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Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2070-2070, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751301
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385454


BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. METHODS: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). FINDINGS: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. INTERPRETATION: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076633


Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with a wide range of potential etiological factors and consequently varying clinical patterns across the world. In this review, we address the epidemiology of myocarditis. Myocarditis was considered a rare disease until intensified research efforts in recent decades revealed its true epidemiological importance. While it remains a challenge to determine the true prevalence of myocarditis, studies are underway to obtain better approximations of the proportions of this disease. Nowadays, the prevalence of myocarditis has been reported from 10.2 to 105.6 per 100,000 worldwide, and its annual occurrence is estimated at about 1.8 million cases. This wide range of reported cases reflects the uncertainty surrounding the true prevalence and a potential underdiagnosis of this disease. Since myocarditis continues to be a significant public health issue, particularly in young adults in whom myocarditis is among the most common causes of sudden cardiac death, improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are necessary. This manuscript aims to summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology of myocarditis, new diagnostic approaches and the current epidemiological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.