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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the complexity of the clinical management and pharmacological treatment of patients presenting with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). AIM: to explore the incidence and prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in patients presenting with ACS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We evaluated in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding among 2851 patients with ACS from 17 Italian centers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March-April 2020) and in the same period in the previous two years. RESULTS: The incidence of in-hospital TIMI major and minor bleeding was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. TIMI major or minor bleeding was associated with a significant threefold increase in all-cause mortality, with a similar prognostic impact before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence and clinical impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We confirmed a significant and sizable negative prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818162

ABSTRACT

We performed an updated meta-analysis to robustly quantify admission trends of patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) during the first wave of the pandemic and to characterize on a large basis the risk profile and early prognosis. Studies having the same observation period for the comparison between SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in 2020 versus control period in 2019 were included. Primary endpoints were the relative variation of hospital admissions, the difference of in-hospital mortality for STEMI and NSTEMI. Secondary were: mortality according to countries, income levels and data quality; cardiogenic shock, mechanical complications, door-to-balloon time, time from symptom onset to first medical contact, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and troponin. In total, 61 observational studies with 125,346 patients were included. Compared with 2019, during the pandemic for STEMI were observed: a 24% reduction of hospitalizations with an impact on early survival (OR = 1.33 in-hospital mortality); the time from symptom onset to first medical contact was 91.31 min longer, whereas door-to-balloon time was increased (+5.44 min); after STEMI, the rate of cardiogenic shock was 33% higher; LVEF at discharge was decreased (-3.46); elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (1.52) on admission. For NSTEMI, in the COVID-19 period, we observed a 31% reduction of hospitalizations and higher in-hospital deaths (OR = 1.34). The highest mortality rates among countries were: Italy OR = 3.71 (high income), Serbia OR = 2.15 (upper middle) and Pakistan OR = 1.69 (lower middle). Later hospital presentation was associated with larger infarctions, as well as with increased cardiogenic shock and in-hospital mortality.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667215

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcome data of patients discharged after Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited and no study has evaluated predictors of cardiovascular prognosis in this setting. Our aim was to assess short-term mortality and cardiovascular outcome after hospitalization for COVID-19. A prospective cohort of 296 consecutive patients discharged after COVID-19 from two Italian institutions during the first wave of the pandemic and followed up to 6 months was included. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The co-primary endpoint was the incidence of the composite outcome of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes). The mean follow-up duration was 6 ± 2 months. The incidence of all-cause death was 4.7%. At multivariate analysis, age was the only independent predictor of mortality (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16). MACCE occurred in 7.2% of patients. After adjustment, female sex (aHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.05-6.52), in-hospital acute heart failure during index hospitalization (aHR 3.45, 95% CI 1.19-10), and prevalent atrial fibrillation (aHR 3.05, 95% CI 1.13-8.24) significantly predicted the incident risk of MACCE. These findings may help to identify patients for whom a closer and more accurate surveillance after discharge for COVID-19 should be considered.

4.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(12): 002854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643920

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is common during active illness but unusual in milder cases and after healing. We describe a case of bilateral acute pulmonary embolism occurring 3 months after recovery from a paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The only VTE risk factor demonstrable was a history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, with laboratory signs of residual low-grade inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of VTE as a potential cause of sudden dyspnoea after COVID-19 resolution, especially in the presence of persistent systemic inflammation. LEARNING POINTS: Venous thromboembolism may occur after COVID-19, even in milder SARS-CoV-2 infections and late after coronavirus clearance.Laboratory signs of systemic inflammation are clues for suspecting venous thromboembolism as a cause of sudden dyspnoea in patients with low risk scores for pulmonary embolism but with previous COVID-19 infection.

5.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602665

ABSTRACT

Aims Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically changed the management and the prognosis of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Several scientific societies have highlighted the need for dedicated paths to deliver better and faster care to improve outcomes. Nevertheless, data depicting the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS in Italy are still poor. To perform a propensity weighted analysis on a multicentre Italian registry involving patients with ACS managed before vs. during COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account baseline patients characteristics, clinical presentation, procedural aspects, and in-hospital outcomes (death, bleeding, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, mechanical complication, and arrhythmic complication). Methods and results We included all consecutive patients who have suffered from ACS during two periods before (March/April 2018, March/April 2019) vs. the period of COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). A generalized boosted non-parsimonious regression was used to estimate the propensity scores of having an ACS in 2020 (year of COVID-19) vs. 2018/2019 using an average treatment effect and balancing for all baseline confounders. We included 2851 patients admitted to hospital with ACS in 17 Italian centres: 1079 (37.8%) during 2018, 1056 (37.0%) in 2019, and 716 (25.1%) during the first COVID-19 wave of 2020. Seventy (2.5%) patients had a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 at admission. During 2020 there were higher time-to-emergency-call (P = 0.028) and less diagnosis of unstable angina (P = 0.029) and MINOCA (P = 0.004);none of the admission symptoms differ significantly across the years (P > 0.05) except for fever that was more prevalent in 2020 (P < 0.001). Patients suffering from ACS had lower admission EF (P = 0.006). After PS weighting, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), night admission (P = 0.017), cardiocirculatory arrest before cath-lab (P = 0.041), worst Killip class (P = 0.039), admission EF (P = 0.026), and need for left-ventricle mechanical support (P = 0.011) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. After propensity weighted analysis none of the in-hospital outcomes differed significantly across the years of investigation (all P > 0.05). Conclusions During COVID-19 pandemic in Italy the characteristics and management of ACS was slightly different than the past. However, the rates of ‘hard’, in-hospital outcomes (e.g. deaths) are almost similar to the past, suggesting appropriate care and well-organized emergency-paths for ACS.

6.
Metabolites ; 11(12)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554799

ABSTRACT

Infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to severe respiratory tract damage and acute lung injury. Therefore, it is crucial to study breath-associated biofluids not only to investigate the breath's biochemical changes caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also to discover potential biomarkers for the development of new diagnostic tools. In the present study, we performed an untargeted metabolomics approach using a bidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCxGC-TOFMS) on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from COVID-19 patients and negative healthy subjects to identify new potential biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of the COVID-19 disease. The EBC analysis was further performed in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic cardiopulmonary edema (CPE) to assess the reliability of the identified biomarkers. Our findings demonstrated that an abundance of EBC fatty acids can be used to discriminate COVID-19 patients and that they may have a protective effect, thus suggesting their potential use as a preventive strategy against the infection.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22666, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528025

ABSTRACT

Many coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) survivors show symptoms months after acute illness. The aim of this work is to describe the clinical evolution of Covid-19, one year after discharge. We performed a prospective cohort study on 238 patients previously hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia in 2020 who already underwent clinical follow-up 4 months post-Covid-19. 200 consented to participate to a 12-months clinical assessment, including: pulmonary function tests with diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms evaluation by the Impact of Event Scale (IES); motor function evaluation (by Short Physical Performance Battery and 2 min walking test); chest Computed Tomography (CT). After 366 [363-369] days, 79 patients (39.5%) reported at least one symptom. A DLCO < 80% was observed in 96 patients (49.0%). Severe DLCO impairment (< 60%) was reported in 20 patients (10.2%), related to extent of CT scan abnormalities. Some degree of motor impairment was observed in 25.8% of subjects. 37/200 patients (18.5%) showed moderate-to-severe PTS symptoms. In the time elapsed from 4 to 12 months after hospital discharge, motor function improves, while respiratory function does not, being accompanied by evidence of lung structural damage. Symptoms remain highly prevalent one year after acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/metabolism , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Motor Activity , Patient Acuity , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Respiratory Function Tests , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
8.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(1): 22-27, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430637

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has been recently associated with lower hospitalization rates for acute coronary syndromes. Aim of the study was to investigate whether a similar behaviour is observed in admissions for urgent pacemaker implant. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1315 patients from 18 hospitals in Northern Italy with a high number of COVID-19 cases. Hospitalization rates for urgent pacemaker implant were compared between the following periods: 20 February to 20 April 2020 (case period); from 1 January to 19 February 2020 (intra-year control period); from 20 February to 20 April 2019 (inter-year control period). RESULTS: The incidence rate of urgent implants was 5.0/day in the case period, 6.0/day in the intra-year control period and 5.8/day in the inter-year control period. Incidence rate in the case period was significantly lower than both the intra-year [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99, P = 0.040] and inter-year control periods (IRR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95, P = 0.012); this reduction was highest after the national lockdown (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.91, P = 0.009). The prevalence of residents in rural areas undergoing urgent pacemaker implant was lower in the case period (36%) than in both the intra-year (47%, P = 0.03) and inter-year control periods (51%, P = 0.002). Elective pacemaker implants also decreased in the case period, with the incidence rate here being 3.5/day vs. 6.4/day in the intra-year (-45%) and 6.9/day in the inter-year period (-49%). CONCLUSION: Despite severe clinical patterns, the COVID-19 outbreak has negatively affected the population presentation to Emergency Departments for bradyarrhythmias requiring urgent pacemaker implant in Northern Italy. This mainly occurred after the national lockdown and concerned patients living in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/epidemiology , Bradycardia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies/epidemiology , Pacemaker, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314165

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. These were used to identify subtypes of patients with similar characteristics through hierarchical clustering based on Gower distance. Using multivariable Cox regressions, these clusters were then tested for association with mortality and modification of effect by treatment with HCQ. We identified two clusters, one of 3,913 younger patients with lower circulating inflammation levels and better renal function, and one of 483 generally older and more comorbid subjects, more prevalently men and smokers. The latter group was at increased death risk adjusted by HCQ (HR[CI95%] = 3.80[3.08-4.67]), while HCQ showed an independent inverse association (0.51[0.43-0.61]), as well as a significant influence of cluster∗HCQ interaction (p < 0.001). This was driven by a differential association of HCQ with mortality between the high (0.89[0.65-1.22]) and the low risk cluster (0.46[0.39-0.54]). These effects survived adjustments for additional medications in use and were concordant with associations with disease severity and outcome. These findings suggest a particularly beneficial effect of HCQ within low risk Covid-19 patients and may contribute to clarifying the current controversy on HCQ efficacy in Covid-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 639970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285307

ABSTRACT

Background: Protease inhibitors have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for COVID-19 patients. Objectives: To describe the association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) use and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Multicenter observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted in 33 Italian hospitals. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures, and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Patients were retrospectively divided in three groups, according to use of LPV/r, DRV/c or none of them. Primary outcome in a time-to event analysis was death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting by multinomial propensity scores. Results: Out of 3,451 patients, 33.3% LPV/r and 13.9% received DRV/c. Patients receiving LPV/r or DRV/c were more likely younger, men, had higher C-reactive protein levels while less likely had hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary or kidney disease. After adjustment for propensity scores, LPV/r use was not associated with mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), whereas treatment with DRV/c was associated with a higher death risk (HR = 1.89, 1.53 to 2.34, E-value = 2.43). This increased risk was more marked in women, in elderly, in patients with higher severity of COVID-19 and in patients receiving other COVID-19 drugs. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Italian patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a real-life setting, the use of LPV/r treatment did not change death rate, while DRV/c was associated with increased mortality. Within the limits of an observational study, these data do not support the use of LPV/r or DRV/c in COVID-19 patients.

11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 746-753, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263169

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) have haemostatic dysfunction and are at higher risk of thrombotic complications. Although age is a major risk factor for outcome impairment in COVID-19, its impact on coagulative patterns here is still unclear. We investigated the association of Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) with thrombotic and haemorrhagic events according to different ages in patients admitted for COVID-19. A total of 27 patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia, without need for intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation at hospital presentation, and 24 controls with non-COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively included. ETP levels were measured on admission. Patients were evaluated for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, venous thromboembolism) and bleeding complications [according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) definition] during in-hospital stay. COVID-19 patients had similar ETP levels compared to controls (AUC 93 ± 24% vs 99 ± 21%, p = 0.339). In the COVID-19 cohort, patients with in-hospital MACE showed lower ETP levels on admission vs those without (AUC 86 ± 14% vs 95 ± 27%, p = 0.041), whereas ETP values were comparable in patients with or without bleeding (AUC 82 ± 16% vs 95 ± 26%, p = 0.337). An interaction between age and ETP levels for both MACE and bleeding complications was observed, where a younger age was associated with an inverse relationship between ETP values and adverse event risk (pint 0.018 for MACE and 0.050 for bleeding). Patients with COVID-19 have similar thrombin potential on admission compared to those with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. In younger COVID-19 patients, lower ETP levels were associated with a higher risk of both MACE and bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Hospitalization , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/therapy , Time Factors
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 235-237, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigations demonstrated a decrease of admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) during the CoronaVirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak. No study has evaluated the time required to reverse this downward curve of MI admissions. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis on patients (N = 2415) admitted to the Emergency Departments for acute MI in nine Italian centers. Primary endpoint was the incidence rates (IRs) of MI admissions in the post-lockdown COVID-19 period (case-period: from May 4 to July 12, 2020) vs. the following control periods: January 1-February 19, 2020 (pre-lockdown period); February 20-May 3, 2020 (intra-lockdown period); May 4-July 12, 2019 (inter-year non-COVID-19 period). RESULTS: IR of admissions for MI in the post-lockdown period was higher than the intra-lockdown period (IR ratio, IRR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.42-1.81; p = 0.0001), was lower than the pre-lockdown period (IRR: 0.86, 0.77-0.96; p = 0.009) and similar to the inter-year non-COVID-19 period (IRR: 0.96, 0.87-1.07; p = 0.47). Within the case period, the increase in MI admissions was more pronounced in earlier vs later weeks (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.024) and, compared to the inter-year control period, was significant for non ST-segment elevation MI (IRR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46, p = 0.004), but was not observed for ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), where hospitalizations were reduced (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.88, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study first indicates an increase in the number of admissions for MI after the removal of the national lockdown for COVID-19 in Italy. This increase was prevalent in the first weeks following the lockdown removal, but was under-represented in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 782-790, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111318

ABSTRACT

A pro-thrombotic milieu and a higher risk of thrombotic events were observed in patients with CoronaVirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Accordingly, recent data suggested a beneficial role of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), but the optimal dosage of this treatment is unknown. We evaluated the association between prophylactic vs. intermediate-to-fully anticoagulant doses of enoxaparin and in-hospital adverse events in patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 436 consecutive patients admitted in three Italian hospitals. Outcome according to the use of prophylactic (4000 IU) vs. higher (> 4000 IU) daily dosage of enoxaparin was evaluated. The primary end-point was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome measures were in-hospital cardiovascular death, venous thromboembolism, new-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation. A total of 287 patients (65.8%) were treated with the prophylactic enoxaparin regimen and 149 (34.2%) with a higher dosing regimen. The use of prophylactic enoxaparin dose was associated with a similar incidence of all-cause mortality (25.4% vs. 26.9% with the higher dose; OR at multivariable analysis, including the propensity score: 0.847, 95% CI 0.400-0.1.792; p = 0.664). In the prophylactic dose group, a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular death (OR 0.165), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.067), new-onset ARDS (OR 0.454) and mechanical intubation (OR 0.150) was observed. In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a prophylactic dosage of enoxaparin appears to be associated with similar in-hospital overall mortality compared to higher doses. These findings require confirmation in a randomized, controlled study.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 593496, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080928

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global healthcare burden, characterized by high mortality and morbidity rates all over the world. During the outbreak period, the topic of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has raised several clinical issues, due to the risks of COVID-19 induced myocardial injury and to the uncertainties about the management of these cardiologic emergency conditions, which should be organized optimizing the diagnostic and therapeutic resources and ensuring the maximum protection to healthcare personnel and hospital environment. COVID-19 status should be assessed as soon as possible. Moreover, considerably lower rates of hospitalization for ACS have been reported all over the world, due to patients' hesitations to refer to hospital and to missed diagnosis. As a result, short- and long-term complications of myocardial infarction are expected in the near future; therefore, great efforts of healthcare providers will be required to limit the effects of this issue. In the present review we discuss the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS diagnosis and management, with possible incoming consequences, providing an overview of the available evidence and suggesting future changes in social and clinical approach to ACS.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2036142, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049543

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although plenty of data exist regarding clinical manifestations, course, case fatality rate, and risk factors associated with mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), long-term respiratory and functional sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of lung function anomalies, exercise function impairment, and psychological sequelae among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 4 months after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study at an academic hospital in Northern Italy was conducted among a consecutive series of patients aged 18 years and older (or their caregivers) who had received a confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection severe enough to require hospital admission from March 1 to June 29, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, bronchial swab, serological testing, or suggestive computed tomography results. Exposure: Severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of the study was to describe the proportion of patients with a diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (Dlco) less than 80% of expected value. Secondary outcomes included proportion of patients with severe lung function impairment (defined as Dlco <60% expected value); proportion of patients with posttraumatic stress symptoms (measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised total score); proportion of patients with functional impairment (assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] score and 2-minute walking test); and identification of factors associated with Dlco reduction and psychological or functional sequelae. Results: Among 767 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 494 (64.4%) refused to participate, and 35 (4.6%) died during follow-up. A total of 238 patients (31.0%) (median [interquartile range] age, 61 [50-71] years; 142 [59.7%] men; median [interquartile range] comorbidities, 2 [1-3]) consented to participate to the study. Of these, 219 patients were able to complete both pulmonary function tests and Dlco measurement. Dlco was reduced to less than 80% of the estimated value in 113 patients (51.6%) and less than 60% in 34 patients (15.5%). The SPPB score was suggested limited mobility (score <11) in 53 patients (22.3%). Patients with SPPB scores within reference range underwent a 2-minute walk test, which was outside reference ranges of expected performance for age and sex in 75 patients (40.5%); thus, a total of 128 patients (53.8%) had functional impairment. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported in a total of 41 patients (17.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that at 4 months after discharge, respiratory, physical, and psychological sequelae were common among patients who had been hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Physical Functional Performance , Respiration Disorders/virology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Time Factors
18.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(6): 1-5, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, cardiovascular imaging, especially transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), may expose healthcare personnel to virus contamination and should be performed only if strictly necessary. On the other hand, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and TOE represent the first-line imaging exams for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE). To date, this is the first case of COVID-19 complicated by IE. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a 57-year-old man with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. During the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, he developed fever and positive haemocoltures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. TTE did not identify endocardial vegetations. TOE was then performed and outlined IE of the aortic valve on the non-coronary cusp. Antibiotic therapy was given with progressive resolution of the septic state and improvement of inflammatory signs. After 30 days of ICU stay, the patient was transferred to the Sub-ICU and then to a rehabilitation hospital. A close follow-up has been scheduled: after full recovery, a new echocardiography will be performed (TTE and TOE, if the former is non-conclusive) to consider surgical valve repair in the case of persistence/progression of the valvular lesion or deterioration of the valve function. DISCUSSION: In COVID-19 patients, echocardiography remains the leading imaging exam for the diagnosis of IE. If the suspicion of IE is high, even in this setting of patients, TTE or TOE (if TTE is non-conclusive) are mandatory. A high degree of attention must be paid and appropriate preventive measures taken to avoid contamination of healthcare personnel.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20731, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947552

ABSTRACT

Clinical features and natural history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differ widely among different countries and during different phases of the pandemia. Here, we aimed to evaluate the case fatality rate (CFR) and to identify predictors of mortality in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to three hospitals of Northern Italy between March 1 and April 28, 2020. All these patients had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by molecular methods. During the study period 504/1697 patients died; thus, overall CFR was 29.7%. We looked for predictors of mortality in a subgroup of 486 patients (239 males, 59%; median age 71 years) for whom sufficient clinical data were available at data cut-off. Among the demographic and clinical variables considered, age, a diagnosis of cancer, obesity and current smoking independently predicted mortality. When laboratory data were added to the model in a further subgroup of patients, age, the diagnosis of cancer, and the baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio were identified as independent predictors of mortality. In conclusion, the CFR of hospitalized patients in Northern Italy during the ascending phase of the COVID-19 pandemic approached 30%. The identification of mortality predictors might contribute to better stratification of individual patient risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking , Survival Rate
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