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1.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research ; 56(2):S216-S224, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884617

ABSTRACT

Background: Nasal route of drug administration has gained popularity nowadays specially for drugs acting on nasopulmonary area. Atazanavir is an antiviral drug which has proved efficacy in different viral infection including COVID-19. Therefore the hypothesis is, if given through intra nasal route this formulation will be able to prevent the viral infection like COVID-19 by directly acting on the virus at its entry point. Objectives: This study aims to prepare a stable mucoadhesive microcrystal formulation of this antiviral drug with good permeation for intra nasal delivery. Materials and Methods: The formulation was prepared by high-speed homogenization process. Prepared microcrystals were estimated for in vitro drug release and permeation, drug excipient interaction study by DSC, FTIR and in vitro mucoadhesiveness study on agar gel plate. A short-term stability study was conducted on all formulations for 6 months. Results: The melting point and absorbance maxima of atazanavir were found as 200.9°C and 248 nm. The DSC and FTIR study results confirmed no drug excipient interaction was there in the formulation. The particle size of the formulations was found as 5-11 µm in range. Drug release was better and faster from the microcrystals as compare to pure powder drug. The flux for microcrystal formulation was found to be 100 whereas flux for the pure drug powder was 24. Formulations had sufficient mucoadhesive strength due to incorporation of HPMC 400 polymer and they were found stable after six months stability study. Conclusion: Lastly, it can be concluded that this formulation would be a promising system for the delivery through intra nasal route as it showed good drug release and permeation during a short time span in in vitro nasal condition with a particle size range suitable for intranasal delivery. However, further in vivo studies are required to confirm the hypothesis.

2.
Nature ; 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873525

ABSTRACT

The nervous and immune systems are intricately linked1. Although psychological stress is known to modulate immune function, mechanistic pathways linking stress networks in the brain to peripheral leukocytes remain poorly understood2. Here, we show that distinct brain regions shape leukocyte distribution and function throughout the body during acute stress in mice. Using optogenetics and chemogenetics, we demonstrate that motor circuits induce rapid neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to peripheral tissues via skeletal muscle-derived neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Conversely, the paraventricular hypothalamus controls monocyte and lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs and blood to the bone marrow through direct, cell-intrinsic glucocorticoid signaling. These stress-induced, counter-directional, population-wide leukocyte shifts are associated with altered disease susceptibility. On the one hand, acute stress changes innate immunity by reprogramming neutrophils and directing their recruitment to sites of injury. On the other hand, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neuron-mediated leukocyte shifts protect against the acquisition of autoimmunity, but impair immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection. Collectively, these data show that distinct brain regions differentially and rapidly tailor the leukocyte landscape during psychological stress, thus calibrating the immune system's capacity to respond to physical threats.

3.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:4733-4746, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874784

ABSTRACT

From the inception of the coronavirus pandemic for the more than a year, it has now become exigent that the water supplies and wastewater be treated at its fullest efficiency as their nexus is quite ubiquitous in this domestic society. To design a robust wastewater treatment incurs a hefty cost, so the need of the hour is to resort towards treatment techniques which incurs minimal cost and adsorption techniques are one of them. Adsorption is a process where contaminants or compound in one phase gets attached or condensed to other phase, finally removing them. Adsorption by using activated carbon is a prominent method to remove the contaminants from water and wastewater remarkably, but still many researches shows the same as expensive and therefore, low cost adsorbents extracted naturally is a best and cheapest alternative to remove the same. Numerous researches showed the potency of such low cost adsorbents in removing heavy metals, dyes etc. from the wastewater, but there is no literature available pertinent to the removal of parameters viz. COD, BOD etc. from the wastewater. The present research aims to study the alteration of functional parameters viz. Adsorbent Dosages and pH in the removal of COD by comparing its efficiency supplemented with batch adsorption studies on the low cost adsorbents viz. Neem Leaves and Coconut Husk. © The Electrochemical Society

4.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869807

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, lineage B.1.617.2, exhibit faster initial infection with a higher viral load than prior variants, and pseudotyped viral particles bearing the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant spike protein induce a faster initial infection rate of target cells compared to those bearing other SARS-CoV-2 variant spikes. Here, we show that pseudotyped viral particles bearing the Delta variant spike form unique aggregates, as evidenced by negative stain and cryogenic electron microscopy (EM), flow cytometry, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Viral particles pseudotyped with other SARS-CoV-2 spike variants do not show aggregation by any of these criteria. The contribution to infection kinetics of the Delta spike's unique property to aggregate is discussed with respect to recent evidence for collective infection by other viruses. Irrespective of this intriguing possibility, spike-dependent aggregation is a new functional parameter of spike-expressing viral particles to evaluate in future spike protein variants.


Subject(s)
Retroviridae , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Retroviridae/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Clin Immunol ; 236: 108959, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850856

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely implemented. Effects of treatment on the endogenous primary humoral response to the virus are unknown. A retrospective cohort study performed at a Veterans Health Administration medical center compared serologic responses of treated and untreated COVID-19 patients at high risk for severe outcomes. Three anti-viral spike protein IgG monoclonal treatments were used during the study period, 1) bamlanivimab, 2) casirivimab with imdevimab, and 3) bamlanivimab with etesevimab. Data were analyzed at acute (0-9 days), seroconversion (10-19 days), and maximum antibody (20-39 days) stages. SARS-Cov-2 infection induced a dynamic primary humoral response with anti-spike IgM and anti-nucleocapsid IgG seroconversion occurring after 9 days with maximum serologic indices achieved by 20-39 days. All monoclonal antibody treatments suppressed the endogenous anti-spike IgM response by 85-90% with minor effect on the anti-nucleocapsid response. Thus, passive immunization therapy may cause immunologic interference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Comput Soc Sci ; 5(1): 1023-1040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850509

ABSTRACT

Research has indicated that excessive and sensationalized suicide reporting can lead to copycat suicides, especially when deaths involve well-known people. Little is known, however, about the impact of the reporting of suspected protestor suicide deaths during social unrest, particularly in an age of social media. In June 2019, the most substantial social unrest in Hong Kong since its handover in 1997 was triggered by the proposed Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB). The social unrest subsided when Hong Kong and many parts of the world were hit by Covid-19 and very strict quarantine measures were imposed on crowd gatherings in Hong Kong at the end of January 2020. A number of reported suicides and deaths of undetermined cause took place during this 8-month period that received considerable attention. To better understand the possible effects of these highly publicized deaths, we examined media reports of suspected suicide cases before, during and after the protest period, as well as topics of suicide-related threads and their replies in social media forums. We found no clear evidence of increased rates of suicide as a result of these incidents, or during the protest period; however, it is suggested that certain narratives and attention surrounding the suspected suicides and undetermined deaths may have contributed to collective emotions such as sadness and anxiety. Some implications for misinformation (intentionally or un-intentionally) and mitigation of suicide risk during social unrest are discussed.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(10): 1159-1168, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846610

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The outcomes of survivors of critical illness due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) compared with non-COVID-19 are yet to be established. Objectives: We aimed to investigate new disability at 6 months in mechanically ventilated patients admitted to Australian ICUs with COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19. Methods: We included critically ill patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 from two prospective observational studies. Patients were eligible if they were adult (age ⩾ 8 yr) and received ⩾24 hours of mechanical ventilation. In addition, patients with COVID-19 were eligible with a positive laboratory PCR test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Measurements and Main Results: Demographic, intervention, and hospital outcome data were obtained from electronic medical records. Survivors were contacted by telephone for functional outcomes with trained outcome assessors using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Between March 6, 2020, and April 21, 2021, 120 critically ill patients with COVID-19, and between August 2017 and January 2019, 199 critically ill patients without COVID-19, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Patients with COVID-19 were older (median [interquartile range], 62 [55-71] vs. 58 [44-69] yr; P = 0.019) with a lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (17 [13-20] vs. 19 [15-23]; P = 0.011). Although duration of ventilation was longer in patients with COVID-19 than in those without COVID-19 (12 [5-19] vs. 4.8 [2.3-8.8] d; P < 0.001), 180-day mortality was similar between the groups (39/120 [32.5%] vs. 70/199 [35.2%]; P = 0.715). The incidence of death or new disability at 180 days was similar (58/93 [62.4%] vs. 99/150 [66/0%]; P = 0.583). Conclusions: At 6 months, there was no difference in new disability for patients requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04401254).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Survivors
9.
Nature Communications ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837520

ABSTRACT

Engineered natural killer (NK) cells represent a promising option for immune therapy option due to their immediate availability in allogeneic settings. Severe acute diseases, such as COVID-19, require targeted and immediate intervention. Here we show engineering of NK cells to express (1) soluble interleukin-15 (sIL15) for enhancing their survival and (2) a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an extracellular domain of ACE2, targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. These CAR NK cells (mACE2-CAR_sIL15 NK cells) bind to VSV-SARS-CoV-2 chimeric viral particles as well as the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunit S1 leading to enhanced NK cell production of TNF-α and IFN-γ and increased in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity against cells expressing the spike protein. Administration of mACE2-CAR_sIL15 NK cells maintains body weight, reduces viral load, and prolongs survival of transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 upon infection with live SARS-CoV-2. These experiments, and the capacity of mACE2-CAR_sIL15 NK cells to retain their activity following cryopreservation, demonstrate their potential as an allogeneic off-the-shelf therapy for COVID-19 patients who are faced with limited treatment options.Severe COVID-19 requires immediate and targeted intervention that is efficient against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Authors show here the therapeutic potential of engineered natural killer cells that simultaneously express a chimeric antigen receptor targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and IL-15, a cytokine that enhances the function and survival of their own.

10.
2021 International Conference on Computational Performance Evaluation, ComPE 2021 ; : 702-709, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831754

ABSTRACT

The era of sudden eruption of the COVID-19 infection, since January 2020, drew much attention of the world due to its impact turning into a large-scale issue for all the countries, and thus an alarm of Corona Pandemic was declared all across, by February 2020. The same adverse effect was sensed by the middle of March 2020 in India too, when the declaration of total lockdown in the country was left as the only option which was implemented on 24th March 2020, by the Government of India. Such sudden development of hopes and apprehensions in the minds of all in India, sparked a thought of reducing the scope of spread of and infection due to this deadly virus to a considerable amount, mainly in the process of the exchange of various kinds of reading materials including books, by the students, in the post COVID-19 scenario.As a preparatory measure, this thought got converted into the development of a book sanitizer to be housed in the Library of the North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, on the initiatives shown by the Dy. Librarian, which led the authors, in My 2020 to take up the project of developing an appropriate device The objective was to generate a device which sanitizes the books and other hard form reading materials maintained in the Library and remains free from contamination of the Corona virus to the maximum. For that, a book sanitizing machine is developed in a span of nearly three months. The device, named as Automated Book Sanitizing Composite Machine (ABSCoM) works on the technique based on the principle of UV-ray irradiation, integrated with the thermal exposure of the books in a controlled manner. A special feature of automation is employed to monitor the parameters of critical temperature set for the exposure at which the SARS virus is reported to get destroyed. Additionally, the time of thermal exposure of book and the relative humidity level of each book in the stack of books loaded in the device for sanitization is also monitored through microcontroller system and a bell alarming component. Sufficient care for maintaining the quality of the book post sanitization, as original, is the additional key factor in developing this device. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(s1):3-4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1829851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Suicide is a growing public health problem with the rate of suicide increasing 33% since 1999. Physicians are not immune to this growing problem. Physicians represent a unique population that has been understudied with respect to suicide. The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors unique to physicians compared to the general population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, a nationwide CDC database which aggregates information on violent deaths, we extracted demographic and circumstantial data on 172,135 suicide decedents ≥ 25 years old in participating states from 2003-2017. Of these, we found complete information regarding demographics, occupation, and circumstance for 160,159 suicide decedents. We separated suicide decedents by physician-status and compared 795 physicians to 159,364 non-physician decedents using chi-squared test. We then used multivariate logistic regression to examine differences in suicide method and circumstance by physician-status status, controlling for age, sex, and race. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to non-physicians, physicians were more likely to be male (84.5% vs 77.3%, p<0.001) and older (45.1% ≥65 vs. 17.8%, p<0.001). Controlling for demographics, physicians were less likely to complete suicide by firearm (aOR=0.60, 95%CI=0.51-0.71) but were more likely to suicide by overdose (aOR=1.41, 95%CI=1.13-1.77) or cutting (aOR=2.81, 95%CI=2.03-3.88). Physicians were more likely to have job related stressors (aOR=2.24, 95%Cl=1.83-2.74) and legal problems (aOR=2.34, 95%Cl=1.70-3.21). Physicians were also more likely to leave a suicide note (aOR=1.48, 95%Cl=1.26-1.73) but were less likely to be intoxicated on alcohol at time of death (aOR=0.76, 95%Cl=0.62-0.93). Physicians were no different than non-physicians in terms of financial or relational stressors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Physicians are more likely to be male and older. Given their medical training, overdose and cutting may be more accessible and lethal methods for physicians. Physicians are more likely to leave a suicide note and less likely to be intoxicated, which may imply less impulsivity. Job stressors and legal problems may also contribute to physician suicide.

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(4): e008900, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807749
13.
Electronic Devices, Circuits, and Systems for Biomedical Applications: Challenges and Intelligent Approach ; : 521-540, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of a viruses that causes illness ranging from a normal cold to severe disease. COVID-19 is another strain that has not been distinguished in humans before. As this virus is rapidly spreading all over the globe, we need to implement a mathematical model to estimate the prediction of new cases as well as how to classify that a person is COVID-19 positive or not by considering the practical scenario in India. In this research, we proposed three different supervised machine learning techniques for diagnosis of COVID-19. We have compared classification results of different techniques, i.e., bagging algorithm, k-nearest neighbor, and random forest for classifying the datasets of COVID-19. For the classification purpose, we took symptoms from a Covid-19 tracker in India, whereas India has entered into the second stage. The performance of each technique is evaluated using various performance measures. The classification results show that the random forest gives better results, employing accuracy of 85.71% and F1 score of 0.833. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-487415

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, lineage B.1.617.2, exhibit faster initial infection with a higher viral load than prior variants, and pseudotyped particles bearing the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant spike protein induce a faster initial infection rate of target cells compared to those bearing other SARS-CoV-2 variant spikes. Here, we show that pseudotyped particles bearing the Delta variant spike form unique aggregates, as evidenced by negative stain and cryogenic electron microscopy (EM), flow cytometry, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Viral particles pseudotyped with other SARS-CoV-2 spike variants do not show aggregation by any of these criteria. The contribution to infection kinetics of the Delta spikes unique property to aggregate is discussed with respect to recent evidence for collective infection by other viruses. Irrespective of this intriguing possibility, spike-dependent aggregation is a new functional parameter of spike-expressing viral particles to evaluate in future spike protein variants.

15.
Pirkis, Jane, Gunnell, David, Shin, Sangsoo, DelPozo-Banos, Marcos, Arya, Vikas, Analuisa Aguilar, Pablo, Appleby, Louis, Arafat, S. M. Yasir, Arensman, Ella, Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis, Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh, Bantjes, Jason, Baran, Anna, Behera, Chittaranjan, Bertolote, Jose, Borges, Guilherme, Bray, Michael, Brečić, Petrana, Caine, Eric D.; Calati, Raffaella, Carli, Vladimir, Castelpietra, Giulio, Chan, Lai Fong, Chang, Shu-Sen, Colchester, David, Coss-Guzmán, Maria, Crompton, David, Curkovic, Marko, Dandona, Rakhi, De Jaegere, Eva, De Leo, Diego, Deisenhammer, Eberhard, Dwyer, Jeremy, Erlangsen, Annette, Faust, Jeremy, Fornaro, Michele, Fortune, Sarah, Garrett, Andrew, Gentile, Guendalina, Gerstner, Rebekka, Gilissen, Renske, Gould, Madelyn, Gupta, Sudhir Kumar, Hawton, Keith, Holz, Franziska, Kamenshchikov, Iurii, Kapur, Navneet, Kasal, Alexandr, Khan, Murad, Kirtley, Olivia, Knipe, Duleeka, Kolves, Kairi, Kölzer, Sarah, Krivda, Hryhorii, Leske, Stuart, Madeddu, Fabio, Marshall, Andrew, Memon, Anjum, Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor, Nestadt, Paul, Neznanov, Nikolay, Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas, Nielsen, Emma, Nordentoft, Merete, Oberlerchner, Herwig, O'Connor, Rory, Papsdorf, Rainer, Partonen, Timo, Michael, Phillips, Platt, Steve, Portzky, Gwendolyn, Psota, Georg, Qin, Ping, Radeloff, Daniel, Reif, Andreas, Reif-Leonhard, Christine, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Román-Vázquez, Nayda, Roskar, Saska, Rozanov, Vsevolod, Sara, Grant, Scavacini, Karen, Schneider, Barbara, Semenova, Natalia, Sinyor, Mark, Tambuzzi, Stefano, Townsend, Ellen, Ueda, Michiko, Wasserman, Danuta, Webb, Roger T.; Winkler, Petr, Yip, Paul S. F.; Zalsman, Gil, Zoja, Riccardo, John, Ann, Spittal, Matthew J..
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331684

ABSTRACT

Background When the COVID-19 pandemic began there were concerns that suicides might rise, but predicted increases were not generally observed in the pandemic’s early months. However, the picture may be changing and patterns may vary across demographic groups. We aimed to provide an up-to-date, granular picture of the impact of COVID-19 on suicides globally.Methods We identified suicide data from official public-sector sources for countries/areas-within-countries. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to model the association between the pandemic’s emergence and total suicides and suicides by sex-, age- and sex-by-age in each country/area-within-country. We compared the observed number of suicides to the expected number in the pandemic’s first nine and first 10-15 months and used meta-regression to explore sources of variation.Findings We sourced data from 33 countries (24 high-income, six upper-middle-income, three lower-middle-income). There was no evidence of greater-than-expected numbers of suicides in the majority of countries/areas-within-countries in any analysis;more commonly, there was evidence of lower-than-expected numbers. Certain sex, age and sex-by-age groups stood out as potentially concerning, but these were not consistent across countries/areas-within-countries. In the meta-regression, different patterns were not explained by countries’ COVID-19 mortality rate, stringency of public health response, level of economic support, or presence of a national suicide prevention strategy. They were also not explained by countries’ income level, although the meta-regression only included data from high-income and upper-middle-income countries, and there were suggestions from the ITS analyses that lower-middle-income countries fared less well.Interpretation Although there are some countries/areas-within-countries where overall suicide numbers and numbers for certain sex- and age-based groups are greater-than-expected, these are in the minority. Any upward movement in suicide numbers in any place or group is concerning, and we need to remain alert to and respond to changes as the pandemic and its mental health and economic consequences continue.

17.
18th IEEE India Council International Conference, INDICON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752415

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the outbreak of the coronavirus has turned human life upside down globally. In this study we present a way of detecting and classifying COVID-19, Viral Pneumonia and Normal classes through chest X-Ray images of the patients using deep learning approach. In this work the database used is Covid-19 Radiography database and we have performed multi-class classification on Chest X-ray images using proposed Customized Convolution Neural Network, Residual Network-50(ResNet-50) and using transfer learning on DenseNet-121 models. Evaluation of the models is done through confusion matrix which further computed the test accuracy, sensitivity/ recall, precision and f1-score. The performance of all the models were quite similar but the Custom CNN performs better with test and validation accuracy of 96% in comparison with the ResNet-50 model which had a validation accuracy of 92% and DenseNet-121 model having a validation accuracy of 80.89% after implementing transfer learning. © 2021 IEEE.

18.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2131-2131, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751360
19.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(3):DC1-DC5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744634

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with damage of cells of both innate and adaptive immunity, which results in immune system's impairment leading to secondary infections. Microbiological evaluation helps in diagnostic as well as antimicrobial stewardship leading to accurate treatment of COVID-19 infected patients. Aim: To evaluate superadded bacterial and fungal infections in COVID-19 infected patients and to evaluate bacterial and fungal infections in COVID-19 non infected patients admitted with Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India, over a period of eight months (May to December, 2020). Respiratory samples, received from indoor patients with history of ARI, were processed for COVID-19 (TrueNat Real Time Polymerase chain reaction) as well as for bacterial and fungal cultures following Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Identification and susceptibility pattern was evaluated by Vitek2 compact system (bioMérieux, Inc. Durham, North Carolina/USA). Quality control strains used were American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Staphylococcus aureus 29213, Escherichia coli 25922 and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) levels were standardised as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline, 2020. All statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test using Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Results: Total patients admitted with the history of ARI were 542;COVID-19 Positive Group (CPG) included 115 (21.22%) while COVID-19 Negative Group (CNG) included 427 (78.78%). Growth in bacterial and fungal cultures in CPG was 59.13% (68/115) while in CNG;it was 47.78% (204/427). Among the bacterial isolates, most common isolate was Klebsiella pneumoniae {CPG: 41.93% (26/62);CNG: 36.72% (76/207)}, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa {CPG: 33.87% (21/62);CNG: 31.88% (66/207)}. Fungal isolates in CPG was 19.48% (15/77) (p-value 0.0445). On comparing Antimicrobial Susceptibility (AST) pattern of Enterobacterales in both CPG (n=36) and CNG (n=102), no statistically significant difference was observed. Co-morbid conditions were found mostly in CNG 89% (140/158) with ARI while only 11% (18/158) was found in CPG. Conclusion: Secondary respiratory infections are quite common amongst COVID-19 positive patients. However, growth in culture, type of isolates, Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was almost similar with COVID-19 non infected patients admitted with ARI. Co-morbidity had the similar impact as COVID-19 infection with respect to co-infections.

20.
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management ; 16(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743155

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to present a better understanding of the specialized telehealth service in Bangladesh from the service provider and service recipients by aged people METHOD: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients. Data were collected by online telephone interviewing with an interview schedule. A total of 100 aged people with diabetes were selected purposively for a quantitative interview and 10 In-depth Interviews (IDIs) & Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. RESULT: The majority of patients aged was between 61 to 68 years with a mean age of 63.6 ± 7.01years. The difference of age of DM patients by sex was found statistically significant (x2 = 39.49, df = 31;Cramer’s V = .032;P=<.003). The main source of information about digital health was: relatives (55%), neighbors (31%), television (12%), newspaper (10%), social media (9%), and healthcare providers (6%). Strong relationship was found between age of respondents and sources of information (x2= 77.08;Cramer’s V= .032, df = 13;Sig;P= < .009). About 59% of DM patients were benefited from telehealth services during COVID-19, however;they encountered some difficulties like effective access to digital technology, cost, and diagnosis facilities. About 83% of respondents suggest formalizing community engagement programs to extend the digital health services during a health emergency. The common barriers to the engagement of community people in digital health care are lack of social awareness, lack of peer group support, and gender disparities. Poor counseling, language barrier, bad internet signal, and lack of family members' support were the key barriers during teleconsultation services. CONCLUSION: Telehealth has the potential to address critical health issues of aged people and effective community engagement may be the best option to reach older people with diabetes in Bangladesh during any health emergency. © 2021 Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management. All rights reserved.

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