antibiotics commonly used to treat respiratory infections were collected from pharmacy dispensing records and aggregated to monthly defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 patient days. Graphs were created to depict AU and COVID-19 discharges over time throughout the 36-month study period (03/2018-02/2021). Relative changes in AU for all antibiotics combined and specific classes were calculated by comparing median AU for the 24-month prepandemic period (3/2018-2/2020) with the 12-month pandemic period (3/2020-2/ 2021). Only statistically significant differences (P< 0.05) determined by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test are reported. Results. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, the use of all included antibiotics combined increased in 4/6 HCFs (6.7-35.1%). In the 4 HCFs that experienced increases in AU, Figure 1 shows that use was high during months when COVID-19 patient surges occurred. In 3/4 of these HCFs, AU remained high despite significant decreases in COVID-19 discharges. Ceftriaxone use increased in 2/6 HCFs (27.1- 51.6%). Use of beta-lactam antibiotics with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased in 3/6 HCFs (31.3-82.5%) and decreased in 1/6 HCFs (-18.9%). Vancomycin and linezolid use increased in 3/6 HCFs (36.9-77.1%). Conclusion. Increases in AU among hospitalized adults were observed in 4 of 6 South American HCFs included in this study. The high rates of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in the HCFs may impact further emergence of antibiotic resistance. Understanding how this increase in antibiotic use compares to rates of bacterial infections during this time period is critical. (Figure Presented).