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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 2975-2982, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an awake venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) management strategy in preventing clinically relevant barotrauma in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at high risk for pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD), defined as the detection of the Macklin-like effect on chest computed tomography (CT) scan. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: At the intensive care unit of a tertiary-care institution. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients with COVID-19-associated severe ARDS and Macklin-like radiologic sign on baseline chest CT. INTERVENTIONS: Primary VV-ECMO under spontaneous breathing instead of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). All patients received noninvasive ventilation or oxygen through a high-flow nasal cannula before and during ECMO support. The study authors collected data on cannulation strategy, clinical management, and outcome. Failure of awake VV-ECMO strategy was defined as the need for IMV due to worsening respiratory failure or delirium/agitation. The primary outcome was the development of PNX/PMD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: No patient developed PNX/PMD. The awake VV-ECMO strategy failed in 1 patient (14.3%). Severe complications were observed in 4 (57.1%) patients and were noted as the following: intracranial bleeding in 1 patient (14.3%), septic shock in 2 patients (28.6%), and secondary pulmonary infections in 3 patients (42.8%). Two patients died (28.6%), whereas 5 were successfully weaned off VV-ECMO and were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: VV-ECMO in awake and spontaneously breathing patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS may be a feasible and safe strategy to prevent the development of PNX/PMD in patients at high risk for this complication.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Wakefulness
2.
Respir Med ; 197: 106853, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period; 698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%); only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100), a specificity of 99.85% (95% CI: 99.2-100), a PPV of 96.7% (95% CI: 80.8-99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2-100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients; it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt A): 2700-2706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival rates of patients with COVID-19 supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and compare the survival rates of patients with COVID-19 supported with ECMO to patients with influenza supported with ECMO. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of ECMO as supportive therapy of COVID-19. SETTING: The authors performed a search through the Cochrane, EMBASE, and MEDLINE/PubMed databases from inception to February 19, 2021, for studies reporting hospitalized patients with COVID-19 managed with ECMO. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 134 studies were selected, including 6 eligible for the comparative meta-analysis of COVID-19 versus influenza. INTERVENTIONS: The authors pooled the risk ratio and random effects model. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was the overall mortality of patients with COVID-19 receiving ECMO. Of the total number of 58,472 patients with COVID-19 reported, ECMO was used in 4,044 patients. The analysis suggested an overall in-hospital mortality of 39% (95% CI 0.34-0.43). In the comparative analysis, patients with COVID-19 on ECMO had a higher risk ratio (RR) for mortality when compared to influenza patients on ECMO: 72/164 (44%) v 71/186 (38%) RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.05-1.71; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO could be beneficial in patients with COVID-19, according to the authors' meta-analysis. The reported mortality rate was 39%. This systematic analysis can provide clinical advice in the current era and ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Pandemics
4.
Montalto, Francesca, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Noto, Alberto, Madotto, Fabiana, Gelardi, Filippa, Savatteri, Paolino, Giarratano, Antonino, Cortegiani, Andrea, Brescia, Fabrizio, Fabiani, Fabio, Zanier, Chiara, Nadalini, Elisa, Gambaretti, Eros, Gabriele, Francesco, Astuto, Marinella, Murabito, Paolo, Sanfilippo, Filippo, Misseri, Giovanni, Moscarelli, Alessandra, Spadaro, Savino, Bussolati, Enrico, Squadrani, Eleonora, Villa, Gianluca, D’Errico, Raffaella, Cocci, Giulia, Lanini, Iacopo, Mirabella, Lucia, Morelli, Alessandra, Tullo, Livio, Caggianelli, Girolamo, Ball, Lorenzo, Iiriti, Margherita, Giordani, Francesca, Giardina, Massimiliano, Mazzeo, Anna Teresa, Grasselli, Giacomo, Cattaneo, Emanuele, Alongi, Salvatore, Marenghi, Cristina, Marmiere, Marilena, Rocchi, Margherita, Turi, Stefano, Landoni, Giovanni, Torrano, Vito, Tinti, Giulia, Giorgi, Antonio, Fumagalli, Roberto, Salvo, Francesco, Blangetti, Ilaria, Cascella, Marco, Forte, Cira Antonietta, Navalesi, Paolo, Montalbano, Marta, Chiarelli, Valentina, Bonanno, Giuseppe, Ferrara, Francesco Paolo, Pernice, Innocenza, Catalisano, Giulia, Marino, Claudia, Presti, Gabriele, Fricano, Dario Calogero, Fucà, Rosa, Palmeri di Villalba, Cesira, Strano, Maria Teresa, Caruso, Sabrina, Scafidi, Antonino, Mazzarese, Vincenzo, Augugliaro, Ettore, Terranova, Valeria, Forfori, Francesco, Corradi, Francesco, Taddei, Erika, Isirdi, Alessandro, Pratesi, Giorgia, Puccini, Francesca, Paternoster, Gianluca, Barile, Alessio, Tescione, Marco, Santacaterina, Irene, Siclari, Eliana Maria, Tripodi, Vincenzo Francesco, Vadalà, Mariacristina, Agrò, Felice Eugenio, Pascarella, Giuseppe, Piliego, Chiara, Aceto, Paola, De Pascale, Gennaro, Dottarelli, Alessandra, Romanò, Bruno, Russo, Andrea, Covotta, Marco, Giorgerini, Valeria, Sardellitti, Federica, Vitelli, Giulia Maria, Coluzzi, Flaminia, Bove, Tiziana, Vetrugno, Luigi.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1542137
5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3528-3546, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392920

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has radically changed the landscape of normal surgical practice. Lifesaving cancer surgery, however, remains a clinical priority, and there is an increasing need to fully define the optimal oncologic management of patients with varying stages of lung cancer, allowing prioritization of which thoracic procedures should be performed in the current era. Healthcare providers and managers should not ignore the risk of a bimodal peak of mortality in patients with lung cancer; an imminent spike due to mortality from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, and a secondary peak reflecting an excess of cancer-related mortality among patients whose treatments were deemed less urgent, delayed, or cancelled. The European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Thoracic Anesthesia Subspecialty group has considered these challenges and developed an updated set of expert recommendations concerning the infectious period, timing of surgery, vaccination, preoperative screening and evaluation, airway management, and ventilation of thoracic surgical patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(11): 3319-3324, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe the features of right ventricular impairment and pulmonary hypertension in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess their effect on mortality. DESIGN: The authors carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. SETTING: The authors performed a search through PubMed, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the Cochrane Library for studies reporting right ventricular dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 and outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: The search yielded nine studies in which the appropriate data were available. INTERVENTIONS: Pooled odds ratios were calculated according to the random-effects model. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Overall, 1,450 patients were analyzed, and half of them were invasively ventilated. Primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up available. Mortality was 48.5% versus 24.7% in patients with or without right ventricular impairment (n = 7; OR = 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-5.58; p = 0.0002), 56.3% versus 30.6% in patients with or without right ventricular dilatation (n = 6; OR = 2.43; 95% CI 1.41-4.18; p = 0.001), and 52.9% versus 14.8% in patients with or without pulmonary hypertension (n = 3; OR = 5.75; 95% CI 2.67-12.38; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Mortality in patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support and with a diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction, dilatation, or pulmonary hypertension is high. Future studies should highlight the mechanisms of right ventricular derangement in COVID-19, and early detection of right ventricular impairment using ultrasound might be important to individualize therapies and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1676-1686, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128113

ABSTRACT

Non-intubated patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 could benefit from awake proning. Awake proning is an attractive intervention in settings with limited resources, as it comes with no additional costs. However, awake proning remains poorly used probably because of unfamiliarity and uncertainties regarding potential benefits and practical application. To summarize evidence for benefit and to develop a set of pragmatic recommendations for awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, focusing on settings where resources are limited, international healthcare professionals from high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with known expertise in awake proning were invited to contribute expert advice. A growing number of observational studies describe the effects of awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom hypoxemia is refractory to simple measures of supplementary oxygen. Awake proning improves oxygenation in most patients, usually within minutes, and reduces dyspnea and work of breathing. The effects are maintained for up to 1 hour after turning back to supine, and mostly disappear after 6-12 hours. In available studies, awake proning was not associated with a reduction in the rate of intubation for invasive ventilation. Awake proning comes with little complications if properly implemented and monitored. Pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications were formulated and adjusted for resource-limited settings. Awake proning, an adjunctive treatment for hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen, seems safe in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. We provide pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications for the use of awake proning in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Health Personnel , Humans , Wakefulness
8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(7): 1953-1963, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093370

ABSTRACT

The European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) aimed to create joint recommendations for the perioperative management of patients with suspected or proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection undergoing cardiac surgery or invasive cardiac procedures. To produce appropriate recommendations, the authors combined the evidence from the literature review, reevaluating the clinical experience of routine cardiac surgery in similar cases during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outbreak and the current pandemic with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and the expert opinions through broad discussions within the EACTA and SCA. The authors took into consideration the balance between established procedures and the feasibility during the present outbreak. The authors present an agreement between the European and US practices in managing patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The recommendations take into consideration a broad spectrum of issues, with a focus on preoperative testing, safety concerns, overall approaches to general and specific aspects of preparation for anesthesia, airway management, transesophageal echocardiography, perioperative ventilation, coagulation, hemodynamic control, and postoperative care. As the COVID-19 pandemic is spreading, it will continue to present a challenge for the worldwide anesthesiology community. To allow these recommendations to be updated as long as possible, the authors provided weblinks to international public and academic sources providing timely updated data. This document should be the basis of future task forces to develop a more comprehensive consensus considering new evidence uncovered during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Cardiac Procedures , Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Anesthesiologists , China , Consensus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-46313

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus has caused a pandemic around the world. Management of patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus infection who have to undergo thoracic surgery will be a challenge for the anesthesiologists. infection who have to undergo thoracic surgery will be a challenge for the anesthesiologists. The thoracic subspecialty committee of European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) has conducted a survey of opinion in order to create recommendations for the anesthetic approach to these challenging patients. It should be emphasized that both the management of the infected patient with COVID-19 and the self-protection of the anesthesia team constitute a complicated challenge. The text focuses therefore on both important topics.

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