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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(5): 583-587, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231924

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Universal coverage of COVID-19 vaccines is of paramount importance for the prevention and control of the pandemic. World Health Organization (WHO) in 2019 declared vaccine hesitancy as one of the top ten global health threats. The study aims to find out the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among school children along with their parent's perspectives. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children (aged 12-14 years) at two schools in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Data were collected via web-based links using a semi-structured questionnaire among students and their parents. RESULTS: Of 343 children, 79% (271) showed a strong willingness to get vaccinated. Around 91.8% (315) of parents agreed to get their children vaccinated. Fear of side effects (65.2%) was the most common reason for unwillingness. CONCLUSIONS: With only 1/5th of the children not willing to get vaccinated, policymakers should create a multi-centric effort for the universal coverage of the COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , India/epidemiology , Vaccination
2.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605861, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243455

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study assesses the opinions of health professionals in Malaysia on the disruption of non-communicable disease (NCD) services during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020 to January 2022. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with 191 non-clinical public health workers and clinical health service workers in Malaysia from November 2021 to January 2022. Participants were recruited by the Malaysian Ministry of Health using major networks including key experts and practitioners. Secondary respondents were subsequently enrolled through snowballing. Results: The most notable issues raised by the survey participants relate to NCD service disruption, the redirection of NCD care resources, and NCD care being overburdened post-pandemic. Respondents also reported accounts of resilience and prompt reaction from the healthcare system, as well as calls for innovation. Conclusion: Most respondents perceived that the challenges arising from COVID-19 were mostly managed well by the healthcare system, which was able to provide the necessary services to NCD patients during this health emergency. However, the study identifies gaps in the health system response and preparedness capacity, and highlights solutions for strengthening NCD services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce
3.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 24: e41, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231075

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study explored the family caregivers' perspectives and elicited their experience while managing dementia care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Odisha, India. BACKGROUND: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has diverted the attention of health systems away from chronic disease management and health services delivery. Psychiatric care particularly for dementia and the elderly is found to be more compromised in such situation. METHODS: We adopted an inductive phenomenological approach to garner key insights into the care continuity for people living with dementia in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Telephonic in-depth interviews (IDIs) were carried out with 17 immediate caregivers. All IDIs were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic approach. FINDINGS: Caregivers did not perceive dementia as an overwhelming challenge; instead viewed it as a part of the ageing process. Caring for dementia was being done by family members as a collective responsibility with task-sharing. The caregivers primarily relied on their usual physician for the continuity of dementia care and took utmost precautions to prevent exposure to COVID-19 risk. However, they found it more challenging to ensure adequate care for the multiple illnesses (multimorbidity) coexisting with dementia. Towards this, they adopted all possible measures to keep the chronic conditions under control, lest the vulnerability to COVID-19 infection might heighten. The fear of visiting a hospital, prevailing restrictions in mobility, and diverted attention of health systems to pandemic containment created impediments towards maintaining multimorbidity care. The support of local administration, neighbourhood pharmacy and diagnostic laboratories and teleconsultation with the physicians were vital for care continuity. Caregivers adapted by reducing or deferring physical consultation and seeking treatment via telephonic advice of the treating physicians. Our findings suggest leveraging digitally enabled health care technology and augmenting caregiver activation for home-based dementia care to cruise through any similar catastrophic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Caregivers , Pandemics , India , Dementia/therapy
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 162: 107116, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230879

ABSTRACT

The re-emergence of monkeypox (MPX), in the era of COVID-19 pandemic is a new global menace. Regardless of its leniency, there are chances of MPX expediting severe health deterioration. The role of envelope protein, F13 as a critical component for production of extracellular viral particles makes it a crucial drug target. Polyphenols, exhibiting antiviral properties have been acclaimed as an effective alternative to the traditional treatment methods for management of viral diseases. To facilitate the development of potent MPX specific therapeutics, herein, we have employed state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to predict a highly accurate 3-dimensional structure of F13 as well as identify binding hotspots on the protein surface. Additionally, we have effectuated high-throughput virtual screening methodology on 57 potent natural polyphenols having antiviral activities followed by all-atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to substantiate the mode of interaction of F13 protein and polyphenol complexes. The structure-based virtual screening based on Glide SP, XP and MM/GBSA scores enables the selection of six potent polyphenols having higher binding affinity towards F13. Non-bonded contact analysis, of pre- and post- MD complexes propound the critical role of Glu143, Asp134, Asn345, Ser321 and Tyr320 residues in polyphenol recognition, which is well supported by per-residue decomposition analysis. Close-observation of the structural ensembles from MD suggests that the binding groove of F13 is mostly hydrophobic in nature. Taken together, this structure-based analysis from our study provides a lead on Myricetin, and Demethoxycurcumin, which may act as potent inhibitors of F13. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into the molecular recognition and dynamics of F13-polyphenol bound states, offering new promises for development of antivirals to combat monkeypox. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are necessary to validate these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polyphenols , Pandemics , Molecular Docking Simulation
5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1070276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322705

ABSTRACT

Background: Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease found predominantly in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs), causing significant public health concern in India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of human brucellosis in Odisha, India among community members involved in animal husbandry as a common practice. Method: This cross-sectional study included 817 adult participants from 11 districts in Odisha. Four districts from the Northern division, four districts from the Central division, and three districts from the Southern division were selected for the study. Blood samples were collected during a COVID-19 serosurvey in Odisha conducted from 1st to 17th September 2021. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies were measured against Brucella using a commercial ELISA kit. Point estimates at 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted odds ratio were calculated. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-Brucella IgG antibodies was calculated at 16.65% (95% CI: 14.19-19.42). The highest seropositivity was found in Sambalpur district (29.73%; 95% CI: 16.43-47.16) and the lowest was determined in Mayurbhanj district (4.44%; 95% CI: 0.99-15.60). Compared to males, females were more prone to contracting the disease (AOR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.67). Participants from rural settings had higher prevalence of anti-Brucella IgG antibodies than urban dwellers (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 1.73-11.86). Conclusion: This study revealed that human brucellosis was associated with sociodemographic factors like gender, living settings, and household numbers. To prevent brucellosis, screening should be initiated, infected humans should be treated early, and the public should be educated about risk factors and preventive measures.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 50, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Africa sees the surge of plague cases in recent decades, with hotspots in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and Peru. A rodent-borne scourge, the bacterial infection known as plague is transmitted to humans via the sneaky bites of fleas, caused by Yersinia pestis. Bubonic plague has a case fatality rate of 20.8% with treatment, but in places such as Madagascar the mortality rate can increase to 40-70% without treatment. MAIN TEXT: Tragedy strikes in the Ambohidratrimo district as three lives are claimed by the plague outbreak and three more fight for survival in the hospitals, including one man in critical condition, from the Ambohimiadana, Antsaharasty, and Ampanotokana communes, bringing the total plague victims in the area to a grim to five. Presently, the biggest concern is the potential plague spread among humans during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Effective disease control can be achieved through training and empowering local leaders and healthcare providers in rural areas, implementing strategies to reduce human-rodent interactions, promoting water, sanitation and hygiene practices (WASH) practices, and carrying out robust vector, reservoir and pest control, diversified animal surveillance along with human surveillance should be done to more extensively to fill the lacunae of knowledge regarding the animal to human transmission. The lack of diagnostic laboratories equipped represents a major hurdle in the early detection of plague in rural areas. To effectively combat plague, these tests must be made more widely available. Additionally, raising awareness among the general population through various means such as campaigns, posters and social media about the signs, symptoms, prevention, and infection control during funerals would greatly decrease the number of cases. Furthermore, healthcare professionals should be trained on the latest methods of identifying cases, controlling infections and protecting themselves from the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being endemic to Madagascar, the outbreak's pace is unparalleled, and it may spread to non-endemic areas. The utilization of a One Health strategy that encompasses various disciplines is crucial for minimizing catastrophe risk, antibiotic resistance, and outbreak readiness. Collaboration across sectors and proper planning ensures efficient and consistent communication, risk management, and credibility during disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , Plague , Male , Animals , Humans , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/prevention & control , Plague/microbiology , Madagascar/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(5&6): 511, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310737
8.
J Cell Biochem ; 124(6): 861-876, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294095

ABSTRACT

The spread of different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants underscores the need for insights into the structural properties of its structural and non-structural proteins. The highly conserved homo-dimeric chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL MPRO ), belonging to the class of cysteine hydrolases, plays an indispensable role in processing viral polyproteins that are involved in viral replication and transcription. Studies have successfully demonstrated the role of MPRO as an attractive drug target for designing antiviral treatments because of its importance in the viral life cycle. Herein, we report the structural dynamics of six experimentally solved structures of MPRO (i.e., 6LU7, 6M03, 6WQF, 6Y2E, 6Y84, and 7BUY including both ligand-free and ligand-bound states) at different resolutions. We have employed a structure-based balanced forcefield, CHARMM36m through state-of-the-art all-atoms molecular dynamics simulations at µ-seconds scale at room temperature (303K) and pH 7.0 to explore their structure-function relationship. The helical domain-III responsible for dimerization mostly contributes to the altered conformational states and destabilization of MPRO . A keen observation of the high degree of flexibility in the P5 binding pocket adjoining domain II-III highlights the reason for observation of conformational heterogeneity among the structural ensembles of MPRO . We also observe a differential dynamics of the catalytic pocket residues His41, Cys145, and Asp187, which may lead to catalytic impairment of the monomeric proteases. Among the highly populated conformational states of the six systems, 6LU7 and 7M03 forms the most stable and compact MPRO conformation with intact catalytic site and structural integrity. Altogether, our findings from this extensive study provides a benchmark to identify physiologically relevant structures of such promising drug targets for structure-based drug design and discovery of potent drug-like compounds having clinical potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Protein Conformation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 44: 153, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304404

ABSTRACT

Introduction: over one third of total Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years lost in Kenya are due to non-communicable diseases (NCD). In response, the Government declared significant commitment towards improving NCD care. The COVID-19 pandemic increased the burden on the already overstretched health systems in Kenya. The aims of this study are to assess whether health care providers perceived NCD care to be optimal during the pandemic and explore how to improve responses to future emergencies. Methods: this cross-sectional online survey included healthcare personnel with non-clinical roles (public health workers and policy-makers) and those delivering health care (doctors and nurses). Respondents were recruited between May and September 2021 by random sampling, completed by snowball sampling. Results: among 236 participants (42% in clinical, 58% in non-clinical roles) there was an overall consensus between respondents on NCD care being disrupted and compromised during the pandemic in Kenya. Detracted supplies, funding, and technical resources affected the continuity of NCDs' response, despite government efforts. Respondents agreed that the enhanced personnel capacity and competencies to manage COVID-19 patients were positive, but noted a lack of guidance for redirecting care for chronic diseases, and advocated for digital innovation as a solution. Conclusion: this paper explores the perceptions of key stakeholders involved in the management of NCDs in Kenya to improve planning for future emergency responses. Gaps were identified in health system response and preparedness capacity during the pandemic including the perceived need to strengthen NCD services, with solutions offered to guide resilience efforts to protect the health system from disruption.

10.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 3(4): e0000946, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302217

ABSTRACT

India experienced the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 3 to June 10, 2021. During the second wave, Delta variant B.1617.2 emerged as the predominant strain, spiking cases from 12.5 million to 29.3 million (cumulative) by the end of the surge in India. Vaccines against COVID-19 are a potent tool to control and end the pandemic in addition to other control measures. India rolled out its vaccination programme on January 16, 2021, initially with two vaccines that were given emergency authorization-Covaxin (BBV152) and Covishield (ChAdOx1 nCoV- 19). Vaccination was initially started for the elderly (60+) and front-line workers and then gradually opened to different age groups. The second wave hit when vaccination was picking up pace in India. There were instances of vaccinated people (fully and partially) getting infected, and reinfections were also reported. We undertook a survey of staff (front line health care workers and supporting) of 15 medical colleges and research institutes across India to assess the vaccination coverage, incidence of breakthrough infections, and reinfections among them from June 2 to July 10, 2021. A total of 1876 staff participated, and 1484 forms were selected for analysis after removing duplicates and erroneous entries (n = 392). We found that among the respondents at the time of response, 17.6% were unvaccinated, 19.8% were partially vaccinated (received the first dose), and 62.5% were fully vaccinated (received both doses). Incidence of breakthrough infections was 8.7% among the 801 individuals (70/801) tested at least 14 days after the 2nd dose of vaccine. Eight participants reported reinfection in the overall infected group and reinfection incidence rate was 5.1%. Out of (N = 349) infected individuals 243 (69.6%) were unvaccinated and 106 (30.3%) were vaccinated. Our findings reveal the protective effect of vaccination and its role as an essential tool in the struggle against this pandemic.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1039696, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252125

ABSTRACT

The Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis (2016-2021) endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2016, called for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Odisha, an eastern state of India, has the third-highest percentage of tribal population in the country and limited information is available regarding the prevalence of HBsAg among them. The present study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen as well as HBV DNA almost after 12 years of the first prevalence study of HBsAg among the tribal community of Odisha. The present study attempted to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg among the 35 Scheduled tribal (ST) communities and 5 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) using the 2,737 number of sera collected as part of a statewide COVID-19 serosurvey, among the tribal populations of Odisha (residing in 7 districts) aged 6-75 years. HBsAg positivity ranged between 1.79 and 2.94% across various age groups. 42.9% of HBsAg positive individuals showed the presence of HBV DNA and the high viral load was 0.10 × 102-6.84 × 108 IU/mL, indicating a high potential to transmit the virus. The HBsAg positivity was 14.18 and 6.06% among the PVTGs, Kutia Khond and Paudi Bhuyan, who were first time surveyed for HBsAg prevalence. The present study documents the prevalence of HBsAg among the major tribal population residing in the eastern state of the country and highlights the need for a statewide survey of Hepatitis B infection and risk factors, coverage and impact of the Hepatitis B vaccination program introduced in 2010-2011 in Odisha among the ST and PVTG population of the state.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 87, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with rapid and cost-effective test methods is the key for isolating infected individuals, interrupting the transmission chain, and thus, containment of the CoVID-19 disease. In this regard, Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) plays an important role at point of care testing but the low sensitivity attributing towards escape of positive cases is reported as a major disadvantage of RAT which led us to evaluate a RAT kit among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals suspected of CoVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed 329 parallel nasopharyngeal swabs for RAT (Zydus Cadila, India) at the point of collection in a hospital-based facility and RealTime RT-PCR in the laboratory. The performance parameters were analyzed by evaluating the specificity, sensitivity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity were found to be 75.17% and 98.89% respectively. Positive Predictive value was 98.25% and the negative predictive value was 82.79%. The accuracy between the two techniques was found to be 88.14% with a kappa coefficient of 0.756 (SE: 0.036 and CI at 95%: 0.686 to 0.826) with a good strength of agreement (0.61-0.80) between the two testing techniques. Among the false-negative cases, 22 (59.5%) were asymptomatic having the Cycle Threshold (Ct) range 27 to 32.9 including 12 cases with a history of close contact with the known positive cases (i.e. household contact). The remaining 15 cases (40.5%) were symptomatic having low to moderate Ct values. CONCLUSION: It is observed from the results that the false negative result for symptomatic individuals is a matter of concern as it was noted in 4 cases of our study subjects who required hospitalisation later. Also the positives among asymptomatic contacts are important from epidemiological point of view for isolation and curtailing the infection from spreading in a community. These results support the fact that RAT showing sensitivity below 80% can be used for mass screening purposes with provision for additional testing in case of false negative with symptomatic individuals. Also false-negative results should be interpreted cautiously considering the epidemiological link as well as the clinical condition of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1041586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228132

ABSTRACT

Two vaccines, namely BBV-152 (COVAXIN®) and AZD1222 (COVISHIELD™), were deployed against SARS-CoV-2 in India from January 16, 2021. Frontline health care workers were vaccinated first, followed by the adult population. However, limited data on vaccine effectiveness are available for the population of India. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two doses of each of these two common vaccines against COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with pulmonary conditions. We adopted a test-negative case-control design and recruited a sample of adults who were admitted to one of six tertiary care hospitals in Odisha. All participants were hospitalized patients with COVID-19-like pulmonary signs and symptoms. Participants who tested positive for SARS CoV-2 via RT-PCR were treated as cases, and those who tested negative were treated as controls. Logistic regression, adjusted for participants' age, sex, and number of comorbidities, was used to calculate the effectiveness of the two vaccines, using the formula: 100*(1 - adjusted odds ratio). Between March and July of 2021, data were collected from 1,614 eligible adults (864 cases and 750 controls). Among all participants, 9.7% had received two doses of one of the two COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine effectiveness was 74.0% (50.5%-86.0%) for two doses of BBV-152 and 79.0% (65.4%-87.2%) for two doses of AZD1222. Thus, two doses of either BBV-152 or AZD1222 nCoV-19 vaccine were found to be substantially effective in protecting against COVID-19-related infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Vaccines , Humans , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Tertiary Care Centers , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Six diverse Demographic Development and Environmental Surveillance System (DDESS) sites were established in urban slum, urban resettlement, peri-urban, rural, and tribal areas located in Northern, North-East, Eastern, and Southern regions of India from June 2020 to March 2022. Understanding the community dynamics and engaging people in the community is critically important in the process of establishing DDESS. We ascertained the barriers, challenges, and facilitators during the establishment of multiple DDESS sites across India. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive mixed-methods study. RESULTS: Multiple barriers and challenges encountered were reported in the process of community engagement (CE), such as geographical inaccessibility, language barriers, adverse weather, non-responsiveness due to perceived lack of individual benefit or financial gain, fear of contracting COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, etc. Facilitators in the CE process were pre-existing links with the community, constitution of community advisory boards, community need assessment, concomitant delivery of outreach health services, and skill-building facilities. CONCLUSION: Most community barriers in the development of DDESS sites in resource-limited settings can be overcome through a multipronged approach, including effective community engagement by focusing on demonstrating trust at the local level, enlisting community mobilization and support, utilizing pre-existing community linkages, initiating community diagnosis, and meeting perceived community health needs.

15.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2207401

ABSTRACT

Two vaccines, namely BBV-152 (COVAXIN®) and AZD1222 (COVISHIELD™), were deployed against SARS-CoV-2 in India from January 16, 2021. Frontline health care workers were vaccinated first, followed by the adult population. However, limited data on vaccine effectiveness are available for the population of India. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two doses of each of these two common vaccines against COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with pulmonary conditions. We adopted a test-negative case–control design and recruited a sample of adults who were admitted to one of six tertiary care hospitals in Odisha. All participants were hospitalized patients with COVID-19-like pulmonary signs and symptoms. Participants who tested positive for SARS CoV-2 via RT-PCR were treated as cases, and those who tested negative were treated as controls. Logistic regression, adjusted for participants' age, sex, and number of comorbidities, was used to calculate the effectiveness of the two vaccines, using the formula: 100*(1 – adjusted odds ratio). Between March and July of 2021, data were collected from 1,614 eligible adults (864 cases and 750 controls). Among all participants, 9.7% had received two doses of one of the two COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine effectiveness was 74.0% (50.5%−86.0%) for two doses of BBV-152 and 79.0% (65.4%−87.2%) for two doses of AZD1222. Thus, two doses of either BBV-152 or AZD1222 nCoV-19 vaccine were found to be substantially effective in protecting against COVID-19-related infection.

17.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2133723, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community engagement and involvement (CEI) was crucial for the COVID-19 pandemic response, particularly among the urban poor in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, no evidence synthesis explores how CEI can benefit public health emergencies. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic scoping review of the CEI with an emphasis on stakeholder identification, accountability mapping, the support system, and the engagement process among urban poor populations in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched eleven databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL, following the PRISMA-2020 guidelines to find articles published between November 2019 and August 2021. PROSPERO registration No: CRD42021283599. We performed the quality assessment using a mixed-method appraisal tool. We synthesized the findings using thematic framework analysis. RESULTS: We identified 6490 records. After the title and abstract screening, 133 studies were selected for full-text review, and finally, we included 30 articles. Many stakeholders were involved in COVID-19 support, particularly for health care, livelihoods, and WASH infrastructure, and their accountability mapping by adopting an interest - influence matrix. This review emphasizes the significance of meaningful CEI in designing and implementing public health efforts for pandemic management among urban slum populations. The interest - influence matrix findings revealed that specific community volunteers, community-based organizations, and civil society organizations had high interest but less influence, indicating that it is necessary to recognize and engage them. CONCLUSION: Motivation is crucial for those with high influence but less interest, such as corporate responsibility/conscience and private food supply agencies, for the health system's preparedness plan among urban populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Community Participation
18.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187091

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease, often transmitted to humans from animals. While the whole world is haggling with the COVID-19 pandemic, the emergence of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) arose as a new challenge to mankind. Till date, numerous cases related to the MPXV have been reported in several countries across the globe, but, its momentary distribution in the current time has left everyone in fright with increasing mortality and limited clinically approved treatments. Therefore, it is of immense importance to develop a potent and highly effective vaccine capable of inducing desired immunogenic responses against the highly contagious MPXV. Herein, using various immunoinformatic and computational biology tools, we made an attempt to develop a multi-epitope vaccine construct against the MPXV which is antigenic, non-allergen and non-toxic in nature and capable of exhibiting immunogenic behavior. The sequence of vaccine construct was designed using the proposed 4 MHC-I, 3 MHC-II and 4 B-cell epitopes linked with suitable adjuvant and linkers. The modeled structure of the vaccine construct was used to assess its interaction with the Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) using ClusPro and HADDOCK. All-atoms molecular dynamics simulation of the MPXV vaccine construct-TLR4 complex followed by a high level of gene expression of the construct within the bacterial system affirmed its stability along with induction of immunogenic response within the host cell. Altogether, our immunoinformatic approach aid in the development of a stable chimeric vaccine construct against MPXV and needs further experimental validation for its immunological relevance and usefulness as a vaccine candidate.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(9): 5417-5422, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144219

ABSTRACT

Context: While there are studies on peoples' behaviour toward health professionals (doctors and nurses) during the Coronavirus diesease (COVID-19) pandemic in hospital settings, there is limited literature on Community Health Workers (CHWs). Our study attempted to explore the behaviour of community people towards CHWs during the pandemic and its underlying reasons. Material and Method: A qualitative study using In-depth interviews (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among CHWs and community people from six districts of Odisha from February to April 2021. The researchers transcribed the audio recordings in the vernacular language of the Odisha province, i.e., Odia, and later translated them into English. A qualitative content analysis method was used to prepare the detailed report using Max Weber Qualitative Data Analysis (MAXQDA) software. Result: The study found two major categories-Reflection on community behaviour towards CHWs during the COVID-19 pandemic and reflection on availing health care services by community people during a pandemic. Many CHWs revealed that the community people acknowledged their work and dedication and extended all sorts of co-operation and support. However, few community people were non-cooperative and non-supportive. Community reluctance owing to perceptions that the CHWs might be infected, was the significant cause that they faced a lack of support from the community. Further, to create awareness of COVID-19 infection among community people, CHWs adopted different strategies such as door-to-door visits, wall painting, poster display, and awareness through mikes. Conclusion: The efforts made by the CHWs during health emergencies need to be recognized and appraised.

20.
Indian J Med Res ; 156(2): 284-290, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110461

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Serial national level serosurveys in India have provided valuable information regarding the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in the general population, but the impact of the ongoing pandemic on the tribal population in India is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies in the tribal population of Odisha post-second wave (September 2021). Methods: A population-based, age-stratified, cross-sectional study design was adopted for the survey, carried out in seven tribal districts of Odisha from 30th August to 16th September 2021. A multistage random sampling method was used where serum samples were tested for antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein in each district, and a weighted seroprevalence with 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) was estimated for each district. Results: A total of 2855 study participants were included from the seven tribal districts of Odisha in the final analysis. The overall weighted seroprevalence was 72.8 per cent (95% CI: 70.1-75.3). Serological prevalence was the highest among 18-44 yr (74.4%, 95% CI: 71.3-77.3) and from Sambalpur district [75.90% (66.90-83.10)]. Among participants, 41.93 per cent had received at least one dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. Kandhamal district had the highest number of fully immunized participants (24.78%), and in Sundergarh district, most of the study participants (58.1%) were unimmunized. Interpretation & conclusions: This study found high seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in the tribal population of Odisha. The vaccination coverage is at par with the general population, and efforts to address some knowledge gaps may be needed to improve the coverage in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Antibodies, Viral
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