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2.
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 16: 11795484221127555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309121

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/11795484221119316.].

3.
2023 International Conference on Advances in Intelligent Computing and Applications, AICAPS 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2292357

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the number of online courses in India has skyrocketed especially due to the Covid pandemic. The most significant increments have happened in degree colleges, where 85% concur that internet based courses are important for their drawn-out procedure when contrasted with 60% in 2015. The distribution of online courses has evolved dramatically as technology has advanced. Web-based platform provides new challenges for both teachers and students. Teachers should be clear about the effectiveness of online learning in teaching students. For that, the possibilities of online learning should be compared with traditional learning. Students are evaluated based on their focus on online learning. This study aims to determine the efficacy of online courses by predicting student performance in an e-learning system. These research findings evaluate modern learning methods, highlight students' potential and help teachers understand how to assess and lead students on online platforms. © 2023 IEEE.

4.
Emerg Med J ; 40(6): 460-465, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify the impact of enrolment onto a national pulse oximetry remote monitoring programme for COVID-19 (COVID-19 Oximetry @home; CO@h) on health service use and mortality in patients attending Emergency Departments (EDs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study of patients enrolled onto the CO@h pathway from EDs in England. We included all patients with a positive COVID-19 test from 1 October 2020 to 3 May 2021 who attended ED from 3 days before to 10 days after the date of the test. All patients who were admitted or died on the same or following day to the first ED attendance within the time window were excluded. In the primary analysis, participants enrolled onto CO@h were matched using demographic and clinical criteria to participants who were not enrolled. Five outcome measures were examined within 28 days of first ED attendance: (1) Death from any cause; (2) Any subsequent ED attendance; (3) Any emergency hospital admission; (4) Critical care admission; and (5) Length of stay. RESULTS: 15 621 participants were included in the primary analysis, of whom 639 were enrolled onto CO@h and 14 982 were controls. Odds of death were 52% lower in those enrolled (95% CI 7% to 75%) compared with those not enrolled onto CO@h. Odds of any ED attendance or admission were 37% (95% CI 16% to 63%) and 59% (95% CI 32% to 91%) higher, respectively, in those enrolled. Of those admitted, those enrolled had 53% (95% CI 7% to 76%) lower odds of critical care admission. There was no significant impact on length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that for patients assessed in ED, pulse oximetry remote monitoring may be a clinically effective and safe model for early detection of hypoxia and escalation. However, possible selection biases might limit the generalisability to other populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Oximetry , Emergency Service, Hospital
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD006207, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral epidemics or pandemics of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) pose a global threat. Examples are influenza (H1N1) caused by the H1N1pdm09 virus in 2009, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. Antiviral drugs and vaccines may be insufficient to prevent their spread. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2020. We include results from studies from the current COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of acute respiratory viruses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and two trials registers in October 2022, with backwards and forwards citation analysis on the new studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs investigating physical interventions (screening at entry ports, isolation, quarantine, physical distancing, personal protection, hand hygiene, face masks, glasses, and gargling) to prevent respiratory virus transmission.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 new RCTs and cluster-RCTs (610,872 participants) in this update, bringing the total number of RCTs to 78. Six of the new trials were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic; two from Mexico, and one each from Denmark, Bangladesh, England, and Norway. We identified four ongoing studies, of which one is completed, but unreported, evaluating masks concurrent with the COVID-19 pandemic. Many studies were conducted during non-epidemic influenza periods. Several were conducted during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and others in epidemic influenza seasons up to 2016. Therefore, many studies were conducted in the context of lower respiratory viral circulation and transmission compared to COVID-19. The included studies were conducted in heterogeneous settings, ranging from suburban schools to hospital wards in high-income countries; crowded inner city settings in low-income countries; and an immigrant neighbourhood in a high-income country. Adherence with interventions was low in many studies. The risk of bias for the RCTs and cluster-RCTs was mostly high or unclear. Medical/surgical masks compared to no masks We included 12 trials (10 cluster-RCTs) comparing medical/surgical masks versus no masks to prevent the spread of viral respiratory illness (two trials with healthcare workers and 10 in the community). Wearing masks in the community probably makes little or no difference to the outcome of influenza-like illness (ILI)/COVID-19 like illness compared to not wearing masks (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.09; 9 trials, 276,917 participants; moderate-certainty evidence. Wearing masks in the community probably makes little or no difference to the outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza/SARS-CoV-2 compared to not wearing masks (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.42; 6 trials, 13,919 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Harms were rarely measured and poorly reported (very low-certainty evidence). N95/P2 respirators compared to medical/surgical masks We pooled trials comparing N95/P2 respirators with medical/surgical masks (four in healthcare settings and one in a household setting). We are very uncertain on the effects of N95/P2 respirators compared with medical/surgical masks on the outcome of clinical respiratory illness (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.10; 3 trials, 7779 participants; very low-certainty evidence). N95/P2 respirators compared with medical/surgical masks may be effective for ILI (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.03; 5 trials, 8407 participants; low-certainty evidence). Evidence is limited by imprecision and heterogeneity for these subjective outcomes. The use of a N95/P2 respirators compared to medical/surgical masks probably makes little or no difference for the objective and more precise outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.34; 5 trials, 8407 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Restricting pooling to healthcare workers made no difference to the overall findings. Harms were poorly measured and reported, but discomfort wearing medical/surgical masks or N95/P2 respirators was mentioned in several studies (very low-certainty evidence).  One previously reported ongoing RCT has now been published and observed that medical/surgical masks were non-inferior to N95 respirators in a large study of 1009 healthcare workers in four countries providing direct care to COVID-19 patients.  Hand hygiene compared to control Nineteen trials compared hand hygiene interventions with controls with sufficient data to include in meta-analyses. Settings included schools, childcare centres and homes. Comparing hand hygiene interventions with controls (i.e. no intervention), there was a 14% relative reduction in the number of people with ARIs in the hand hygiene group (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.90; 9 trials, 52,105 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), suggesting a probable benefit. In absolute terms this benefit would result in a reduction from 380 events per 1000 people to 327 per 1000 people (95% CI 308 to 342). When considering the more strictly defined outcomes of ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza, the estimates of effect for ILI (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.09; 11 trials, 34,503 participants; low-certainty evidence), and laboratory-confirmed influenza (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.30; 8 trials, 8332 participants; low-certainty evidence), suggest the intervention made little or no difference. We pooled 19 trials (71, 210 participants) for the composite outcome of ARI or ILI or influenza, with each study only contributing once and the most comprehensive outcome reported. Pooled data showed that hand hygiene may be beneficial with an 11% relative reduction of respiratory illness (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94; low-certainty evidence), but with high heterogeneity. In absolute terms this benefit would result in a reduction from 200 events per 1000 people to 178 per 1000 people (95% CI 166 to 188). Few trials measured and reported harms (very low-certainty evidence). We found no RCTs on gowns and gloves, face shields, or screening at entry ports. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The high risk of bias in the trials, variation in outcome measurement, and relatively low adherence with the interventions during the studies hampers drawing firm conclusions. There were additional RCTs during the pandemic related to physical interventions but a relative paucity given the importance of the question of masking and its relative effectiveness and the concomitant measures of mask adherence which would be highly relevant to the measurement of effectiveness, especially in the elderly and in young children. There is uncertainty about the effects of face masks. The low to moderate certainty of evidence means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited, and that the true effect may be different from the observed estimate of the effect. The pooled results of RCTs did not show a clear reduction in respiratory viral infection with the use of medical/surgical masks. There were no clear differences between the use of medical/surgical masks compared with N95/P2 respirators in healthcare workers when used in routine care to reduce respiratory viral infection. Hand hygiene is likely to modestly reduce the burden of respiratory illness, and although this effect was also present when ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza were analysed separately, it was not found to be a significant difference for the latter two outcomes. Harms associated with physical interventions were under-investigated. There is a need for large, well-designed RCTs addressing the effectiveness of many of these interventions in multiple settings and populations, as well as the impact of adherence on effectiveness, especially in those most at risk of ARIs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Global Health/statistics & numerical data
6.
Neurology ; 93(23 Supplement 2):S30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196703

ABSTRACT

Objective The goal of this study is to compile published data reporting neurological immune-related adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination, not including those relating to hematologic abnormalities such as thrombosis or hemorrhage. Background COVID-19 vaccination has been repeatedly shown to reduce the incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection. The expedited timeline of these vaccines has given rise to many discussions pertaining to their safety. Many neurological and non-neurological adverse events have been linked to COVID-19 vaccination including acute MI, anaphylaxis, appendicitis, Bell's palsy, deep vein thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and many others. Design/Methods The following databases were searched in April 2021 using different keywords: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Science, Direct, MedRxiv, and Lens.org. Studies were included if they reported any adverse immune-related neurological events secondary to COVID-19 vaccination. Studies were excluded if they were not in English, included self-reported events only, or did not report primary data. Screening and extraction were conducted by 2 different reviewers using Covidence. Results The search strategy yielded 18 studies which reported a total of 61 patients who had received a COVID-19 vaccination and experienced = 1 neurological adverse events. Most reported adverse events were facial nerve palsy (52.5%), reactivation of herpes zoster (11.5%), Guillian-Barre syndrome (6.6%), demyelinating disease (6.6%), and neuropathy (11.5%). Other reported adverse effects were delirium, periauricular vesicular rash, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, visual disturbance, gait disturbance, serotonin syndrome, and vestibular ataxia (16.4%). Conclusions The symptoms were time-limited and self-resolving in nature. In addition, the incidence of the reported events following COVID-19 vaccination compared to the general population is similar. Hence, there is little to no evidence suggesting a causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and neurological adverse events.

7.
Muscle & Nerve ; 66:S97-S97, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2168012
8.
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 16: 11795484221119316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by progressive respiratory failure and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with high mortality rates for patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Levels of the vascular growth factor Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) in plasma have been strongly correlated with increased ARDS risk in patients with pneumonia or sepsis. The intent of this study was to determine whether LY3127804, an anti-Ang2 monoclonal antibody, could reduce the need for mechanical ventilation among patients admitted to the hospital with pneumonia and presumed or confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospital with confirmed pneumonia, presumed or confirmed COVID-19, and infiltrates on chest imaging and/or oxygen saturation of ≤ 95% on room air were stratified by age group (< 65 years and ≥ 65 years), sex, and site and randomly assigned 1:1 within each stratum to receive either LY3127804 (20 mg/kg) or placebo on Day 1 and possibly on Day 15. The primary end point for this study was number of days in which a patient did not require a ventilator over the 28-day study period. RESULTS: Interim analysis assessed study futility after 95 randomized patients had 28-day data available and showed no benefit of LY3127804 in reducing the number of ventilator days over placebo. The study was subsequently terminated. CONCLUSION: LY3127804 treatment did not decrease the need for ventilator usage in patients hospitalized with pneumonia and presumed or confirmed COVID-19. ClinicalTrialsgov identifier: NCT04342897.

9.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 23(Supplement 31):64, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2137198

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 brought about a rapid change in the way diabetic follow up services were run in our local pediatric unit. Appointments were initially made via telephone with the introduction of video clinics a short time later. A survey of caregiver and patient views of virtual clinics in 2020 showed high satisfaction scores with these appointments. Face-to-face (FtF) appointments have restarted but virtual appointments have continued to run alongside. Objective(s): A repeat survey in 2022 aimed to re-assess families' experience of virtual clinics and their views on the use of virtual clinics as part of their long-term follow-up. Method(s): Two surveys were carried out between June to July 2020 and March to April 2022. Caregivers were selected at random from the patient list and contacted by telephone. An oral survey was completed with responses collated on a Microsoft form. Result(s): A 100 responses were collected in both surveys. This covered a range of patient ages and treatment modalities. Satisfaction with virtual appointments remained high with a rating of 4.6 and 4.59 out of 5 respectively for the 2020 and 2022 survey. Virtual appointments requests as part of follow-up increased from 51% to 77%, with video preferred to telephone (65% vs. 12%). Pump and CGM data downloading pre-clinic dropped from 66% to 56%. Conclusion(s): The majority of patients and caregivers found virtual clinic appointments a positive experience and are keen to see them continue even though COVID-19 restrictions have lifted. This will have significant impact and potentially substantial savings in the way follow-up services are designed. Digital poverty (access to devices/ IT knowledge) remains a barrier to some patients accessing virtual appointments. Patient/caregiver preferences and individual circumstances must be taken into account when redesigning follow-up services.

10.
2nd International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Applications, ICCSEA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136221

ABSTRACT

Medical practitioners can use telemedicine to connect with their patients during the recent Coronavirus outbreak, while also attempting to prevent COVID-19 transmission among patients and clinicians. In the middle of the pandemic, Telemedicine can help patients by allowing them to obtain supportive care without having to visit a hospital via a conversational AI-based application. As a result, telehealth will transform in-person care into remote patient connection fast and drastically. In this paper, Natural Language Processing (NLP)-based Multilingual Conversational Bot has been developed to provide chronic patients with free fundamental healthcare education, information, and guidance. Countries like India, rural healthcare management is challenging task with available medical experts and equipment's. So proposed Tele-health care management leads towards healthy rural people and their development. Existing Application Programming Interface (API) like Dialogflow can be used along with our healthcare mobile application to provide live treatment and diagnosis. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143721

ABSTRACT

Wide variability exists with host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals. Circulatory micro RNAs (miRNAs) are being recognized as promising biomarkers for complex traits, including viral pathogenesis. We hypothesized that circulatory miRNAs at 48 h post hospitalization may predict the length of stay (LOS) and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Plasma miRNA levels were compared between three groups: (i) healthy volunteers (C); (ii) COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir (an antiviral) plus dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) (with or without baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor) on the day of hospitalization (I); and COVID-19 patients at 48 h post treatment (T). Results showed that circulatory miR-6741-5p expression levels were significantly different between groups C and I (p < 0.0000001); I and T (p < 0.0000001); and C and T (p = 0.001). Our ANOVA model estimated that all patients with less than 12.42 Log2 CPM had a short LOS, or a good prognosis, whereas all patients with over 12.42 Log2 CPM had a long LOS, or a poor prognosis. In sum, we show that circulatory miR-6741-5p may serve as a prognostic biomarker effectively predicting mortality risk and LOS of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Length of Stay , Prognosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Biomarkers
12.
Social Work Education ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2113008

ABSTRACT

As stay-at-home orders and regional lockdowns were mandated across the globe, the COVID-19 pandemic required established practitioners, new graduates, and students in field placements to provide services using technology tools and supports, generically labeled ‘e-therapy’. While this transition was necessary, it raised important ethical concerns. Finn assessed the attitudes of students toward ethical issues in e-therapy in 2002. This article reports the results from surveys of MSW students in one Australian and two CSWE-accredited American programs in 2018 and 2020. The 2018 surveys explored changes since 2002 in student attitudes toward e-therapy, followed by the 2020 surveys to explore the further impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey instrument was based on Finn’s original questionnaire, with items added in 2020 to reflect the increased need for technology-supported services during the pandemic. The 2018 results showed comparatively more familiarity with and use of e-therapy by students, more positive attitudes toward e-therapy use, and more acceptance of the capacity for e-therapy to meet ethical practice requirements. The 2020 results revealed further increases in use and positive attitudes, together with recognition of serious ethical issues. Lessons learned from student qualitative responses are included, along with suggestions for social work curricula and field education. [ FROM AUTHOR]

13.
Health Expect ; 25(5): 2095-2106, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop interpretive insights concerning Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) in care homes for older people. DESIGN: This study had a meta-ethnography design. DATA SOURCES: Six bibliographic databases were searched from inception to May 2020 to identify the relevant literature. REVIEW METHODS: A meta-ethnography was performed. RESULTS: Searches yielded 652 records; 15 were included. Findings were categorized into groups: The difficulties of enacting IPC measures in the care home environment; workload as an impediment to IPC practice; the tension between IPC and quality of life for care home residents; and problems dealing with medical services located outside the facility including diagnostics, general practice and pharmacy. Infection was revealed as something seen to lie 'outside' the control of the care home, whether according to origins or control measures. This could help explain the reported variability in IPC practice. Facilitators to IPC uptake involved repetitive training and professional development, although such opportunities can be constrained by the ways in which services are organized and delivered. CONCLUSIONS: Significant challenges were revealed in implementing IPC in care homes including staffing skills, education, workloads and work routines. These challenges cannot be properly addressed without resolving the tension between the objectives of maintaining resident quality of life while enacting IPC practice. Repetitive staff training and professional development with parallel organisational improvements have prospects to enhance IPC uptake in residential and nursing homes. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: A carer of an older person joined study team meetings and was involved in writing a lay summary of the study findings.


Subject(s)
Nursing Homes , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Qualitative Research , Delivery of Health Care , Anthropology, Cultural
14.
Br J Surg ; 109(12): 1282-1292, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused disruption of regular healthcare leading to reduced hospital attendances, repurposing of surgical facilities, and cancellation of cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on surgical care in the Netherlands. METHODS: A nationwide study was conducted in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing. Eight surgical audits were expanded with items regarding alterations in scheduling and treatment plans. Data on procedures performed in 2020 were compared with those from a historical cohort (2018-2019). Endpoints included total numbers of procedures performed and altered treatment plans. Secondary endpoints included complication, readmission, and mortality rates. RESULTS: Some 12 154 procedures were performed in participating hospitals in 2020, representing a decrease of 13.6 per cent compared with 2018-2019. The largest reduction (29.2 per cent) was for non-cancer procedures during the first COVID-19 wave. Surgical treatment was postponed for 9.6 per cent of patients. Alterations in surgical treatment plans were observed in 1.7 per cent. Time from diagnosis to surgery decreased (to 28 days in 2020, from 34 days in 2019 and 36 days in 2018; P < 0.001). For cancer-related procedures, duration of hospital stay decreased (5 versus 6 days; P < 0.001). Audit-specific complications, readmission, and mortality rates were unchanged, but ICU admissions decreased (16.5 versus 16.8 per cent; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The reduction in the number of surgical operations was greatest for those without cancer. Where surgery was undertaken, it appeared to be delivered safely, with similar complication and mortality rates, fewer admissions to ICU, and a shorter hospital stay.


COVID-19 has had a significant impact on healthcare worldwide. Hospital visits were reduced, operating facilities were used for COVID-19 care, and cancer screening programmes were cancelled. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Dutch surgical healthcare in 2020. Patterns of care in terms of changed or delayed treatment are described for patients who had surgery in 2020, compared with those who had surgery in 2018­2019. The study found that mainly non-cancer surgical treatments were cancelled during months with high COVID-19 rates. Outcomes for patients undergoing surgery were similar but with fewer ICU admissions and shorter hospital stay. These data provide no insight into the burden endured by patients who had postponed or cancelled operations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Netherlands , Pandemics , Hospitals , Hospitalization
15.
JMIR Ment Health ; 9(9): e37354, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An anticipated surge in mental health service demand related to COVID-19 has motivated the use of novel methods of care to meet demand, given workforce limitations. Digital health technologies in the form of self-tracking technology have been identified as a potential avenue, provided sufficient evidence exists to support their effectiveness in mental health contexts. OBJECTIVE: This literature review aims to identify current and potential physiological or physiologically related monitoring capabilities of the Apple Watch relevant to mental health monitoring and examine the accuracy and validation status of these measures and their implications for mental health treatment. METHODS: A literature review was conducted from June 2021 to July 2021 of both published and gray literature pertaining to the Apple Watch, mental health, and physiology. The literature review identified studies validating the sensor capabilities of the Apple Watch. RESULTS: A total of 5583 paper titles were identified, with 115 (2.06%) reviewed in full. Of these 115 papers, 19 (16.5%) were related to Apple Watch validation or comparison studies. Most studies showed that the Apple Watch could measure heart rate acceptably with increased errors in case of movement. Accurate energy expenditure measurements are difficult for most wearables, with the Apple Watch generally providing the best results compared with peers, despite overestimation. Heart rate variability measurements were found to have gaps in data but were able to detect mild mental stress. Activity monitoring with step counting showed good agreement, although wheelchair use was found to be prone to overestimation and poor performance on overground tasks. Atrial fibrillation detection showed mixed results, in part because of a high inconclusive result rate, but may be useful for ongoing monitoring. No studies recorded validation of the Sleep app feature; however, accelerometer-based sleep monitoring showed high accuracy and sensitivity in detecting sleep. CONCLUSIONS: The results are encouraging regarding the application of the Apple Watch in mental health, particularly as heart rate variability is a key indicator of changes in both physical and emotional states. Particular benefits may be derived through avoidance of recall bias and collection of supporting ecological context data. However, a lack of methodologically robust and replicated evidence of user benefit, a supportive health economic analysis, and concerns about personal health information remain key factors that must be addressed to enable broader uptake.

16.
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013446

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) has appreciably influenced the technology world in the context of interconnectivity, interoperability, and connectivity using smart objects, connected sensors, devices, data, and appliances. The IoT technology has mainly impacted the global economy, and it extends from industry to different application scenarios, like the healthcare system. This research designed anti-corona virus-Henry gas solubility optimization-based deep maxout network (ACV-HGSO based deep maxout network) for lung cancer detection with medical data in a smart IoT environment. The proposed algorithm ACV-HGSO is designed by incorporating anti-corona virus optimization (ACVO) and Henry gas solubility optimization (HGSO). The nodes simulated in the smart IoT framework can transfer the patient medical information to sink through optimal routing in such a way that the best path is selected using a multi-objective fractional artificial bee colony algorithm with the help of fitness measure. The routing process is deployed for transferring the medical data collected from the nodes to the sink, where detection of disease is done using the proposed method. The noise exists in medical data is removed and processed effectively for increasing the detection performance. The dimension-reduced features are more probable in reducing the complexity issues. The created approach achieves improved testing accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity as 0.910, 0.914, and 0.912, respectively. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-600, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967347

ABSTRACT

Introduction Despite the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine hesitancy remains common in the general public. Adults who were on immunosuppressive medications were among the earlier groups recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. It is unclear whether similar vaccine hesitancy is seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially those who are on immunosuppressive medications. We sought to examine rate of vaccine hesitancy in patients with IBD as well as associated demographic and socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review in November 2021 of 1383 patients with IBD seen at University of Maryland Medical Center, a tertiary referral medical center, between November 2020 and October 2021. Data obtained from patients' charts included demographics;disease characteristics including disease phenotype, number of years since diagnosis, number of IBD-related surgeries;and IBD therapy including biologics, thiopurines or methotrexate, corticosteroids, and mesalamine. Information on COVID vaccination and routinely recommended vaccines were also collected which included annual influenza vaccine, Prevnar/ Pneumovax, and Shingrix. Those with no recorded COVID-19 vaccine were contacted by nurses for updated vaccine status. Results 72% (990/1383) of patients in this cohort were on a biologic, 17% (232/1383) were on corticosteroids, and 16% (224/1383) were on thiopurine or methotrexate, indicating a cohort of patients with moderate to severe disease phenotype. Fifty-seven percent (792/1383) of patients received either the Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccine. In a multivariate regression analysis, COVID vaccination was found to be positively associated with a number of factors including older age (p-value= 4.92e-4), female sex (p=1.61e-3), Asian and Caucasian races (p=9.13e-3, 6.47e-06), number of years since diagnosis (p=2.73e-2), number of clinic visits in the past 12 months (p= 2.66e-10), and biologic use (p=4.41e-4). This remained the case while controlling for IBD disease type;marital status;insurance (Commercial vs Medicaid vs Medicare);and tobacco, alcohol, and substance use history. Patients who received other routinely recommended vaccines (influenza, Prevnar/Pneumovax, Shingrix) were not more likely to receive COVID- 19 vaccine. Discussion Although majority of patients in this cohort were on an immunosuppressive medication, COVID-19 vaccination rate is only recorded to be at 57%. Number of clinic visits, presumably more education and conversation with healthcare providers, had a positive impact on COVID-19 vaccination. In this cohort, younger adults, males, and African Americans were less likely to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Healthcare providers need to recognize these potential risk factors for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

18.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 12(12): 3007-3016, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943385

ABSTRACT

To address the unprecedented global public health crisis due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we designed and developed a novel antiviral nano-drug, called SNAT (Smart Nano-Enabled Antiviral Therapeutic), comprised of taxoid (Tx)-decorated amino (NH2)-functionalized near-atomic size positively charged silver nanoparticles (Tx-[NH2-AgNPs]) that are stable for over 3 years. Using a hamster model, we tested the preclinical efficacy of inhaled SNAT on the body weight, virus titer, and histopathology of lungs in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, including biocompatibility in human lung epithelium and dermal fibroblasts using lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. Our results showed SNAT could effectively reverse the body weight loss, reduce the virus load in oral swabs, and improve lung health in hamsters. Furthermore, LDH assay showed SNAT is noncytotoxic, and MDA assay demonstrated SNAT to be an antioxidant, potentially quenching lipid peroxidation, in both the human cells. Overall, these promising pilot preclinical findings suggest SNAT as a novel, safer antiviral drug lead against SARS-CoV-2 infection and may find applications as a platform technology against other respiratory viruses of epidemic and pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Metal Nanoparticles , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Models, Animal , Silver , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
20.
4th International Conference on Communications and Cyber-Physical Engineering, ICCCE 2021 ; 828:311-324, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877774

ABSTRACT

India is one of the best countries which follows the conventional education system and forces the student to learn the subjects by attending the classes directly. The normal education system in the country has changed at the starting of February 2020, when the government confirmed the first case of coronavirus infection in India. The schools were suspended suddenly and the situation continued for a few months. But the government found a solution that the students who are not permitted to go to class can pick an online training framework. This research is mainly for comparing the pre and post covid education system and evaluation of the student performance using machine learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Logistic Regression, and Naïve Bayes. The prediction algorithms are focus on the attributes such as understandability of subject topics, internal assessment, level of concentration, language proficiency, and percentage of marks in the main exam during regular class and online class. The prediction model compares the attributes and predicts either the regular class or the online class increases the student’s performance. The dataset for research is collected mainly from graduation and post-graduation students through Google form due to the pandemic. ANN is the model that gave a higher accuracy rate of 0.95. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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