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1.
Acad Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if corticosteroid administration is associated with a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test-positive result and to describe therapies administered to SARS-CoV-2 infected children. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional data from participants recruited in 41 pediatric emergency departments (ED) in 10 countries between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were <18 years old, had signs or symptoms of, or risk factors for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and had nucleic acid testing performed. To determine if SARS-CoV-2 test status was independently associated with corticosteroid administration, we used a multivariable conditional logistic regression model matched by study site to compare treatments administered based on SARS-CoV-2 test and disposition status. This analysis was repeated for the subgroup of study participants who were hospitalized. RESULTS: 30.3% (3,121/10,315) of participants were SARS-CoV-2-positive. Although remdesivir was more commonly administered to SARS-CoV-2-positive children, use was infrequent (25/3120 [0.8%] vs 1/7188 [0.01%]; P = .001). Corticosteroid use was less common among SARS-CoV-2-positive children (219/3120 [7.0%] vs 759/7190 [10.6%]; P < .001). Among hospitalized children, there were no differences in provision of inotropes, respiratory support, chest drainage or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between groups. Corticosteroid administration was associated with age, history of asthma, wheezing, study month, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission; it was not associated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result overall (aOR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.74, 1.12) or among the subgroup of those hospitalized (aOR: 1.04; 95%CI: 0.75, 1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Few disease-specific treatments are provided to SARS-CoV-2-positive children; clinical trials evaluating therapies in children are urgently needed.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615905

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Lancet ; 399(10320): 152-160, 2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the USA, COVID-19 vaccines became available in mid-December, 2020, with adults aged 65 years and older among the first groups prioritised for vaccination. We estimated the national-level impact of the initial phases of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme on COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and deaths among adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We analysed population-based data reported to US federal agencies on COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and deaths among adults aged 50 years and older during the period Nov 1, 2020, to April 10, 2021. We calculated the relative change in incidence among older age groups compared with a younger reference group for pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, defined by the week when vaccination coverage in a given age group first exceeded coverage in the reference age group by at least 1%; time lags for immune response and time to outcome were incorporated. We assessed whether the ratio of these relative changes differed when comparing the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods. FINDINGS: The ratio of relative changes comparing the change in the COVID-19 case incidence ratio over the post-vaccine versus pre-vaccine periods showed relative decreases of 53% (95% CI 50 to 55) and 62% (59 to 64) among adults aged 65 to 74 years and 75 years and older, respectively, compared with those aged 50 to 64 years. We found similar results for emergency department visits with relative decreases of 61% (52 to 68) for adults aged 65 to 74 years and 77% (71 to 78) for those aged 75 years and older compared with adults aged 50 to 64 years. Hospital admissions declined by 39% (29 to 48) among those aged 60 to 69 years, 60% (54 to 66) among those aged 70 to 79 years, and 68% (62 to 73), among those aged 80 years and older, compared with adults aged 50 to 59 years. COVID-19 deaths also declined (by 41%, 95% CI -14 to 69 among adults aged 65-74 years and by 30%, -47 to 66 among those aged ≥75 years, compared with adults aged 50 to 64 years), but the magnitude of the impact of vaccination roll-out on deaths was unclear. INTERPRETATION: The initial roll-out of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme was associated with reductions in COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions among older adults. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468850

ABSTRACT

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Microbiology/statistics & numerical data , Food Parasitology/statistics & numerical data , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Watchful Waiting , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/parasitology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , United States/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(15): 446-450, 2020 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389842

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Family , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042121, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032990

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Relatively limited data are available regarding paediatric COVID-19. Although most children appear to have mild or asymptomatic infections, infants and those with comorbidities are at increased risk of experiencing more severe illness and requiring hospitalisation due to COVID-19. The recent but uncommon association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with development of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome has heightened the importance of understanding paediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Paediatric Emergency Research Network-COVID-19 cohort study is a rapid, global, prospective cohort study enrolling 12 500 children who are tested for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. 47 emergency departments across 12 countries on four continents will participate. At enrolment, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 test results, all children will have the same information collected, including clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, imaging and outcome data. Interventions and outcome data will be collected for hospitalised children. For all children, follow-up at 14 and 90 days will collect information on further medical care received, and long-term sequelae, respectively. Statistical models will be designed to identify risk factors for infection and severe outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Sites will seek ethical approval locally, and informed consent will be obtained. There is no direct risk or benefit of study participation. Weekly interim analysis will allow for real-time data sharing with regional, national, and international policy makers. Harmonisation and sharing of investigation materials with WHO, will contribute to synergising global efforts for the clinical characterisation of paediatric COVID-19. Our findings will enable the implementation of countermeasures to reduce viral transmission and severe COVID-19 outcomes in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04330261.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , International Cooperation , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/organization & administration , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 714-721, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-589204

ABSTRACT

Compared with the volume of data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks among older adults, relatively few data are available concerning COVID-19 in younger, healthy persons in the United States (1,2). In late March 2020, the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt arrived at port in Guam after numerous U.S. service members onboard developed COVID-19. In April, the U.S. Navy and CDC investigated this outbreak, and the demographic, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings among a convenience sample of 382 service members serving aboard the aircraft carrier are reported in this study. The outbreak was characterized by widespread transmission with relatively mild symptoms and asymptomatic infection among this sample of mostly young, healthy adults with close, congregate exposures. Service members who reported taking preventive measures had a lower infection rate than did those who did not report taking these measures (e.g., wearing a face covering, 55.8% versus 80.8%; avoiding common areas, 53.8% versus 67.5%; and observing social distancing, 54.7% versus 70.0%, respectively). The presence of neutralizing antibodies, which represent antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2, among the majority (59.2%) of those with antibody responses is a promising indicator of at least short-term immunity. This report improves the understanding of COVID-19 in the U.S. military and among young adults in congregate settings and reinforces the importance of preventive measures to lower risk for infection in similar environments.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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