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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe 3-6-month neurologic outcomes of survivors of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, invasively ventilated in the ICU. DESIGN: A bicentric prospective study during the two first waves of the pandemic (March to May and September to December, 2020). SETTING: Two academic hospital ICUs, Paris, France. PATIENTS: Adult COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors, invasively ventilated in the ICU, were eligible for a neurologic consultation between 3 and 6 months post ICU discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Follow-up by face-to-face neurologic consultation. MEASURES AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was favorable functional outcome defined by a modified Rankin scale score less than 2, indicating survival with no significant disability. Secondary endpoints included mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score < 26), ICU-acquired weakness (Medical Research Council score < 48), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression score > 7), and posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 score > 30). Of 54 eligible survivors, four non-French-speaking patients were excluded, eight patients were lost-to-follow-up, and one died during follow-up. Forty-one patients were included. Time between ICU discharge and neurologic consultation was 3.8 months (3.6-5.9 mo). A favorable functional outcome was observed in 16 patients (39%) and mild cognitive impairment in 17 of 33 patients tested (52%). ICU-acquired weakness, depression or anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder were reported in six of 37 cases (16%), eight of 31 cases (26%), and two of 27 cases (7%), respectively. Twenty-nine patients (74%) required rehabilitation (motor, cognitive, or psychologic). ICU and hospital lengths of stay, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids were negatively associated with favorable outcome. By contrast, use of alpha-2 agonists during ICU stay was associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation led to slight-to-severe functional disability in about 60% of survivors 4 months after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, and psychologic symptoms were frequent. A large multicenter study is warranted to allow identification of modifiable factors for improving long-term outcome.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy has been proposed as an option to help organize the healthcare system to face the unprecedented number of patients hospitalized for a COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units (ICU). It is, however, considered a particularly high-risk procedure for contamination. This paper aims to provide our experience in performing tracheostomies on COVID-19 critically ill patients during the pandemic and its long-term local complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients tracheostomized for a COVID-19-related ARDS in two university hospitals in the Paris region between January 27th (date of first COVID-19 admission) and May 18th, 2020 (date of last tracheostomy performed). We focused on tracheostomy technique (percutaneous versus surgical), timing (early versus late) and late complications. RESULTS: Forty-eight tracheostomies were performed with an equal division between surgical and percutaneous techniques. There was no difference in patients' characteristics between surgical and percutaneous groups. Tracheostomy was performed after a median of 17 [12-22] days of mechanical ventilation (MV), with 10 patients in the "early" group (≤ day 10) and 38 patients in the "late" group (> day 10). Survivors required MV for a median of 32 [22-41] days and were ultimately decannulated with a median of 21 [15-34] days spent on cannula. Patients in the early group had shorter ICU and hospital stays (respectively 15 [12-19] versus 35 [25-47] days; p = 0.002, and 21 [16-28] versus 54 [35-72] days; p = 0.002) and spent less time on MV (respectively 17 [14-20] and 35 [27-43] days; p<0.001). Interestingly, patients in the percutaneous group had shorter hospital and rehabilitation center stays (respectively 44 [34-81] versus 92 [61-118] days; p = 0.012, and 24 [11-38] versus 45 [22-71] days; p = 0.045). Of the 30 (67%) patients examined by a head and neck surgeon, 17 (57%) had complications with unilateral laryngeal palsy (n = 5) being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems to be a safe procedure that could help ICU organization by delegating work to a separate team and favoring patient turnover by allowing faster transfer to step-down units. Following guidelines alone was found sufficient to prevent the risk of aerosolization and contamination of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Personnel, Hospital , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608147

ABSTRACT

The composition of the gut microbiota is highly dynamic and changes according to various conditions. The gut microbiota mainly includes difficult-to-cultivate anaerobic bacteria, hence knowledge about its composition has significantly arisen from culture-independent methods based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) such as 16S profiling and shotgun metagenomics. The gut microbiota of patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU) undergoes many alterations because of critical illness, antibiotics, and other ICU-specific medications. It is then characterized by lower richness and diversity, and dominated by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridioides difficile and multidrug-resistant bacteria. These alterations are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications or death. Specifically, at the time of writing, it appears possible to identify distinct microbiota patterns associated with severity or infectivity in COVID-19 patients, paving the way for the potential use of dysbiosis markers to predict patient outcomes. Correcting the microbiota disturbances to avoid their consequences is now possible. Fecal microbiota transplantation is recommended in recurrent C. difficile infections and microbiota-protecting treatments such as antibiotic inactivators are currently being developed. The growing interest in the microbiota and microbiota-associated therapies suggests that the control of the dysbiosis could be a key factor in the management of critically ill patients. The present narrative review aims to provide a synthetic overview of microbiota, from healthy individuals to critically ill patients. After an introduction to the different techniques used for studying the microbiota, we review the determinants involved in the alteration of the microbiota in ICU patients and the latter's consequences. Last, we assess the means to prevent or correct microbiota alteration.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 417, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data in the literature about HSV reactivation in COVID-19 patients are scarce, and the association between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality remains to be determined. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections primarily on mortality, and secondarily on hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) and intensive care unit-bloodstream infection (ICU-BSI). METHODS: We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected data and HSV-1 blood and respiratory samples from all critically ill COVID-19 patients in a large reference center who underwent HSV tests. Using multivariable Cox and cause-specific (cs) models, we investigated the association between HSV reactivation and mortality or healthcare-associated infections. RESULTS: Of the 153 COVID-19 patients admitted for ≥ 48 h from Feb-2020 to Feb-2021, 40/153 (26.1%) patients had confirmed HSV-1 reactivation (19/61 (31.1%) with HSV-positive respiratory samples, and 36/146 (24.7%) with HSV-positive blood samples. Day-60 mortality was higher in patients with HSV-1 reactivation (57.5%) versus without (33.6%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for mortality risk factors, HSV-1 reactivation was associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard risk [HR] 2.05; 95% CI 1.16-3.62; p = 0.01). HAP/VAP occurred in 67/153 (43.8%) and ICU-BSI in 42/153 (27.5%) patients. In patients with HSV-1 reactivation, multivariable cause-specific models showed an increased risk of HAP/VAP (csHR 2.38, 95% CI 1.06-5.39, p = 0.037), but not of ICU-BSI. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-1 reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased risk of day-60 mortality and HAP/VAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Risk Assessment
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048187, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376500

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: At the time of the worrying emergence and spread of bacterial resistance, reducing the selection pressure by reducing the exposure to antibiotics in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a public health issue. In this context, the combined use of molecular tests and biomarkers for guiding antibiotics discontinuation is attractive. Therefore, we have designed a trial comparing an integrated approach of diagnosis and treatment of severe CAP to usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The multiplex PCR and procalcitonin to reduce duration of antibiotics exposure in patients with severe-CAP (MULTI-CAP) trial is a multicentre (n=20), parallel-group, superiority, open-label, randomised trial. Patients are included if adult admitted to intensive care unit for a CAP. Diagnosis of pneumonia is based on clinical criteria and a newly appeared parenchymal infiltrate. Immunocompromised patients are excluded. Subjects are randomised (1:1 ratio) to either the intervention arm (experimental strategy) or the control arm (usual strategy). In the intervention arm, the microbiological diagnosis combines a respiratory multiplex PCR (mPCR) and conventional microbiological investigations. An algorithm of early antibiotic de-escalation or discontinuation is recommended, based on mPCR results and the procalcitonin value. In the control arm, only conventional microbiological investigations are performed and antibiotics de-escalation remains at the clinician's discretion. The primary endpoint is the number of days alive without any antibiotic from the randomisation to day 28. Based on our hypothesis of 2 days gain in the intervention arm, we aim to enrol a total of 450 patients over a 30-month period. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The MULTI-CAP trial is conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, is registered in Clinical Trials and has been approved by the Committee for Protection of Persons and the National French Drug Safety Agency. Written informed consents are obtained from all the patients (or representatives). The results will be disseminated through educational institutions, submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication and presented at medical congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03452826; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Procalcitonin
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207636

ABSTRACT

Among 197 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ICU, 88 (44.7%) experienced at least one bacterial infection, with pneumonia (39.1%) and bloodstream infections (15,7%) being the most frequent. Unusual findings include frequent suspicion of bacterial translocations originating from the digestive tract as well as bacterial persistence in the lungs despite adequate therapy.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/microbiology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(10): 2227-2234, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139366

ABSTRACT

Because the diagnosis of co/superinfection in COVID-19 patients is challenging, empirical antibiotic therapy is frequently initiated until microbiological analysis results. We evaluated the performance and the impact of the BioFire® FilmArray® Pneumonia plus Panel on 112 respiratory samples from 67 COVID-19 ICU patients suspected of co/superinfections. Globally, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 89.3% and 99.1%, respectively. Positive tests led to antibiotic initiation or adaptation in 15% of episodes and de-escalation in 4%. When negative, 28% of episodes remained antibiotic-free (14% no initiation, 14% withdrawal). Rapid multiplex PCRs can help to improve antibiotic stewardship by administering appropriate antibiotics earlier and avoiding unnecessary prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aged , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1082-1092, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724903

ABSTRACT

We report a longitudinal analysis of the immune response associated with a fatal case of COVID-19 in Europe. This patient exhibited a rapid evolution towards multiorgan failure. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in multiple nasopharyngeal, blood, and pleural samples, despite antiviral and immunomodulator treatment. Clinical evolution in the blood was marked by an increase (2-3-fold) in differentiated effector T cells expressing exhaustion (PD-1) and senescence (CD57) markers, an expansion of antibody-secreting cells, a 15-fold increase in γδ T cell and proliferating NK-cell populations, and the total disappearance of monocytes, suggesting lung trafficking. In the serum, waves of a pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, Th1 and Th2 activation, and markers of T cell exhaustion, apoptosis, cell cytotoxicity, and endothelial activation were observed until the fatal outcome. This case underscores the need for well-designed studies to investigate complementary approaches to control viral replication, the source of the hyperinflammatory status, and immunomodulation to target the pathophysiological response. The investigation was conducted as part of an overall French clinical cohort assessing patients with COVID-19 and registered in clinicaltrials.gov under the following number: NCT04262921.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Fatal Outcome , France , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(9): 2657-2660, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The combination lopinavir/ritonavir is recommended to treat HIV-infected patients at the dose regimen of 400/100 mg q12h, oral route. The usual lopinavir trough plasma concentrations are 3000-8000 ng/mL. A trend towards a 28 day mortality reduction was observed in COVID-19-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. OBJECTIVES: To assess the plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir in patients with severe COVID-19 infection and receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection included in the French COVID-19 cohort and treated with lopinavir/ritonavir were included. Lopinavir/ritonavir combination was administered using the usual adult HIV dose regimen (400/100 mg q12h, oral solution through a nasogastric tube). A half-dose reduction to 400/100 mg q24h was proposed if lopinavir Ctrough was >8000 ng/mL, the upper limit considered as toxic and reported in HIV-infected patients. Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after an intensive pharmacokinetic analysis. Biological markers of inflammation and liver/kidney function were monitored. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were first assessed in eight patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Median (IQR) lopinavir Ctrough reached 27 908 ng/mL (15 928-32 627). After the dose reduction to 400/100 mg q24h, lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in nine patients. Lopinavir Ctrough decreased to 22 974 ng/mL (21 394-32 735). CONCLUSIONS: In mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 infections, the oral administration of lopinavir/ritonavir elicited plasma exposure of lopinavir more than 6-fold the upper usual expected range. However, it remains difficult to safely recommend its dose reduction without compromising the benefit of the antiviral strategy, and careful pharmacokinetic and toxicity monitoring are needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Intensive Care Units/trends , Lopinavir/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Ritonavir/blood , Administration, Oral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Solutions/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Solutions/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 290-293, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701793

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak worldwide. Data on treatment are scare and parallels have been made between SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral with efficient in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Evidence of clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir is controversial. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes and virological monitoring of the first five COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Paris, France, for severe pneumonia related to SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to monitor SARS-CoV-2 in blood plasma and the lower and upper respiratory tract. Among the five patients treated, two needed mechanical ventilation and one needed high-flow cannula oxygen. A significant decrease in SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract was observed in most cases, but two patients died with active SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lower respiratory tract. Plasma samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in only one patient. Remdesivir was interrupted before the initialy planned duration in four patients, two because of alanine aminotransferase elevations (3 to 5 normal range) and two because of renal failure requiring renal replacement. This case series of five COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit treatment for respiratory distress and treated with remdesivir, highlights the complexity of remdesivir use in such critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects , Withholding Treatment
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