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1.
arxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2209.01871v1

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments had to rapidly implement lockdown policies that restricted human mobility to suppress the spread of the disease and reduce mortality. Because of the movement restrictions resulting from government responses to the pandemic, US retail sales declined by -22% in April 2020 compared to the previous year. This study looks at the stringency of government policies, mobility patterns, and implied compliance levels. The relationships between these variables and the influence on retail sales serve to understand past human behavior and prepare for future pandemics. Retail losses varied dramatically across the US states, from -1.6% in Mississippi to -38.9% in Hawaii. States in the west and northeast were most affected, while those in the south were relatively resilient. Regression was used to identify statistically significant state-level characteristics. The greatest losses occurred in states with a high percentage of Democrat voters in the 2020 Presidential Election and those with large populations. A 10% increase in the Democrat vote is associated with a 2.4% increase in retail sales loss. States with a high percentage of adults with less than a high school diploma were most resilient. The number of trips of less than one-mile per capita is defined as the mobility index as it has the greatest influence on retail sales, on average, across the US states. An increase of 10% in this mobility index is associated with a 4.6% increase in retail sales. All states were generally compliant and exhibited reduced mobility with increasing stringency. A rise of 1% in the stringency index is associated with a decline of 1% in the mobility index. States with a high percentage of Democrat voters, large populations, and located in the west tend to be most compliant. A 10% rise in the proportion of people voting Democrat is associated with a 5% increase in compliance.

2.
ssrn; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4193848
3.
arxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2005.08537v5

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is rapidly spreading across the globe. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia ranges from mild to critically ill cases and requires early detection and monitoring, within a clinical environment for critical cases and remotely for mild cases. The fear of contamination in clinical environments has led to a dramatic reduction in on-site referrals for routine care. There has also been a perceived need to continuously monitor non-severe COVID- 19 patients, either from their quarantine site at home, or dedicated quarantine locations (e.g., hotels). Thus, the pandemic has driven incentives to innovate and enhance or create new routes for providing healthcare services at distance. In particular, this has created a dramatic impetus to find innovative ways to remotely and effectively monitor patient health status. In this paper we present a short review of remote health monitoring initiatives taken in 19 states during the time of the pandemic. We emphasize in the discussion particular aspects that are common ground for the reviewed states, in particular the future impact of the pandemic on remote health monitoring and consideration on data privacy.

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