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1.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:2051-2059, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124236

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Streptococcus pyogenes is a medically significant member of the Streptococci. This bacterial illness affects the people frequently. It also results in toxin-related reactions, life-threatening soft tissue infections, and a range of suppurative diseases on the skin and in the respiratory system. The disease primarily affects children between 5 to 15 years old. Aim: To find the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes in upper respiratory tract infections in a tertiary health care centre. Materials and methods: A prospective study, it was carried out between August 2021 and March 2022. The research was carried out in a tertiary medical facility close to Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India. The Institutional Scientific and Ethical Committees have given their prior consent. Throat swabs were collected from all age groups having upper respiratory tract infections as per standard protocols. Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated through throat swabs using conventional culture methods phenotypically and by resistance pattern were examined by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences(SPSS) software version 24.0. Results: Out of 50 throat swabs from patients processed bacteriologically, 8 (40%) were Streptococcus pyogenes which shows the prevalence was relatively low in a period of the global covid 19 pandemic. A majority of cases occurred between 5 to 15 years of age, followed by 17(34%), 13(26%) between 16 to 30 and 31 to 45 years of age, and 5 (10%) between 46 to 60. Streptococcal infection was observed to harm men more frequently (58%) than women. Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin are 100% resistant, Cotrimoxazole is 37.5% resistant, Ofloxacin is 12.5% resistant and Bacitracin, Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Linezolid, Vancomycin are found to be sensitive towards Streptococcus pyogenes. Conclusion: It was concluded that the prevalence of Streptococcus pyogenes is relatively low among the study population in a period of the global covid 19 pandemic. Antibiotics Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin were found to be resistant and Bacitracin, Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Linezolid, Vancomycin were found to be sensitive for Streptococcus pyogenes.

2.
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 18(1):9-11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070676
3.
REVIEW OF AGRARIAN STUDIES ; 11(2):143-152, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912590
4.
JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ; 99(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1907308

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the main protease 3CL(pro) and non-structural protein (NSP-12 with co-factors 7 and 8) trimer complex are used to study the protein-drug interactions with the phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum, Tinospora Cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza Glabra, and Azadirachta Indica. Which can give insight to be used as potent antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Twenty phytochemicals, five from each plant species, known for their wide range of biological activities were chosen from the literature. The in-silico study was carried out using virtual screening tools and the top five, which showed the least binding energies, were selected. Molecular docking tools revealed that gedunin and epoxy azadiradione proved to be excellent inhibitors for 3CL(pro) and so did Tinosporide for nonstructural-protein complex. Further, the best-hit phytochemicals with respect to structure similarities with FDA drugs and investigatory drugs, were considered for comparative study. Molecular docking was done to check the drug-protein interactions and to check the inhibitory responses of these drugs against the viral protein. The analyses showed that the phytochemicals had similar responses on the protein complex but with exceptionally higher inhibitory responses hence which may be taken for further clinical study.

5.
19th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, ISBI 2022 ; 2022-March, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846119

ABSTRACT

We present deep cascade reconstruction of degraded low-resolution ultra-low-dose computed tomography (LR-ULDCT) chest images to restored and super-resolved (SR) ULDCT as accessible, affordable, and relatively less hazardous recourse for lungs health monitoring in COVID-19;when compared to relatively less available, costly, and high radiation dose high-resolution CT (HRCT). The degraded LR-ULDCT is first restored with unsupervised dictionary-based deep residual learning network that handles degradations along with Poisson noise found in CT data. The restored version is given to SR network that increases its spatial resolution by minimizing adversarial loss between LR-ULDCT and reconstructed SR-ULDCT within minimax game. It is then fed for segmentation which is achieved by additional block of convolution, Leaky-ReLU, and batch-normalization in U-Net. Thus restored segmented SR-ULDCT estimates presence of ground glass opacity and facilitates monitoring of lungs health at par HRCT. Comparative experiments and ablation study are presented using synthetic and real COVID-19 data. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(May):85-86, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716784

ABSTRACT

A 45-year-old man presented to the Medicine Outdoor with chief complaints of tingling sensation of lower limbs followed by weakness of both lower and upper limbs of 5 days duration. His complaints started with tingling sensation on the dorsum of feet that progressed upwards and within 12 hours he developed weakness of both lower limbs that progressed to affect both upper limbs within 24 hours. About 15 days prior to this event, he had fever for 5 days with cough, sneezing, myalgia without anosmia and ageusia. He got relief of these symptoms with azithromycin and paracetamol without testing for Covid-19. On examination, he was afebrile, pulse rate of 80/min, Blood Pressure-130/80mm of Hg. In right arm supine posture, respiration rate-18/minute, oxygen saturation-97% at room air. In view of acute onset lower motor neuron type of quadriparesis without sensory deficit and sphincter involvement with a preceding history suggestive of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) 2 weeks before, a clinical diagnosis of Post-infectious Gullain-Barre syndrome (GBS) was made. The detection of serum IgG to SARSCoV-2 which is in accordance with the time interval of antibody appearance i.e., within 13 median days of clinical onset suggested the antecedent Covid-19 that was limited to upper respiratory tract. Hence, final diagnosis of GBS after Covid-19 infection has been made and he was treated with intravenous Immunoglobin at a dose of 0.4g/kg/day for 5 days with a total dose of 2g/kg. He improved symptomatically and could walk without support and was discharged after 7 days.

7.
Journal of Public Health ; 30(1):219-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680992

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, since its first outbreak in December, has, up till now, affected approximately 114,542 people across 115 countries. Many international agencies are devoting efforts to enhance the understanding of the evolving COVID-19 outbreak on an international level, its influences, and preparedness. At present, COVID-19 appears to affect individuals through person-to-person means, like other commonly found cold or influenza viruses. It is widely known and acknowledged that viruses causing influenza peak during cold temperatures and gradually subside in the warmer temperature, owing to their seasonality. Thus, COVID-19, due to its regular flu-like symptoms, is also expected to show similar seasonality and subside as the global temperatures rise in the northern hemisphere with the onset of spring. Despite these speculations, however, the systematic analysis in the global perspective of the relation between COVID-19 spread and meteorological parameters is unavailable. Here, by analyzing the region- and city-specific affected global data and corresponding meteorological parameters, we show that there is an optimum range of temperature and UV index strongly affecting the spread and survival of the virus, whereas precipitation, relative humidity, cloud cover, etc. have no effect on the virus. Unavailability of pharmaceutical interventions would require greater preparedness and alert for the effective control of COVID-19. Under these conditions, the information provided here could be very helpful for the global community struggling to fight this global crisis. It is, however, important to note that the information presented here clearly lacks any physiological evidences, which may merit further investigation. Thus, any attempt for management, implementation, and evaluation strategies responding to the crisis arising due to the COVID-19 outbreak must not consider the evaluation presented here as the foremost factor.

8.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 98(10):11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1510018

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered as a major public health problem caused by the SARS CoV-2. This Viral infection is known to induce worldwide pandemic in short period of time. Emerging evidence suggested that the transmission control and drug therapy may influence the preventive measures extensively as the host surrounding environment and pathogenic mechanism may contribute to the pandemic condition earlier in COVID-19 disease. Although, several animals identified as reservoir to date, however human-to-human transmission is well documented. Human beings are sustaining the virus in the communities and act as an amplifier of the virus. Human activities i.e., living with the patient, touching patient waste etc. in the surrounding of active patients or asymptomatic persons cause significant risk factors for transmission. On the other hand, drug target and mechanism to destroy the virus or virus inhibition depends on diversified approaches of drugs and different target for virus life cycle. This article describes the sustainable chemical preventive models understanding, requirements, technology adaptation and the implementation strategies in these pandemic-like situations. As the outbreak progresses, healthcare models focused on transmission control through disinfections and sanitization based on risk calculations. Identification of the most suitable target of drugs and regional control model of transmission are of high priority. In the early stages of an outbreak, availability of epidemiological information is important to encourage preventive measures efforts by public health authorities and provide robust evidence to guide interventions. Here, we have discussed the level of adaptations in technology that research professionals display toward their public health preventive models. We should compile a representative data set of adaptations that humans can consider for transmission control and adopt for viruses and their hosts. Overall, there are many aspects of the chemical science and technology in virus preventive measures. Herein, the most recent advances in this context are discussed, and the possible reasons behind the sustainable preventive model are presented. This kind of sustainable preventive model having adaptation and implementation with green chemistry system will reduce the shedding of the virus into the community by eco-friendly methods, and thus the risk of transmission and infection progression can be mitigated.

9.
2021 Asian Conference on Innovation in Technology, ASIANCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1494267

ABSTRACT

There have been a rampant spread of fake news during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unverified cures generated from fake news pose a threat to public health. The hoax messages can downplay the seriousness of the situation leading to a subsequent ignorance of basic guidelines like masks mandates and social distancing. Hence, it is necessary to curb the spread of such news and misinformation which can cause public harm. This paper proposes a counteractive measure to mitigate the aforementioned fake news by constructing a dataset compiled from verified fact-checking websites and news resources. In this paper, Machine Learning algorithms such as Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, etc. and Deep Learning models such as Recurrent Neural Networks have been applied to the dataset and trained models provide promising benchmark results. © 2021 IEEE.

10.
Operations Management Research ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1446237

ABSTRACT

Previous pandemics in 1918, 1957, 1968, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have provided sufficient evidence of health concerns caused by influenza pandemics. The existing health care system is overwhelmed by the surging demand of susceptible and infected individuals due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It is crucial to identify and isolate infected individuals to prevent pandemic spread. Thus, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed in this study for the location-allocation of health care facility networks (i.e., temporary testing laboratories). The objective of this study is to ensure that test samples from various geographical locations reach testing laboratories as soon as possible and at minimum cost to ensure timely testing. Hence, the proposed model has two objectives: (i) minimization of the total cost and (ii) minimization of the maximum travel time from a patient node to a testing facility. Furthermore, to prevent capacity underutilization, the capacity of temporary testing laboratories is tailored in the model. A case study in Maharashtra, India, is used to demonstrate the real-life applicability of the proposed model. The study results has interesting implications for decision- and policy-makers. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

11.
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 17(2):219-229, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1431408

ABSTRACT

Digitalization has changed the way children learn and grow in the contemporary society. Also, COVID-19 has ushered in a ʼnew normal’ as a means of prevention and safety, necessitating children and adolescents to stay at home for educational and recreational purposes. This ‘Position Statement’ addresses the issue of conceiving a balance with respect to exposure to digital media and the ʼnew normal’ in mind. Individualized evidence- based family plans remain the cornerstone of ensuring effective management.

12.
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 17(2):216-218, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1407724
13.
Journal of Mental Health Training Education and Practice ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1373720

ABSTRACT

Purpose In light of growing concerns related to the psychological vulnerability during the pandemic, this study aims to examine the impact of fear or trauma of COVID-19 on stress, anxiety and depression among management students. Additionally, the study also explores the possible strategies adopted by professional students to cope with the pandemic situation. Design/methodology/approach With an approach to establish a probable concrete relationship between fear with the level of stress, anxiety and depression, the data for the study was collected from 1,408 management students through a structured questionnaire designed in Google Form and administered through WhatsApp. The survey was carried out in the month of July and August 2020 during the lockdown period. Correlation and structural equation modeling have been used to examine the relationship among the test attributes. Findings The results from the study discovered that "fear of COVID-19" has a significant and considerable impact on the increased level of anxiety and stress among the professional students, but the observations did not demonstrate a significant influence of the "fear" on "depression." The responses reveal that students have developed anxiety and felt stressed mostly due to uncertainty in the upcoming academic plans, disturbances in their regular academic routines and concerns about their future careers. Further, the findings have portrayed that students have adopted both protective and avoidance coping strategies to overcome the adverse consequences of the pandemic. Research limitations/implications The study gives an insight on the psychological vulnerability of the management students and their capability to overcome such sudden disruptions due to pandemics. This research could thus, serve as a reference to the policymakers, universities and institutions while planning out programs and schemes, which would encourage the aspiring managers to overcome the crisis and prepare themselves to befit the vibrant corporate world. Originality/value Several studies exist on the impact of the pandemic on undergraduate students in different universities. However, there are a dearth of literature, which reflects the psychological vulnerability of professional graduates especially management students who are on the verge of starting their professional career.

14.
Current Medical Issues ; 19(3):157-161, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1325861

ABSTRACT

Context: Patients with diabetes are more prone to psychosocial problems which are known to adversely impact clinical outcomes of diabetes. COVID-19 is understood to further worsen the psychosocial problems of patients with diabetes. Aims: We carried out this cross-sectional telephonic survey of COVID-19-related worries in patients with diabetes mellitus to understand the prevalence and correlates of COVID-19-related worries. Settings and Design: This was a telephonic survey of patients seeking care from noncommunicable disease clinic of a tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods: We used a structured questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, clinical, psychological variables and COVID-19-related worries. Statistical Analysis Used: We used SPSS 20.0 for descriptive statistics keeping significance levels at 0.05. Between-group comparisons of continuous variables were made with independent t-test and two-way ANOVA;correlations were carried out with Pearson correlation test. Results: Two hundred and nine patients completed the telephonic survey conducted from September to November 2020. The prevalence of diabetes-related worries in our sample was 80%. Younger age (P < 0.001), unemployment (P = 0.029), and the presence of mental disorder (P < 0.001) were associated with higher diabetes-related worries. Poor glycemic control (0.008) and symptoms of COVID-19 (0.03) were associated with diabetes-related worries. Diabetes-related worries correlated with diabetes distress (ρ =0.441, P < 0.001), social isolation (ρ =0.401, P < 0.001), and perception of social support (ρ =-0.158, P < 0.001). Conclusions: A large proportion of our patients with diabetes are at high risk to experience COVID-19-related worries especially, younger people, unemployed and those with mental illness. Furthermore, the presence of diabetes distress and the perception of social isolation increase COVID-19 worries.

15.
Current Science ; 120(2):313-321, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1302835

ABSTRACT

To combat the present COVID-19 pandemic, a coun-trywide lockdown (LD) was imposed in India from 25 March until 31 May 2020. This unique scenario brought a decline in various anthropogenic activities leading to a considerable decrease in the concentra-tion of several atmospheric pollutants. In this scenar-io, CSIR-IMMT Bhubaneswar carried out black carbon (BC), PM10 and PM2.5 analysis through optical and gravimetric measurements, respectively, during March-May 2020 followed by a comparison with pre-vious years (2017-2018) of observation. There was a reduction of ~33% in average overall BC concentra-tion along with a significant drop in PM10 (33%) (P < 0.05) and PM2.5 (~38%) (P < 0.05) during the entire LD period as compared to 2017-2018. During LD, contribution from biomass burning was enhanced by almost 3 times as compared to 2017-2018. Howev-er, the simultaneous meteorological variation during the LD period prevents clear distinction of the impact of lockdown on BC and PM.

16.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(5):85, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287210
17.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 56(23), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1274044
19.
Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Sustain. Energy, Signal Process. Cyber Secur., iSSSC ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1142839

ABSTRACT

In the current era of technology, the number of users connecting to the internet has increased rapidly. If the situation is like Pandemic (COVID-19), the demand of the data services is much higher than the expectation. The major problem of this situation is load management. SDN plays an important role in this regard. Being a programmable network, it is widely admirable for its network intelligence. In this paper, we discuss SDN architecture, its components, various applications and major challenges. The unique architecture differentiates SDN from traditional network. It makes it possible to take routing decision without depending upon the underlying architecture. We also present a systematic review on the study of the different load balancing approaches, existing solutions and various load balancing techniques in SDN. With the network intelligence, SDN is able to take the load balancing decision. We categorize the load balancing techniques based on controller, server, communication path selection and cloud-based environment. Finally, we present different research challenges, existing solutions under each technique. © 2020 IEEE.

20.
Aerosol Science and Engineering ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1141543

ABSTRACT

The adverse health effects of long and short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants are well established in the epidemiological literature. Amongst all pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), poses a significant mortality risk because of its toxicity and extensive human exposure. During COVID-19 lockdowns, numerous studies have reported a reduction in ambient PM2.5 concentrations due to decreased anthropogenic activities. Therefore, potential health benefits are plausible during this period. In this pursuit, the current study aims to estimate the potential deaths that might have been avoided due to the reductions in PM2.5 levels during COVID-19 lockdowns in India's 12 states. For the same, concentration–response functions are developed, and the changes in PM2.5 levels were calculated. Overall, PM2.5 levels in the analysed states decreased by an average of 19.61 µg/m3 (SD = 10.34 µg/m3) during the months of April–June 2020 compared to the previous year. The concentration–response coefficient (β) obtained for the Indian states is 0.02272 (0.01063–0.03481, 95% Confidence Interval). Upon using these values in the calculation, our analysis estimates that nearly 73,853–92,116 mortalities might have been avoided in the 12 analysed Indian states for the period of April–June 2020 due to the COVID-19 lockdown. Given the high levels of PM2.5 in India with its well-known associated health risks and the results of this study, it is likely that the number of lives potentially saved during the COVID-19 lockdown due to reduced concentrations of PM2.5 might surpass the COVID-19 deaths in the country. © 2021, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy Sciences.

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