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1.
AJPM Focus ; : 100046, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095355

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study presents data from two population-based surveys of youth (reservation-area American Indian (AI) adolescents and U.S. adolescents) on self, family, and friend morbidity, and changes in substance use and negative affect during COVID-19. Material and Methods Data were obtained in Spring 2021 from surveys of AI students on or near reservations (8th grade, n=398;10th grade, n=367, 12th grade, n=290) and national students from Monitoring the Future (MTF) (8th grade, n=11,446, 10th grade, n=11,792, 12th grade, n=9,022). Main outcomes were COVID-19 testing, perceived morbidity/mortality, substance-use changes, and emotional changes during COVID-19. Results The AI sample had a greater proportion of testing (e.g., AI 8th grade: 58.1% [95% CI;48.6-68.8];MTF 8th grade: 43.6% [95% CI;39.8-47.5]) and friend/family hospitalization (e.g., AI 8th grade: 36.2% [95% CI;26.2-47.5];MTF 8th grade: 11.9% [95% CI;10.6-13.3]). Across grades, greater proportions of the national sample reported increased anxiety, anger, boredom, loneliness, depression, worry, and trouble concentrating, while greater proportions of reservation-area AIs reported decreased anxiety, loneliness, depression. Conclusions Findings indicate that reservation-area AI youth experienced unique health consequences one year into the COVID-19 pandemic compared to national students, illustrating the need for AI-specific COVID-19 public health monitoring and response.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 39(6): 536-547, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is associated with worsening mental health among young adults, but further research is necessary to quantify the associations with depression and anxiety. METHODS: Using Monitoring the Future data (N = 1244 young adults, modal age: 19, Fall 2020 supplement), we examined internalizing symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 separately), dividing the sample into those without clinically significant scores, significant scores but minimal pandemic-attributed symptoms, and significant scores with substantial pandemic-attributed symptoms. Logistic regression analyses linked demographic factors, pandemic-related experiences, and coping methods to symptom groups. RESULTS: Internalizing symptoms were highly prevalent, with many occurring among a majority at least several days over the past 2 weeks. Major changes in education, employment, and resource availability predicted elevated symptom risk (e.g., lacking a place to sleep or money for rent, gas, or food led to 4.43 [95% confidence interval: 2.59-7.55] times the risk of high depressive symptoms significantly attributed to the pandemic). High internalizing symptoms were linked to underutilization of healthy coping behaviors, substance use overutilization, and dietary changes. High depressive and anxious symptoms attributed to the pandemic were marked by high levels of taking breaks from the news/social media and contacting healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic's associations with young adults' depressive and anxious symptoms warrants urgent attention through improved mental health treatment infrastructure and stronger structural support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Prev Med ; 159: 107059, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796001

ABSTRACT

Previous research has not examined increased vaping because of the pandemic using a national sample of young adults (YAs), which is a critical gap because pandemic-related increases in vaping among YAs could have important implications for nicotine dependence, prolonged regular use, and using substances to cope with stress. We examined self-reported increased vaping attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic among YAs, and its associations with outcomes that have important implications for future nicotine use. Data came from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) Vaping Supplement. Participants were selected from a nationally representative sample of US 12th-graders who were surveyed at age 19 in fall 2020 (N = 1244). Cross-sectional analyses of the 2020 survey included YAs who vaped nicotine in the past year (35%; N = 440). Weighted descriptive analyses and logistic regression models examined self-reported pandemic-related increased vaping (vs. decreased vaping, or no change), and its associations with current nicotine dependence, vaping behavior, and reasons for vaping. Among YAs who vaped nicotine in the past year, 16.8% reported increased and 44.4% reported decreased vaping due to the pandemic, while 38.9% reported no change. Increased vaping (vs. decreased and/or no change) was significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms, current regular nicotine vaping, and vaping to relax, get high, and because of boredom. Self-reported increased vaping because of the pandemic was associated with increased risk for current nicotine dependence and frequent use. Increased vaping may have been a form of coping with pandemic-related stressors, which increases risk for future substance use problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Use Disorder , Vaping , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nicotine/adverse effects , Pandemics , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 235: 109448, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding what sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for use are associated with adolescent solitary alcohol and marijuana use. METHODS: Data from 7845 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 2015 to 2021 were used to examine cross-sectional associations between sociodemographics, heavy drinking/marijuana use, reasons for use, and past 12-month solitary alcohol or marijuana use among past 12-month users. Historical trends and possible differences related to the COVID-19 pandemic also were examined. RESULTS: Solitary use prevalence increased from 2015 to 2021 with no evidence of significant COVID-19 deviations. In 2021, solitary alcohol use was reported by 32.1% (SE 3.01) and solitary marijuana use by 55.8% (4.72) of those reporting past 12-month use. Common and substance-specific sociodemographic risk factors were observed. Binge drinking was associated with solitary alcohol use; frequent marijuana use was associated with solitary marijuana use. Reasons for use related to coping with negative affect were associated with solitary use. Compulsive use reasons were more strongly associated with solitary alcohol than marijuana use. Drinking to have a good time with friends was negatively associated with solitary alcohol use but this association was not seen for solitary marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana when they were alone has increased among those who report using each substance. Associations between solitary use and (a) higher levels of consumption and (b) coping with negative affect highlight the importance of solitary use as a risk indicator.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Marijuana Smoking , Marijuana Use , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 301: 114887, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740194

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study used U.S. national data to examine drinking trends prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, focusing on changes in U.S. young- and middle-adult alcohol prevalence, frequency, and drinking contexts and reasons, and whether they differed by age and college status. METHODS: Data from 2015 to 2020 from 16,987 young adults (ages 19-30) and 23,584 middle adults (ages 35-55) in the national Monitoring the Future study were used to model historical trends and potential 2020 shifts (data collection April 1 to November 30, 2020) in prevalence (30-day, daily, binge drinking) and frequency (30-day, binge drinking). For young adults, data on drinking contexts and negative affect reasons for drinking were examined. Moderation by age and college status was also tested. RESULTS: 2020 was associated with (1) downward deviation in 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults) prevalence; (2) upward deviation in daily drinking prevalence (middle adults); (3) among drinkers, upward deviation in frequency of 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults); and (4) changes in drinking contexts and reasons among drinkers. Among college students, in particular, 2020 was associated with a downward deviation from expected historical trends in drinking prevalence. Upward deviations in daily prevalence and both binge and 30-day drinking frequency were stronger at ages 25-30 (vs. 19-24) and 35-45 (vs. 50-55). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. young and middle adults, deviations from expected historical trends in population alcohol use that occurred during the pandemic included decreases in alcohol use prevalence, increases in alcohol use frequency, and increases in the use of alcohol to relax/relieve tension and because of boredom. These shifts were likely due, in part, to drinking while alone and at home-which increased during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Universities , Young Adult
6.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 14(3): 734-756, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662238

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented young adults with novel challenges and disruptions to several life domains. The current study examined how COVID-19-related stressors (i.e., job-related, financial-related, social/relational, and illness-related stressors) relate to young adults' symptoms of depression and anxiety, and satisfaction with life (in the US). In Aim 1, we examined associations between COVID-19-related stressors and indices of mental health and well-being in the initial phase of the pandemic (April/May 2020) while accounting for participants' pre-pandemic levels of these outcomes in January of 2020 (N = 519; Mage = 25.4; 62.8% women). Social/relational stressors were most strongly associated with increased symptoms of anxiety/depression, and financial stressors were most strongly associated with decreased satisfaction with life. Extending this research longitudinally (Aim 2), we sampled young adults bi-monthly across a year-long period (September 2020 to August 2021). Multilevel models revealed within-person associations between each stressor domain and mental health/well-being; young adults reported more symptoms of depression/anxiety and lower satisfaction with life in months that stressors were relatively more salient. Interactions between stressors and time revealed associations were generally stronger in earlier months and decreased linearly across the pandemic. Taken together, longitudinal evidence indicates that COVID-19-related stressors, especially social/relational stressors, have direct and time-varying associations with mental health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Young Adult
7.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(2): 340-344, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine predictors of using substances to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, including pandemic-related isolation, stress, economic hardship, demographics, and prepandemic substance use. METHODS: A U.S. national sample (N = 1,244) was followed from the 12th grade in Spring 2019 to Fall 2020 (M = 19.6 years) when young adults were asked about their use of marijuana, vaping, drinking, and other drugs to cope. RESULTS: In Fall 2020, 15.7% reported using marijuana, 8.9% increased vaping, and 8.2% increased drinking to cope with social distancing and isolation. In multivariable analyses controlling for demographics and prepandemic substance use, COVID-related isolation was associated with marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.63) and economic hardship with increased drinking (odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.92). There were few demographic differences. Most (>80%) who reported COVID-related substance use coping used that substance before pandemic. DISCUSSION: Young people reported using substances to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, especially if they reported prepandemic use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationships between daily affect, drinking motives, likelihood of drinking, and intensity of drinking, particularly high-intensity drinking (HID), in a sample of young adults. We also explored differences in our outcomes before versus during the early coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: In the springs of 2019 and 2020, young adult drinkers (N = 633) completed 14 consecutive morning surveys (each year) characterizing the prior day's affect, motives, and alcohol use. We examined between-person and within-person associations of affect and motives with two outcomes: any drinking and drinking intensity on drinking days (1 = moderate drinking [1-3 drinks for women, 1-4 drinks for men], 2 = binge drinking [4-7 for women, 5-9 for men], and 3 = HID [8 + for women, 10 + for men]). RESULTS: Young adults reported higher positive affect on drinking days and higher negative affect on nondrinking days. On days when young adults reported greater enhancement motives, positive affect was strongly related to HID. During the early COVID-19 pandemic, young adults were more likely to report drinking, but did not drink more heavily unless they also reported drinking for social motives. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that heightened social, coping, and enhancement motives are risk factors for drinking in young adults. They also suggest that young adults perceive their mood to be better on drinking days, particularly when they were drinking to enhance positive affect. Results are consistent with a positive affect regulation model (i.e., drinking to increase positive affect), but not a negative affect regulation model (i.e., drinking to cope with negative affect). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between COVID-19-related distress and mental health among first-year college students. PARTICIPANTS: Data for this longitudinal study (n = 727) were collected before the school year (August 2019), end of fall semester (December 2019), and soon after the university suspended in-person instruction (April 2020). METHODS: We used multivariable log-linear and logistic regressions to examine continuous and dichotomous outcomes on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. RESULTS: The most consistent predictor of during-pandemic mental health was feeling extremely isolated (versus not at all), which was associated with increased symptom severity of depression (proportional change[95% CI] = 2.43[1.87, 3.15]) and anxiety (2.02[1.50, 2.73]) and greater odds of new moderate depression (OR[95% CI] = 14.83[3.00, 73.41]) and anxiety (24.74[2.91, 210.00]). Greater COVID-19-related concern was also related to increased mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the need for mental health services during crises that lead to social isolation.

10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108822, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: How adolescent substance use and perceived availability of substances have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic remain largely unknown. Substantial reduction in availability of substances would present a unique opportunity to consider the supply-side hypothesis that reductions in drug availability will lead to reductions in drug prevalence. METHODS: Longitudinal data come from Monitoring the Future and are based on responses from 582 adolescents who were originally surveyed as part of a national sample of 12th grade students in early 2020, one month before social distancing policies began. They were surveyed again after social distancing policies were implemented, in the summer of 2020. RESULTS: Perceived availability of marijuana and alcohol declined across the two survey waves at the largest levels ever recorded in the 46 years of the project, by an absolute 17 %, p < .01 and 24 %, p < .01, respectively. Despite these declines, prevalence levels did not significantly change across the two waves for marijuana use in the past 30 days or for binge drinking in the past two weeks. Perceived availability of vaping devices significantly declined, from 73 % to 63 %, as did nicotine vaping prevalence in the past 30 days, from 24 % to 17 %. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived availability of marijuana, alcohol, and vaping devices declined at historic rates during the pandemic of 2020. Lack of accompanying reductions in prevalence for marijuana and binge drinking demonstrates the substantial challenges facing a supply-side approach to the reduction of adolescent use of these substances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders , Vaping , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Policy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(4): 658-665, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157447

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alongside the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with several secondary health effects. There is concern for increased substance use motivated by coping with stress, anxiety, depression, and boredom-all of which may be elevated during the pandemic. The current study examined intraindividual changes (from pre-COVID to during COVID) in young adults' alcohol and marijuana use, perceptions of peers' use (i.e., norms), and motives for use. METHODS: A community sample of young adults (N = 572; Mage= 25.14; 60.8% women) was recruited in Washington State. By using a repeated-measures design, data were collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020) and again during the initial acute phase of the pandemic (April/May of 2020). RESULTS: Young adults, on average, increased alcohol use frequency but decreased the amount consumed per drinking occasion. No changes in marijuana use were identified. Young adults (on average) perceived that peers had increased the frequency and total amount of alcohol use and perceived that peers were engaging in heavier marijuana use than prior to COVID-19. For alcohol use motives, there was a significant increase in depression coping motives and significant decreases in social, enhancement, and conformity motives. Boredom motives for marijuana use significantly increased, while celebration motives decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Using a prospective design with a sample initially recruited in Washington State, these data indicate that (a) young adults' patterns of alcohol use may have changed, (b) young adults tend to think that peers are engaging in heavier alcohol/marijuana use than before the pandemic, and (c) motives for using alcohol/marijuana may have changed during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Marijuana Use , Motivation , Social Norms , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Addict Behav ; 118: 106879, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with reports of increased substance use. College students are a population of concern for high risk binge drinking and their behavior may be particularly impacted by COVID-19 campus closures. Therefore, we examine first-year college students' binge drinking soon after their university's pandemic-related suspension of in-person operations. METHODS: Students from a single campus (N = 741; age: M = 18.05, SD = 0.22) completed one assessment in April-May 2020 post-campus closure (March 2020) including theoretically-informed measures (e.g., drinking motives, norms) and two items of self-reported pre- and post-closure binge drinking frequency, the focus of these analyses. RESULTS: About half of students consistently reported not binge drinking pre- and post-closure; 6.75% reported a consistent frequency of binge drinking pre- and post-closure. Many (39.41%) reported lower 30-day binge drinking post-campus closure compared to their pre-closure reports; few (4.18%) reported higher 30-day binge drinking frequency post-campus closure. Students reporting lower binge drinking post-closure showed differences in coping, social, and enhancement drinking motives and isolation. Students reporting greater post-closure binge drinking reported higher perceived drinking norms and were more likely to be in Greek life. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates self-reported patterns in binge drinking among first-year college students at the point of COVID-19 campus closures. Pandemic-related college closures may have been a temporary environmental intervention on this high-risk behavior for some students. Although many students were not binge drinking, some continued binge drinking after closure and may benefit from preventive interventions.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peer Group , Students , Universities
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