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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0057622, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759303

ABSTRACT

Free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across the United States are increasingly recognized for infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Through a cross-sectional study of 80 deer at three captive cervid facilities in central and southern Texas, we provide evidence of 34 of 36 (94.4%) white-tailed deer at a single captive cervid facility seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by neutralization assay (PRNT90), with endpoint titers as high as 1,280. In contrast, all tested white-tailed deer and axis deer (Axis axis) at two other captive cervid facilities were seronegative, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in respiratory swabs from deer at any of the three facilities. These data support transmission among captive deer that cannot be explained by human contact for each infected animal, as only a subset of the seropositive does had direct human contact. The facility seroprevalence was more than double of that reported from wild deer, suggesting that the confined environment may facilitate transmission. Further exploration of captive cervids and other managed animals for their role in the epizootiology of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding impacts on animal health and the potential for spillback transmission to humans or other animal taxa. IMPORTANCE As SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage of the human population increases and variants of concern continue to emerge, identification of the epidemiologic importance of animal virus reservoirs is critical. We found that nearly all (94.4%) of the captive white-tailed deer at a cervid facility in central Texas had neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. This seroprevalence is over double than that which has been reported from free-ranging deer from other regions of the United States. Horizontal transmission among deer may be facilitated in confinement. Tracking new infections among wild and confined deer is critical for understanding the importance of animal reservoirs for both veterinary and human health.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 839389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753381

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated a SARS-CoV-2 infection in placenta and fetal samples from an early pregnancy miscarriage in Midwest Brazil. The Gamma variant was isolated and fully sequenced from the placenta sample, but not from fetal samples. Our findings highlight potential adverse perinatal outcomes caused by SARS-CoV-2 Gamma infection during pregnancy.

4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707392

ABSTRACT

Advances in knowledge of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 have been acquired; however, the host factors that could explain the mild and severe forms of the disease are not fully understood. Thus, we proposed to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the inflammatory response of different groups of individuals, including healthcare workers (HCW), sick and dead COVID-19 patients and also recovered patients to contribute to this knowledge gap. Our objective is to relate the clinical evolution of these individuals with the level of detection and functionality of specific antibodies and with the production of inflammatory mediators. As main findings, IgA and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 were detected in asymptomatic HCW. IFN-γ and TNF-α levels were higher in symptomatic HCWs than patients with COVID-19 and those who died. Patients who died had higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and CCL2/MCP-1. We found an imbalance between antiviral and pro-inflammatory mediators in the groups, in which IFN-γ and TNF-α seem to be more associated with protection and IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 with pathology. Our work is pioneering the Brazilian population and corroborates data from people from other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Inflammation Mediators
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327103

ABSTRACT

In the present study, serum samples of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Brazil who were infected by the earlier SARS-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33, and by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma (P.1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 90 ) with wild isolates of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including B.1, Zeta, N.10, and the VOCs Gamma, Alpha, and Delta that emerged in different timeframes of the pandemic. The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate if serum of COVID-19 patients infected by earlier lineages of SARS-CoV-2 were capable to neutralize recently emerged VOCs, and if PRNT 90 is a reliable serologic method to distinguish infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Overall, sera collected from the day of admittance to the hospital to 21 days after diagnostic of patients infected by the two earlier lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 presented neutralizing capacity for all challenged VOCs, including Gamma and Delta, that were the most prevalent VOCs in Brazil. Among all variants tested, Delta and N.10 presented the lowest mean of neutralizing antibody titers, and B.1.1.7, presented the highest titers. Four patients infected with Gamma, that emerged in December 2020, presented neutralizing antibodies for B.1, B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28, its ancestor lineage. All of them had neutralizing antibodies under the level of detection for the VOC Delta. Interestingly, patients infected by B.1.1.28 presented very similar mean of neutralizing antibody titers for both B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28. Findings presented here indicate that most patients infected in early stages of COVID-19 pandemic presented neutralizing antibodies up to 21 days after diagnostic capable to neutralize wild types of all recently emerged VOCs in Brazil, and that the PRNT 90 it is not a reliable serologic method to distinguish natural infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311910

ABSTRACT

As part of a longitudinal household transmission study of pets living with persons with COVID-19 in Texas, two pets were confirmed to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC). The pets were a dog and a cat from the same household, sampled two days after their owner tested positive for COVID-19. The oral, nasal, and fur swabs for both pets tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR and consensus whole genome sequences from the dog and cat were 100 % identical and matched the B.1.1.7 VOC. Virus was isolated from the cat’s nasal swab. One month after initial detection of infection, the pets were re-tested twice at which time only the fur swabs (both pets) and oral swab (dog only) remained positive, and neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 were present in both animals. Sneezing by both pets was noted by the owner in the weeks between initial and follow-up testing. This study documents the first detection of B.1.1.7. in companion animals in the United States, and the first genome recovery and isolation of B.1.1.7 variant of concern globally in any animal.

7.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293389

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma during late 2020 and early 2021 in Brazilian settings with high seroprevalence raised some concern about the potential role of reinfections in driving the epidemic. Very few cases of reinfection associated with the VOC Gamma, however, have been reported. Here we describe 25 cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection confirmed by real-time RT-PCR twice within months apart in Brazil. SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis confirmed that individuals were primo-infected between March and December 2020 with distinct viral lineages, including B.1.1, B.1.1.28, B.1.1.33, B.1.195 and P.2, and then reinfected with the VOC Gamma between 3 to 12 months after primo-infection. The overall mean cycle threshold (Ct) value of the first (25.7) and second (24.5) episodes were roughly similar for the whole group and 14 individuals displayed mean Ct values < 25.0 at reinfection. Sera of 14 patients tested by plaque reduction neutralization test after reinfection displayed detectable neutralizing antibodies against Gamma and other SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1.33, B.1.1.28 and Delta). All individuals have milder or no symptoms after reinfection and none required hospitalization. The present study demonstrates that the VOC Gamma was associated with reinfections during the second Brazilian epidemic wave in 2021 and raised concern about the potential infectiousness of reinfected subjects. Although individuals here analyzed failed to mount a long-term sterilizing immunity, they developed a high anti-Gamma neutralizing antibody response after reinfection that may provide some protection against severe disease.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292316

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which continues to cause infections and mortality worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route and has experimentally been found to be stable on surfaces for multiple days. Flies (Diptera) and other arthropods mechanically transmit several pathogens, including turkey coronavirus. A previous experimental study demonstrated house flies, Musca domestica , can mechanically transmit SARS-CoV-2, but the ability of flies in general to acquire and deposit this virus in natural settings has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by peridomestic insects and their potential as a xenosurveillance tool for detection of the virus. Methods: : In order to optimize chances of viral detection, flies were trapped in homes where at least one confirmed human COVID-19 case(s) resided. Sticky and liquid baited fly traps were deployed inside and outside of the homes of SARS-CoV-2 human cases in Brazos, Bell, and Montgomery Counties, from June to September 2020. Flies from sticky traps were identified, pooled by taxa, homogenized, and tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Liquid traps were drained, and the collected fluid similarly tested after RNA concentration. Experimental viral detection pipeline and viral inactivation were confirmed in a Biosafety Level 3 lab. As part of a separate ongoing study, companion animals in the home were sampled and tested for SARS-CoV-2 on the same day of insect trap deployment. Results: : We processed the contents of 133 insect traps from 44 homes, which contained over 1,345 individual insects of 11 different Diptera families and Blattodea.These individuals were grouped into 243 pools, and all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Dead flies exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in a BSL3 lab were processed using the same methods and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Fourteen traps in seven homes were deployed on the day that cat or dog samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by nasal, oral, body, or rectal samples. Conclusions: : This study presents evidence that biting and non-biting flies are not likely to contribute to mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or be useful in xenosurveillance for SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 58-61, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487754

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of prolonged COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant in a fully vaccinated healthcare worker, 387 days after an infection caused by lineage B.1.1.33. Infections were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and corroborated by the detection of neutralizing antibodies in convalescent serum samples. Considering the permanent exposure of this healthcare worker to SARS-CoV-2, the waning immunity after the first infection, the low efficacy of the inactivated vaccine at preventing COVID-19, the immune escape of the Gamma variant (VOC), and the burden of post-COVID syndrome, this individual would have benefited from an additional dose of a heterologous vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Reinfection , Vaccines, Inactivated
11.
Cell ; 184(11): 2939-2954.e9, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343152

ABSTRACT

Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations, including P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa, and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10, and 9 changes in the spike, respectively). All have mutations in the ACE2 binding site, with P.1 and B.1.351 having a virtually identical triplet (E484K, K417N/T, and N501Y), which we show confer similar increased affinity for ACE2. We show that, surprisingly, P.1 is significantly less resistant to naturally acquired or vaccine-induced antibody responses than B.1.351, suggesting that changes outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD) impact neutralization. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 222 neutralizes all three variants despite interacting with two of the ACE2-binding site mutations. We explain this through structural analysis and use the 222 light chain to largely restore neutralization potency to a major class of public antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines/immunology
12.
Cell ; 184(16): 4220-4236.e13, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272328

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone progressive change, with variants conferring advantage rapidly becoming dominant lineages, e.g., B.1.617. With apparent increased transmissibility, variant B.1.617.2 has contributed to the current wave of infection ravaging the Indian subcontinent and has been designated a variant of concern in the United Kingdom. Here we study the ability of monoclonal antibodies and convalescent and vaccine sera to neutralize B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2, complement this with structural analyses of Fab/receptor binding domain (RBD) complexes, and map the antigenic space of current variants. Neutralization of both viruses is reduced compared with ancestral Wuhan-related strains, but there is no evidence of widespread antibody escape as seen with B.1.351. However, B.1.351 and P.1 sera showed markedly more reduction in neutralization of B.1.617.2, suggesting that individuals infected previously by these variants may be more susceptible to reinfection by B.1.617.2. This observation provides important new insights for immunization policy with future variant vaccines in non-immune populations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
13.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234836

ABSTRACT

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats/virology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Texas/epidemiology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218180

ABSTRACT

As part of a longitudinal household transmission study of pets living with persons with COVID-19 in Texas, two pets were confirmed to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC). The pets were a dog and a cat from the same household, sampled two days after their owner tested positive for COVID-19. The oral, nasal and fur swabs for both pets tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR and consensus whole-genome sequences from the dog and cat were 100% identical and matched the B.1.1.7 VOC. Virus was isolated from the cat's nasal swab. One month after initial detection of infection, the pets were re-tested twice at which time only the fur swabs (both pets) and oral swab (dog only) remained positive, and neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 were present in both animals. Sneezing by both pets was noted by the owner in the weeks between initial and follow-up testing. This study documents the first detection of B.1.1.7. in companion animals in the United States, and the first genome recovery and isolation of B.1.1.7 variant of concern globally in any animal.

15.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2543-2547, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217399

ABSTRACT

We described the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in stool samples from patients presenting only acute gastroenteritis (AGE) symptoms. From January to July 2020, 121 AGE stool samples were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 27.5% of samples received during the epidemic period. No infectious viruses were observed in Vero E6 cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1789-1794, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197530

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old healthcare worker from the northeastern region of Brazil experienced 2 clinical episodes of coronavirus disease. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR in samples collected 116 days apart. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the 2 infections were caused by the most prevalent lineage in Brazil, B.1.1.33, and the emerging lineage P.2. The first infection occurred in June 2020; Bayesian analysis suggests reinfection at some point during September 14-October 11, 2020, a few days before the second episode of coronavirus disease. Of note, P.2 corresponds to an emergent viral lineage in Brazil that contains the mutation E484K in the spike protein. The P.2 lineage was initially detected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and since then it has been found throughout the country. Our findings suggest not only a reinfection case but also geographic dissemination of the emerging Brazil clade P.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150545

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel Betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a public health emergency worldwide. Few reports indicate that owned pets from households with at least one human resident that was diagnosed with COVID-19 can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, the exposure to SARS-CoV-2 of pets from households with no COVID-19 cases or stray animals remains less assessed. Using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90), we investigated the infection and previous exposure of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June to August 2020, 96 animals were sampled, including 49 cats (40 owned and 9 stray) and 47 dogs (42 owned and 5 stray). Regarding owned pets, 75.6% (62/82) belonged to households with no COVID-19 cases. Samples included serum, and rectal and oropharyngeal swabs. All swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but serum samples of a stray cat and a stray dog presented neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, with PRNT90 titer of 80 and 40, respectively. Serological data presented here suggest that not only owned pets from households with COVID19 cases, but also stray animals are being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Male , Oropharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060540

ABSTRACT

There have been reports of neurological abnormalities associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in children born to mothers infected during pregnancy. We investigated how the immune response to ZIKV during pregnancy is primed and conduct a thorough evaluation of the inflammatory and cytotoxic profiles as well as the expression of CCR5 and CX3CR1. We compared the reactivity of T cells to ZIKV peptides in convalescent mothers infected during pregnancy. The child's clinical outcome (i.e., born with or without CZS) was taken to be the variable. The cells were stimulated in vitro with ZIKV peptides and evaluated using the ELISPOT and flow cytometry assays. After in vitro stimulation with ZIKV peptides, we observed a tendency toward a higher Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing T cell responses in mothers who had asymptomatic children and a higher CD107a expression in T cells in mothers who had children with CZS. We found a higher frequency of T cells expressing CD107a+ and co-expressing CX3CR1+CCR5+, which is much clearer in the T cells of mothers who had CZS children. We suggest that this differential profile influenced the clinical outcome of babies. These data need to be further investigated, including the evaluation of other ZIKV peptides and markers and functional assays.


Subject(s)
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Infant , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult , Zika Virus/immunology
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