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1.
Results in Physics ; : 105503, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799737

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 epidemic has posed an unprecedented threat to global public health. The disease has alarmed the healthcare system with the harm of nosocomial infection. Nosocomial spread of COVID-19 has been discovered and reported globally in different healthcare facilities. Asymptomatic patients and super-spreaders are sough to be among of the source of these infections. Thus, this study contributes to the subject by formulating a SEIHR mathematical model to gain the insight into nosocomial infection for COVID-19 transmission dynamics. The role of personal protective equipment θ is studied in the proposed model. Benefiting the next generation matrix method, R0 was computed. Routh–Hurwitz criterion and stable Metzler matrix theory revealed that COVID-19-free equilibrium point is locally and globally asymptotically stable whenever R01. Further, the dynamics behavior of R0 was explored when varying θ. In the absence of θ, the value of R0 was 8.4584 which implies the expansion of the disease. When θ is introduced in the model, R0 was 0.4229, indicating the decrease of the disease in the community. Numerical solutions were simulated by using Runge–Kutta fourth-order method. Global sensitivity analysis is performed to present the most significant parameter. The numerical results illustrated mathematically that personal protective equipment can minimizes nosocomial infections of COVID-19.

2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7772263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625636

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a world pandemic that has affected and continues to affect the social lives of people. Due to its social and economic impact, different countries imposed preventive measures that are aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease. Such control measures include physical distancing, quarantine, hand-washing, travel and boarder restrictions, lockdown, and the use of hand sanitizers. Quarantine, out of the aforementioned control measures, is considered to be more stressful for people to manage. When people are stressed, their body immunity becomes weak, which leads to multiplying of coronavirus within the body. Therefore, a mathematical model consisting of six compartments, Susceptible-Exposed-Quarantine-Infectious-Hospitalized-Recovered (SEQIHR) was developed, aimed at showing the impact of stress on the transmission of COVID-19 disease. From the model formulated, the positivity, bounded region, existence, uniqueness of the solution, the model existence of free and endemic equilibrium points, and local and global stability were theoretically proved. The basic reproduction number (R 0) was derived by using the next-generation matrix method, which shows that, when R 0 < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable whereas when R 0 > 1 the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Moreover, the Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) method was used to study the correlation between model parameters and R 0. Numerically, the SEQIHR model was solved by using the Rung-Kutta fourth-order method, while the least square method was used for parameter identifiability. Furthermore, graphical presentation revealed that when the mental health of an individual is good, the body immunity becomes strong and hence minimizes the infection. Conclusively, the control parameters have a significant impact in reducing the transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological
3.
Leadersh Health Serv (Bradf Engl) ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434582

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The complex and occasionally chaotic nature of health care has been previously described in the literature, as has the broadening recognition that different management approaches are required for different types of problems rather than a "one size fits all" approach. The CYNEFIN framework from Snowden outlines a consistent cognitive approach that offers the leader and leadership team an ability to urgently apply the correct actions to a given situation. This paper proposes a variant CYNEFIN approach for healthcare. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Consistent and accurate decision-making within health care is the hallmark of an effective and pragmatic leader and leadership team. An awareness of how one's cognitive biases and heuristics may adversely impact on this cognitive process is paramount, as is an understanding of the calibration between fast and slow thinking. FINDINGS: The authors propose a variant CYNEFIN approach for health care of "act-probe-sense-respond" to resolve complex and time-critical emergency scenarios, using the differing contexts of a cardiac arrest and an evolving crisis management problem as examples. The variant serves as a pragmatic sense-making framework for the health-care leader and leadership team that can be adopted for many time-critical crisis situations. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The variant serves as a pragmatic sense-making framework for the health-care leader that can be adopted for many crisis situations.


Subject(s)
Health Facilities , Leadership , Delivery of Health Care , Humans
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045946, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has driven unprecedented social and economic reform in efforts to curb the impact of disease. Governments worldwide have legislated non-essential service shutdowns and adapted essential service provision in order to minimise face-to-face contact. We anticipate major consequences resulting from such policies, with marginalised populations expected to bear the greatest burden of such measures, especially those with substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to conduct (1) a scoping review to summarise the available evidence evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with SUDs, and (2) an evidence map to visually plot and categorise the current available evidence evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on patients with SUDs to identify gaps in addressing high-risk populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this scoping review as we plan to review publicly available data. This is part of a multistep project, whereby we intend to use the findings generated from this review in combination with data from an ongoing prospective cohort study our team is leading, encompassing over 2000 patients with SUDs receiving medication-assisted therapy in Ontario prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cisplatin , Doxorubicin , Humans , Mitomycin , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E142-E148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After nonelective (i.e., semiurgent, urgent and emergent) surgeries, patients discharged from hospitals are at risk of readmissions, emergency department visits or death. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we are undertaking the Post Discharge after Surgery Virtual Care with Remote Automated Monitoring Technology (PVC-RAM) trial to determine if virtual care with remote automated monitoring (RAM) compared with standard care will increase the number of days adult patients remain alive at home after being discharged following nonelective surgery. METHODS: We are conducting a randomized controlled trial in which 900 adults who are being discharged after nonelective surgery from 8 Canadian hospitals are randomly assigned to receive virtual care with RAM or standard care. Outcome adjudicators are masked to group allocations. Patients in the experimental group learn how to use the study's tablet computer and RAM technology, which will measure their vital signs. For 30 days, patients take daily biophysical measurements and complete a recovery survey. Patients interact with nurses via the cellular modem-enabled tablet, who escalate care to preassigned and available physicians if RAM measurements exceed predetermined thresholds, patients report symptoms, a medication error is identified or the nurses have concerns they cannot resolve. The primary outcome is number of days alive at home during the 30 days after randomization. INTERPRETATION: This trial will inform management of patients after discharge following surgery in the COVID-19 pandemic and offer insights for management of patients who undergo nonelective surgery in a nonpandemic setting. Knowledge dissemination will be supported through an online multimedia resource centre, policy briefs, presentations, peer-reviewed journal publications and media engagement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04344665.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/trends , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Patient Discharge/standards , Remote Consultation/instrumentation , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Computers, Handheld/supply & distribution , Humans , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , User-Computer Interface
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