Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.16.22282338

ABSTRACT

Certain serum proteins, including CRP and D-dimer, have prognostic value in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nonetheless, these factors are non-specific, and provide limited mechanistic insight into the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations which drive the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. To identify novel cellular phenotypes associated with disease progression, we here describe a comprehensive, unbiased analysis of the total and plasma membrane proteomes of PBMCs from a cohort of 40 unvaccinated individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection, spanning the whole spectrum of disease severity. Combined with RNA-seq and flow cytometry data from the same donors, we define a comprehensive multi-omic profile for each severity level, revealing cumulative immune cell dysregulation in progressive disease. In particular, the cell surface proteins CEACAMs1, 6 and 8, CD177, CD63 and CD89 are strongly associated with severe COVID-19, corresponding to the emergence of atypical CD3+CD4+CD177+ and CD16+CEACAM1/6/8+ mononuclear cells. Utilisation of these markers may facilitate real-time patient assessment by flow cytometry, and identify immune cell populations that could be targeted to ameliorate immunopathology.

2.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.09.25.461776

ABSTRACT

The interactions between severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human host factors enable the virus to propagate infections that lead to COVID-19. The spike protein is the largest structural component of the virus and mediates interactions essential for infection, including with the primary ACE2 receptor. We performed two independent cell-based systematic screens to determine whether there are additional proteins by which the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can interact with human cells. We discovered that in addition to ACE2, expression of LRRC15 also causes spike protein binding. This interaction is distinct from other known spike attachment mechanisms such as heparan sulfates or lectin receptors. Measurements of orthologous coronavirus spike proteins implied the interaction was restricted to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting LRRC15 represents a novel class of spike binding interaction. We localized the interaction to the C-terminus of the S1 domain, and showed that LRRC15 shares recognition of the ACE2 receptor binding domain. From analyzing proteomics and single-cell transcriptomics, we identify LRRC15 expression as being common in human lung vasculature cells and fibroblasts. Although infection assays demonstrated that LRRC15 alone is not sufficient to permit viral entry, we present evidence it can modulate infection of human cells. This unexpected interaction merits further investigation to determine how SARS-CoV-2 exploits host LRRC15 and whether it could account for any of the distinctive features of COVID-19. In briefWe present evidence from genome-wide screening that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with human cells expressing LRRC15. The interaction is distinct from previously known classes of spike attachment factors, and appears to have emerged recently within the coronavirus family. Although not sufficient for cell invasion, this interaction can modulate viral infection. Our data point to an unappreciated host factor for SARS-CoV-2, with potential relevance to COVID-19. Highlights- Two systematic cell-based screens for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding identify LRRC15 as a human host factor - Interaction with LRRC15 is reproducible in different human cell lines and independent of known glycan or ACE2 binding pathways - The C-terminal S1 domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike binds LRRC15 with sub-micromolar affinity, while related coronavirus spikes do not - LRRC15 is expressed in tissues with high ACE2 levels and may modulate infection

3.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.09.08.459428

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking has multiple serious negative health consequences. However, the epidemiological relationship between cigarette smoking and SARS-CoV-2 infection is controversial; and the interaction between cigarette smoking, airway expression of the ACE2 receptor and the susceptibility of airway cells to infection is unclear. We exposed differentiated air-liquid interface cultures derived from primary human airway stem cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and infected them with SARS-CoV-2. We found that CSE increased expression of full-length ACE2 (flACE2) but did not alter the expression of a Type I-interferon sensitive truncated ACE2 that lacks the capacity to bind SARS-CoV-2 or a panel of interferon-sensitive genes. Importantly, exposure to CSE did not increase viral infectivity despite the increase in flACE2. Our data are consistent with epidemiological data suggesting current smokers are not at excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This does not detract from public health messaging emphasising the excess risk of severe COVID-19 associated with smoking-related cardiopulmonary disease.

4.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-520626.v1

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 without symptoms is well described, and may be mitigated by mass testing. Nonetheless, the optimal implementation and quantitative real-world impact of this approach remain unclear. During a period of rising SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, students at the University of Cambridge were enrolled in a voluntary programme of weekly PCR-based asymptomatic screening. Swab pooling by household reduced the total testing capacity required by five-fold, without affecting laboratory workflows or compromising test sensitivity. Participation remained >75% throughout the study period. 299/671 (45%) of students diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 were either identified or pre-emptively quarantined because of the screening programme. After a negative screening test, the risk of developing COVID-19 over the following 7 days was decreased by 51%. Modelling transmission using parameters from our study suggests a reduction in R0 of up to 31% attributable to weekly screening. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of regular, voluntary mass testing for COVID-19.

5.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.05.05.21256681

ABSTRACT

Cell autonomous antiviral defenses can inhibit the replication of viruses and reduce transmission and disease severity. To better understand the antiviral response to SARS-CoV-2, we used interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression screening to reveal that OAS1, through RNase L, potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2. We show that while some people can express a prenylated OAS1 variant, that is membrane-associated and blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection, other people express a cytosolic, nonprenylated OAS1 variant which does not detect SARS-CoV-2 (determined by the splice-acceptor SNP Rs10774671). Alleles encoding nonprenylated OAS1 predominate except in people of African descent. Importantly, in hospitalized patients, expression of prenylated OAS1 was associated with protection from severe COVID-19, suggesting this antiviral defense is a major component of a protective antiviral response. Remarkably, approximately 55 million years ago, retrotransposition ablated the OAS1 prenylation signal in horseshoe bats (the presumed source of SARS-CoV-2). Thus, SARS-CoV-2 never had to adapt to evade this defense. As prenylated OAS1 is widespread in animals, the billions of people that lack a prenylated OAS1 could make humans particularly vulnerable to the spillover of coronaviruses from horseshoe bats.

6.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.04.23.440619

ABSTRACT

Background: There are no effective prophylactic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and limited early treatment options. Viral cell entry requires spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor and spike cleavage by TMPRSS2, a cell surface serine protease. Targeting of TMPRSS2 by either androgen blockade or direct inhibition is already in clinical trials in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: The likely initial cells of SARS-CoV-2 entry are the ciliated cells of the upper airway. We therefore used differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells maintained at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to test the impact of targeting TMPRSS2 on the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: We first modelled the systemic delivery of compounds. Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor antagonist, had no impact on SARS-Cov-2 infection. By contrast, camostat mesylate, an orally available serine protease inhibitor, blocked SARS-CoV-2 entry. However, camostat is rapidly metabolised in the circulation in vivo, and systemic bioavailability after oral dosing is low. We therefore modelled local airway administration by applying camostat to the apical surface of the differentiated ALI cultures. We demonstrated that a brief exposure to topical camostat is effective at restricting SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. Conclusion: These experiments demonstrate a potential therapeutic role for topical camostat for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2, which can now be evaluated in a clinical trial.

7.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.04.06.438630

ABSTRACT

The outcome of infection is dependent on the ability of viruses to manipulate the infected cell to evade immunity, and the ability of the immune response to overcome this evasion. Understanding this process is key to understanding pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, and both natural and vaccine-induced immunity. SARS-CoV-2 antagonises the innate interferon response, but whether it manipulates innate cellular immunity is unclear. An unbiased proteomic analysis determined how cell surface protein expression is altered on SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells, showing downregulation of activating NK ligands B7-H6, MICA, ULBP2, and Nectin1, with minimal effects on MHC-I. This correlated with a reduction in NK cell activation, identifying a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV2 antagonises innate immunity. Later in the disease process, strong antibody-dependent NK cell activation (ADNKA) developed. These responses were sustained for at least 6 months in most patients, and led to high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Depletion of spike-specific antibodies confirmed their dominant role in neutralisation, but these antibodies played only a minor role in ADNKA compared to antibodies to other proteins, including ORF3a, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid. In contrast, ADNKA induced following vaccination was focussed solely on spike, was weaker than ADNKA following natural infection, and was not boosted by the second dose. These insights have important implications for understanding disease progression, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine design.

8.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.22.427737

ABSTRACT

Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are more susceptible to severe infection with SARS-CoV-2, known to directly cause pathological damage to cardiovascular tissue. We outline a screening platform using human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, confirmed to express the protein machinery critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a pseudotyped virus system. The method has allowed us to identify benztropine and DX600 as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.22.427567

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) are among the most promising approaches against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed a bispecific, IgG1-like molecule based on two antibodies derived from COVID-19 convalescent donors, C121 and C135. CoV-X2 simultaneously binds two independent sites on the RBD and, unlike its parental antibodies, completely prevents S binding to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the virus cellular receptor. Furthermore, CoV-X2 recognizes a broad panel of RBD variants and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and the escape mutants generated by the single monoclonals at sub-nanomolar concentrations. In a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 infection with lung inflammation, CoV-X2 protects mice from disease and suppresses viral escape. Thus, simultaneous targeting of non-overlapping RBD epitopes by IgG-like bispecific antibodies is feasible and effective, combining into a single molecule the advantages of antibody cocktails.

10.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.11.20248765

ABSTRACT

In a study of 207 SARS-CoV2-infected individuals with a range of severities followed over 12 weeks from symptom onset, we demonstrate that an early robust immune response, without systemic inflammation, is characteristic of asymptomatic or mild disease. Those presenting to hospital had delayed adaptive responses and systemic inflammation already evident at around symptom onset. Such early evidence of inflammation suggests immunopathology may be inevitable in some individuals, or that preventative intervention might be needed before symptom onset. Viral load does not correlate with the development of this pathological response, but does with its subsequent severity. Immune recovery is complex, with profound persistent cellular abnormalities correlating with a change in the nature of the inflammatory response, where signatures characteristic of increased oxidative phosphorylation and reactive-oxygen species-associated inflammation replace those driven by TNF and IL-6. These late immunometabolic inflammatory changes and unresolved immune cell defects, if persistent, may contribute to "long COVID".

11.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.31.20114520

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThere is urgent need for safe and efficient triage protocols for hospitalized COVID-19 suspects to appropriate isolation wards. A major barrier to timely discharge of patients from the emergency room and hospital is the turnaround time for many SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests. We validated a point of care nucleic acid amplification based platform SAMBA II for diagnosis of COVID-19 and performed an implementation study to assess its impact on patient disposition at a major academic hospital. MethodsWe prospectively recruited COVID-19 suspects admitted to hospital (NCT04326387). In an initial pilot phase, individuals were tested using a nasal/throat swab with the SAMBA II SARS-CoV-2 rapid diagnostic platform in parallel with a combined nasal/throat swab for standard central laboratory RT-PCR testing. In the second implementation phase, we examined the utility of adding the SAMBA platform to routine care. In the pilot phase, we measured concordance and assay validity using the central laboratory as the reference standard and assessed assay turnaround time. In the implementation phase, we assessed 1) time to definitive bed placement from admission, 2) time spent on COVID-19 holding wards, 3) proportion of patients in isolation versus COVID negative areas following a test, comparing the implementation phase with the 10 days prior to implementation. ResultsIn phase I, 149 participants were included in the pilot. By central laboratory RT-PCR testing, 32 (21.5%) tested positive and 117 (78.5%). Sensitivity and specificity of the SAMBA assay compared to RT-PCR lab test were 96.9% (95% CI 0.838-0.999) and 99.1% (0.953-0.999), respectively. Median time to result was 2.6 hours (IQR 2.3 to 4.8) for SAMBA II SARS-CoV-2 test and 26.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 31.4) for the standard lab RT-PCR test (p<0.001). In the first 10 days of the SAMBA implementation phase, we conducted 992 tests, with the majority (59.8%) used for hospital admission, and the remainder for pre-operative screening (11.3%), discharge planning (10%), in-hospital screening of new symptoms (9.7%). Comparing the pre-implementation (n=599) with the implementation phase, median time to definitive bed placement from admission was reduced from 23.4 hours (8.6-41.9) to 17.1 hours (9.0-28.8), P=0.02 in Cox analysis, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and clinical severity at presentation. Mean length of stay on a COVID-19 holding ward decreased from 58.5 hours to 29.9 hours (P<0.001). Use of single occupancy rooms amongst those tested fell from 30.8% before to 21.2% (P=0.03) and 11 hospital bay closures (on average 6 beds each) were avoided after implementation of the POC assay. ConclusionsThe SAMBA II SARS-CoV-2 rapid assay performed well compared to a centralized laboratory RT-PCR platform and demonstrated shorter time to result both in trial and real-world settings. It was also associated with faster time to definitive bed placement from the emergency room, greater availability of isolation rooms, avoidance of hospital bay closures, and greater movement of patients to COVID negative open "green" category wards. Rapid testing in hospitals has the potential to transform ability to deal with the COVID-19 epidemic.

12.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.09.20082909

ABSTRACT

Significant differences exist in the availability of healthcare worker (HCW) SARS-CoV-2 testing between countries, and existing programmes focus on screening symptomatic rather than asymptomatic staff. Over a 3-week period (April 2020), 1,032 asymptomatic HCWs were screened for SARS-CoV-2 in a large UK teaching hospital. Symptomatic staff and symptomatic household contacts were additionally tested. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect viral RNA from a throat+nose self-swab. 3% of HCWs in the asymptomatic screening group tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 17/30 (57%) were truly asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic. 12/30 (40%) had experienced symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) >7 days prior to testing, most self-isolating, returning well. Clusters of HCW infection were discovered on two independent wards. Viral genome sequencing showed that the majority of HCWs had the dominant lineage B{middle dot}1. Our data demonstrates the utility of comprehensive screening of HCWs with minimal or no symptoms. This approach will be critical for protecting patients and hospital staff.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL