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Cell Rep Med ; 4(6): 101079, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322799


The IMPACC cohort, composed of >1,000 hospitalized COVID-19 participants, contains five illness trajectory groups (TGs) during acute infection (first 28 days), ranging from milder (TG1-3) to more severe disease course (TG4) and death (TG5). Here, we report deep immunophenotyping, profiling of >15,000 longitudinal blood and nasal samples from 540 participants of the IMPACC cohort, using 14 distinct assays. These unbiased analyses identify cellular and molecular signatures present within 72 h of hospital admission that distinguish moderate from severe and fatal COVID-19 disease. Importantly, cellular and molecular states also distinguish participants with more severe disease that recover or stabilize within 28 days from those that progress to fatal outcomes (TG4 vs. TG5). Furthermore, our longitudinal design reveals that these biologic states display distinct temporal patterns associated with clinical outcomes. Characterizing host immune responses in relation to heterogeneity in disease course may inform clinical prognosis and opportunities for intervention.

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Multiomics , Disease Progression
Libyan J Med ; 18(1): 2209949, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319183


While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans, there is a wide range of disease outcomes following virus exposures. Some individuals are asymptomatic while others develop complications within a few days after infection that can lead to fatalities in a smaller portion of the population. In the present study, we have analyzed the factors that may influence the outcome of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. One factor that may influence virus control is pre-existing immunity conferred by an individual's past exposures to endemic coronaviruses (eCOVIDs) which cause the common cold in humans and generally, most children are exposed to one of the four eCOVIDs before 2 years of age. Here, we have carried out protein sequence analyses to show the amino acid homologies between the four eCOVIDs (i.e. OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63) as well as examining the cross-reactive immune responses between SARS-CoV-2 and eCOVIDs by epidemiologic analyses. Our results show that the nations where continuous exposures to eCOVIDs are very high due to religious and traditional causes showed significantly lower cases and low mortality rates per 100,000. We hypothesize that in the areas of the globe where Muslims are in majority and due to religious practices are regularly exposed to eCOVIDs they show a significantly lower infection, as well as mortality rate, and that is due to pre-existing cross-immunity against SARS-CoV-2. This is due to cross-reactive antibodies and T-cells that recognize SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We also have reviewed the current literature that has also proposed that human infections with eCOVIDs impart protection against disease caused by subsequent exposure to SARS-CoV-2. We propose that a nasal spray vaccine consisting of selected genes of eCOVIDs would be beneficial against SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogenic coronaviruses.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Cross Reactions , Antibodies, Viral
Bioinformation ; 19(3):278, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313555


The study estimates the usability and attitude assessment of users for India's first approved rapid antigen self-test kit;the CoviSelf™. India approved its first AI-powered self-test for Covid-19 in April 2021 a few weeks after the first approval in the US. We present here a study on usability and attitude assessment of users of India's first approved rapid antigen self-test kit;the CoviSelf™. The study evaluates participants' understanding of and performance of test procedure and interprets the results. Analysis revealed that more than 90% study participants followed steps correctly as illustrated in the user's manual. Age group and gender-based analysis showed comparable scores for usability of the test kit suggesting users of different age groups has same ease in using the test kit. What we learnt from this study could be start of self-test revolution, where rapid tests could expand the access of diagnostics for hundreds of diseases including HIV, HPV, and dengue to millions of people who could not get access to diagnostics because we lacked manpower or facility to conduct tests. Self-testing could break the barriers for diagnostics that Internet did for information.