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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(2):976, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166552

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and resulting COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic have required mass diagnostic testing, often taking place in testing sites within hospitals, clinics, or at satellite locations. To establish the potential of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission and to identify junctures during testing that result in increased viral exposure, aerosol and surface samples were examined for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from locations within Nebraska Medicine COVID-19 testing and vaccine clinics. Aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected within clinics suggest viral shedding from infected individuals. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in aerosol samples was shown to correlate with clinic operation and patient infection, as well as with community infection findings. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in surface samples collected from clinics. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in aerosols in these clinics supports the continued use of respiratory protection and sanitization practices for healthcare workers, and other workers with public facing occupations.

2.
Southern Medical Journal ; 115(12):921-925, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2145446

ABSTRACT

Since the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 in December 2019, millions of people have been infected and succumbed to death because of this deadly virus. Cardiovascular complications such as thromboembolism and arrhythmia are predominant causes of morbidity and mortality. Different scores previously used for atrial fibrillation (AF) identification or prediction of its complications were investigated by physicians to understand whether those scores can predict in-hospital mortality or AF among patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus-2 virus. Using such scores gives hope for early prediction of atrial arrhythmia and in-hospital mortality among coronavirus disease 2019-infected patients. We have discussed the mechanisms of AF and cardiovascular damage in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, different methods of AF prediction, and compared different scores for prediction of in-hospital mortality after this viral infection.

4.
Lancet ; 399(10342): 2212-2225, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. METHODS: COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 × 1010 viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). FINDINGS: Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years; due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40·2°C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50; 95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1·48 [95% CI 1·07-2·07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2·96 [1·89-4·62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. FUNDING: AstraZeneca and the UK Department of Health and Social Care through the UK National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 167-179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity profile of COVID-19 vaccines when administered concomitantly with seasonal influenza vaccines have not yet been reported. We therefore aimed to report the results of a substudy within a phase 3 UK trial, by evaluating the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 when co-administered with licensed seasonal influenza vaccines. METHODS: We did a planned exploratory substudy as part of the randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) by co-administrating the influenza vaccine at four study hospitals in the UK. Approximately, the first 400 participants meeting the main study entry criteria-with no contraindications to influenza vaccination-were invited to join the substudy. Participants of the main study were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive two intramuscular injections of either NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg) or placebo (normal saline) 21 days apart; participants enrolled into the substudy were co-vaccinated with a single (0·5 mL) intramuscular, age-appropriate (quadrivalent influenza cell-based vaccine [Flucelvax Quadrivalent; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those aged 18-64 years and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine [Fluad; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those ≥65 years), licensed, influenza vaccine on the opposite deltoid to that of the first study vaccine dose or placebo. The influenza vaccine was administered in an open-label manner and at the same time as the first study injection. Reactogenicity was evaluated via an electronic diary for 7 days after vaccination in addition to monitoring for unsolicited adverse events, medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events. Immunogenicity was assessed with influenza haemagglutination inhibition and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike protein IgG assays. Vaccine efficacy against PCR-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19 was assessed in participants who were seronegative at baseline, received both doses of study vaccine or placebo, had no major protocol deviations affecting the primary endpoint, and had no confirmed cases of symptomatic COVID-19 from the first dose until 6 days after the second dose (per-protocol efficacy population). Immunogenicity was assessed in participants who received scheduled two doses of study vaccine, had a baseline sample and at least one post-vaccination sample, and had no major protocol violations before unmasking (per-protocol immunogenicity population). Reactogenicity was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo and had data collected for reactogenicity events. Safety was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo. Comparisons were made between participants of the substudy and the main study (who were not co-vaccinated for influenza). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04583995. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Nov 28, 2020, a total of 15 187 participants were randomised into the main phase 3 trial, of whom 15 139 received treatment (7569 received dose one of NVX-CoV2373 and 7570 received dose one of placebo). 431 participants were co-vaccinated with a seasonal influenza vaccine in the substudy (217 received NVX-CoV2373 plus the influenza vaccine and 214 received placebo plus the influenza vaccine). In general, the substudy participants were younger, more racially diverse, and had fewer comorbid conditions than those in the main study. Reactogenicity events were more common in the co-administration group than in the NVX-CoV2373 alone group: tenderness (113 [64·9%] of 174 vs 592 [53·3%] of 1111) or pain (69 [39·7%] vs 325 [29·3%]) at injection site, fatigue (48 [27·7%] vs 215 [19·4%]), and muscle pain (49 [28·3%] vs 237 [21·4%]). Incidences of unsolicited adverse events, treatment-related medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events were low and balanced between the co-administration group and the NVX-CoV2373 alone group. No episodes of anaphylaxis or deaths were reported within the substudy. Co-administration resulted in no change to influenza vaccine immune response although a reduction in antibody responses to the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was noted. NVX-CoV2373 vaccine efficacy in the substudy (ie, participants aged 18 to <65 years) was 87·5% (95% CI -0·2 to 98·4) and in the main study was 89·8% (95% CI 79·7-95·5). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this substudy is the first to show the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy profile of a COVID-19 vaccine when co-administered with seasonal influenza vaccines. Our results suggest concomitant vaccination might be a viable immunisation strategy. FUNDING: Novavax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
6.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1743-1752, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Laboratory screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a key mitigation measure to avoid the spread of infection among recruits starting basic combat training in a congregate setting. Because viral nucleic acid can be detected persistently after recovery, we evaluated other laboratory markers to distinguish recruits who could proceed with training from those who were infected. METHODS: Recruits isolated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were serially tested for SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA), and viral load (VL) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and for anti- SARS-CoV-2. Cluster and quadratic discriminant analyses of results were performed. RESULTS: Among 229 recruits isolated for COVID-19, those with a RT-PCR cycle threshold >30.49 (sensitivity 95%, specificity 96%) or having sgRNA log10 RNA copies/mL <3.09 (sensitivity and specificity 96%) at entry into isolation were likely SARS-CoV-2 uninfected. Viral load >4.58 log10 RNA copies/mL or anti-SARS-CoV-2 signal-to-cutoff ratio <1.38 (VL: sensitivity and specificity 93%; anti-SARS-CoV-2: sensitivity 83%, specificity 79%) had comparatively lower sensitivity and specificity when used alone for discrimination of infected from uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: Orthogonal laboratory assays used in combination with RT-PCR may have utility in determining SARS-CoV-2 infection status for decisions regarding isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(11): 1049-1060, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which might influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose booster programmes. Here, we report exploratory analyses from the Com-COV trial, assessing the effect of 4-week versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and the persistence of immune response up to 6 months after homologous and heterologous priming schedules using the vaccines BNT162b2 (tozinameran, Pfizer/BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). METHODS: Com-COV was a participant-masked, randomised immunogenicity trial. For these exploratory analyses, we used the trial's general cohort, in which adults aged 50 years or older were randomly assigned to four homologous and four heterologous vaccine schedules using BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with 4-week or 12-week priming intervals (eight groups in total). Immunogenicity analyses were done on the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, comprising participants with no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline or for the trial duration, to assess the effect of priming interval on humoral and cellular immune response 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, in addition to the effects on reactogenicity and safety. The Com-COV trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, 69254139 (EudraCT 2020-005085-33). FINDINGS: Between Feb 11 and 26, 2021, 730 participants were randomly assigned in the general cohort, with 77-89 per group in the ITT analysis. At 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, the geometric mean concentration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG was significantly higher in the 12-week interval groups than in the 4-week groups for homologous schedules. In heterologous schedule groups, we observed a significant difference between intervals only for the BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group at 28 days. Pseudotyped virus neutralisation titres were significantly higher in all 12-week interval groups versus 4-week groups, 28 days post-second dose, with geometric mean ratios of 1·4 (95% CI 1·1-1·8) for homologous BNT162b2, 1·5 (1·2-1·9) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2, 1·6 (1·3-2·1) for BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 2·4 (1·7-3·2) for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. At 6 months post-second dose, anti-spike IgG geometric mean concentrations fell to 0·17-0·24 of the 28-day post-second dose value across all eight study groups, with only homologous BNT162b2 showing a slightly slower decay for the 12-week versus 4-week interval in the adjusted analysis. The rank order of schedules by humoral response was unaffected by interval, with homologous BNT162b2 remaining the most immunogenic by antibody response. T-cell responses were reduced in all 12-week priming intervals compared with their 4-week counterparts. 12-week schedules for homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2 were up to 80% less reactogenic than 4-week schedules. INTERPRETATION: These data support flexibility in priming interval in all studied COVID-19 vaccine schedules. Longer priming intervals might result in lower reactogenicity in schedules with BNT162b2 as a second dose and higher humoral immunogenicity in homologous schedules, but overall lower T-cell responses across all schedules. Future vaccines using these novel platforms might benefit from schedules with long intervals. FUNDING: UK Vaccine Taskforce and National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
8.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.22.22282480

ABSTRACT

Optimization of control measures for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in high-risk institutional settings (e.g., prisons, nursing homes, or military bases) depends on how transmission dynamics in the broader community influence outbreak risk locally. We calibrated an individual-based transmission model of a military training camp to the number of RT-PCR positive trainees throughout 2020 and 2021. The predicted number of infected new arrivals closely followed adjusted national incidence and increased early outbreak risk after accounting for vaccination coverage, masking compliance, and virus variants. Outbreak size was strongly correlated with the predicted number of off-base infections among staff during training camp. In addition, off-base infections reduced the impact of arrival screening and masking, while the number of infectious trainees upon arrival reduced the impact of vaccination and staff testing. Our results highlight the importance of outside incidence patterns for modulating risk and the optimal mixture of control measures in institutional settings.

9.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075649

ABSTRACT

The present study sought to investigate the mediating effect of the affective balance and resilience on the association between meaningful living and psychological health problems among Turkish young adults in the context of COVID-19. The participants were 359 Turkish young adults, comprising of primarily female (68.2%), and their age ranged between 18 to 43 (age M = 20.67, SD = 3.62). Findings from this study indicated that meaningful living had a positive predictive effect on resilience and positive affect, as well as a negative predicative on psychological health challenges and negative affect. Resilience and affective balance also mediated the effect of meaningful living on psychological health of young adults. These results suggest that resilience and affective balance are important aspects of meaning-focused preventions and interventions designed to build up resilience, positive affectivity, and psychological health.

10.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066209

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis is emerging as a global health issue, and this is reflected by a series of registries that were established worldwide [...].

11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(10): e1010489, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065096

ABSTRACT

Like other congregate living settings, military basic training has been subject to outbreaks of COVID-19. We sought to identify improved strategies for preventing outbreaks in this setting using an agent-based model of a hypothetical cohort of trainees on a U.S. Army post. Our analysis revealed unique aspects of basic training that require customized approaches to outbreak prevention, which draws attention to the possibility that customized approaches may be necessary in other settings, too. In particular, we showed that introductions by trainers and support staff may be a major vulnerability, given that those individuals remain at risk of community exposure throughout the training period. We also found that increased testing of trainees upon arrival could actually increase the risk of outbreaks, given the potential for false-positive test results to lead to susceptible individuals becoming infected in group isolation and seeding outbreaks in training units upon release. Until an effective transmission-blocking vaccine is adopted at high coverage by individuals involved with basic training, need will persist for non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent outbreaks in military basic training. Ongoing uncertainties about virus variants and breakthrough infections necessitate continued vigilance in this setting, even as vaccination coverage increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recombinant protein-based vaccine, NVX-CoV2373, demonstrated 89.7% efficacy against COVID-19 in a phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in the United Kingdom. The protocol was amended to include a blinded crossover; data to the end of the placebo-controlled phase are reported. METHODS: Adults aged 18-84 years received two doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo (1:1) and were monitored for virologically confirmed mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 (onset from 7 days after second vaccination). Participants who seroconverted to immunoglobulin G (IgG) against the nucleocapsid protein and did not meet criteria for symptomatic COVID-19 were classified as having asymptomatic disease. Secondary outcomes included anti-spike (S) IgG responses, wild-type virus neutralization, and T-cell responses. RESULTS: Of 15185 participants, 13989 remained in the per-protocol efficacy population (6989 NVX-CoV2373, 7000 placebo). At a maximum of 7.5 months (median, 4.5 months) postvaccination, there were 24 cases of COVID-19 among NVX-CoV2373 recipients and 134 cases among placebo recipients, a vaccine efficacy of 82.7% (95% CI: 73.3-88.8). Vaccine efficacy was 100% (17.9-100.0) against severe disease and 76.3% (57.4-86.8) against asymptomatic disease. High anti-S and neutralization responses to vaccination were evident, together with S-protein-specific induction of interferon-γ secretion in peripheral blood T cells. Incidence of serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of NVX-CoV2373 conferred a high level of ongoing protection against asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe COVID-19 through >6 months postvaccination. A gradual decrease of protection suggests that a booster dose may be indicated.

13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(5): 397-402, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a costly problem, and it appears to be getting worse due to COVID-related stressors. It is thus important for organizations to find better tools to prevent and mitigate worker burnout. METHODS: Conditional PROCESS path analysis was used to assess the relation of hardiness to burnout in a representative sample of U.S. workers, with sex and age as potential moderators. RESULTS: Hardiness is associated with reduced burnout symptoms. Sex did not moderate this relation. A moderating effect for age was observed, with more burnout appearing in younger, less hardy workers. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest hardiness operates similarly for men and women as a buffer against burnout, and that older workers are less vulnerable to burnout. Training programs to increase stress appraisals and coping skills used by more experienced, hardy workers may be beneficial in reducing burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Personality
14.
Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys 2022 ; 543 LNNS:597-608, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects the banking sector to its maximum and moreover the repayments of the loans have become very dicey. Financial Industries like SBI are one of the major elements of the economic development of India. In the pandemic the Government has formulated various monetary and fiscal policies to deal with crisis for commercial banks under the supervision of Reserve Bank of India. To pursue these policies forward ensuring economic, industrial, socio-political and methodical development, they need proper funds to support lending to various corporate and individual customers. If any of the loan facilities granted become bad debt or doubtful debts then the goal of the policies is not fulfilled and it will mount the record of bad debt in the books of commercial banking especially after demonetization and pandemic. The paper deals with the factors like Loan Portfolio Management, Term Loan, Monetary Policies, and Change in Tax Rates and Loan performances. It represents and compares the input variables and its relations to predict the upcoming low performer of the credits. It determines to what extent the factors are affecting an individual and a corporate customer of the State Bank of India. A model through fuzzy logic and neural network is being developed to predict the low performing creditors. The factors are evaluated on the platform of python and the results are satisfactory. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 959577, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022793

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, continues to spread globally even as vaccine strategies are proving effective in preventing hospitalizations and deaths. However, evolving variants of the virus appear to be more transmissive and vaccine efficacy toward them is waning. As a result, SARS-CoV-2 will continue to have a deadly impact on public health into the foreseeable future. One strategy to bypass the continuing problem of newer variants is to target host proteins required for viral replication. We have used this host-targeted antiviral (HTA) strategy that targets DDX3X (DDX3), a host DEAD-box RNA helicase that is usurped by SARS-CoV-2 for virus production. We demonstrated that targeting DDX3 with RK-33, a small molecule inhibitor, reduced the viral load in four isolates of SARS-CoV-2 (Lineage A, and Lineage B Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants) by one to three log orders in Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, proteomics and RNA-seq analyses indicated that most SARS-CoV-2 genes were downregulated by RK-33 treatment. Also, we show that the use of RK-33 decreases TMPRSS2 expression, which may be due to DDX3s ability to unwind G-quadraplex structures present in the TMPRSS2 promoter. The data presented support the use of RK-33 as an HTA strategy to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, irrespective of its mutational status, in humans.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 317: 236-244, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996303

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to sharp increases in mental health problems around the world, most notably in anxiety and depression. The present study examines hardiness and age as potential protective factors against the mental health effects of COVID-related stress. A sample of Canadians balanced across age and gender, completed an online survey including measures of COVID related stressors, hardiness, depression, and anxiety, along with age, gender, and other demographics. Conditional PROCESS analysis showed that COVID stressors led to significant increases in anxiety and depression. Hardiness moderated these relations, with those high in hardiness showing less anxiety and depression. Age was negatively related to anxiety and depression, with highest levels observed among the younger respondents. At the same time, a moderating effect of age was found with respect to depression, with older people showing sharper increases in depression as COVID-related stress goes up. Gender was not a significant factor in any of these relations, meaning that the results apply equally well to both women and men. This study provides evidence that younger people who are also low in hardiness are most vulnerable to developing anxiety and depression while under COVID stress, and so would likely benefit from preventive intervention strategies. While anxiety and depression symptoms are highest among the young, older age groups appear more vulnerable to increasing rates of depression symptoms related to COVID stress. Clinicians and practitioners should thus be especially vigilant for COVID related increases in depression among older people, and those low in psychological hardiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Canada , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore COVID-19 vaccination uptake, facilitators and barriers in ethnically-diverse pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: An anonymous quality improvement questionnaire survey exploring COVID-19 vaccination uptake, causes of vaccine hesitancy and trusted sources of information among pregnant women in two acute district general hospitals in England (Berkshire and Surrey) between 1.9.21 and 28.2.22. POPULATION: 441 pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic appointments. METHODS: Consented pregnant women completed the survey either electronically using a QR code or on paper. Descriptive data were summarised and free text responses were thematically analysed. RESULTS: 441 pregnant women, mean age 32 years (range 17-44), completed the survey. Twenty-six percent were from ethnic minority groups, and 31% had a co-morbid health condition. Most respondents (66.2%) had been vaccinated against COVID-19 with at least one dose (White British 71.9%, Asian 67.9%, White-other 63.6%, Black 33%). The most common reasons for not being vaccinated were concerns about effects on the unborn baby and future pregnancies, anxiety about possible adverse impact on the mother, not enough known about the vaccine, and lack of trust in vaccines. Comments included: "I'd rather not risk injecting the unknown into my body", and "I don't trust it." Although 23% used social media for information on COVID-19 vaccination, the most trusted sources were the patient's GP and midwife (43%) and official health-related websites such as NHS (39%). CONCLUSIONS: A third of these pregnant women had not been vaccinated against COVID-19. Trusted health professionals like midwives and GPs could have a crucial role in increasing vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnicity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
Shame 4 0: Investigating an emotion in digital worlds and the Fourth Industrial Revolution ; : 131-145, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1982076

ABSTRACT

This chapter highlights the importance of shame in the context of the 4IR, especially with respect to the threat of COVID-19. We pointed out the danger of shame-related cover-up, which may lead to more pandemics. We also emphasized the need for the framework of second wave positive psychology (PP 2.0) which embraces (1) the existential-spiritual perspective of transforming shame into personal growth and (2) the need to understand cultural difference between East and West in the experience and regulation of shame. In the age of COVID-19, the world suffered tragic losses of lives because of cover-ups and misinformation. Therefore, we propose that a sense of shame for violating the moral norm of speaking the truth and truthful international communications would be beneficial to humanity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979082

ABSTRACT

Painful castration of male piglets to avoid boar taint can potentially be replaced by three more ethical alternatives: entire male production in combination with a detection method, immunocastration (an active vaccination against the gonadotrophin-releasing factor, GnRF), and castration with pain relief (anesthesia and/or analgesia). With the aim of abandoning piglet castration and facilitating internal trade, the European Union (EU) was initially in favor of a single alternative. Immunocastration was proposed as a potential solution, but it has not yet been sufficiently assessed regarding its market potential. To address this point, this paper uses scenario analysis to examine whether and under what conditions immunocastration could be the general solution sought by the EU. The study constructs two extreme scenarios: one in which all uncertain elements negatively influence the growth of immunocastration; another in which all uncertain elements have positive influences. These scenarios provide insights into the variance in possible futures for the implementation of immunocastration. The results show that it is unlikely that immunocastration will become a single solution for all producers in the EU, because it is not the optimal solution for all types of EU pork production systems (i.e., cost-efficiency oriented, quality oriented, animal-friendly oriented, import dependent). Rather than debating and looking for evidence about which single method is the best for the entire EU, EU authorities are advised to allow the co-existence of all alternatives and to develop protocols for applying them in the pork industry.

20.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.08.08.503239

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines. Although several vaccines have received emergency approval through various public health agencies, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues. Emergent variants of concern, waning immunity in the vaccinated, evidence that vaccines may not prevent transmission and inequity in vaccine distribution have driven continued development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to address these public health needs. In this report, we evaluated a novel self-amplifying replicon RNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in a pigtail macaque model of COVID-19 disease. We found that this vaccine elicited strong binding and neutralizing antibody responses. While binding antibody responses were sustained, neutralizing antibody waned to undetectable levels after six months but were rapidly recalled and conferred protection from disease when the animals were challenged 7 months after vaccination as evident by reduced viral replication and pathology in the lower respiratory tract, reduced viral shedding in the nasal cavity and lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. Cumulatively, our data demonstrate in pigtail macaques that a self-amplifying replicon RNA vaccine can elicit durable and protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that this vaccine can provide durable protective efficacy and reduce viral shedding even after neutralizing antibody responses have waned to undetectable levels.

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