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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692242

ABSTRACT

Antibody decline occurred from 2 weeks to 6 months post-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in nursing home (NH) residents and healthcare workers. Antispike, receptor-binding domain, and neutralization levels dropped >81% irrespective of prior infection. Notably, 69% of infection-naive NH residents had neutralizing antibodies at or below the assay's limit of detection.

3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S311-S312, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1565005

ABSTRACT

Background Hand hygiene (HH) is a standard infection prevention and control precaution to be applied in healthcare settings to prevent transmission of COVID-19. Many healthcare institutions observed significant improvements in HH performance during wave one of the COVID-19 pandemic but the sustainability of this change is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate long-term HH performance throughout subsequent waves of the pandemic across acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Methods HH adherence was measured using a previously validated group electronic monitoring system which was installed on all alcohol handrub and sink soap dispensers inside and outside each patient room across 56 inpatient units (35 wards and 21 critical care units) spanning 13 acute care hospitals (6 university and 7 community teaching hospitals) from 1 November 2019 to 31 May 2021. Daily HH adherence was compared with daily COVID-19 case count across Ontario. During this period, weekly performance continued to be reported to units but unit-based quality improvement discussions were inconsistent due to the COVID-19 response. Results Figure 1 depicts daily aggregate HH adherence plotted against the new daily COVID-19 case count across Ontario. An elevation in HH adherence was seen prior to the start of the first wave, rising almost to 80% and then remained above 70% for the peak of wave one. During waves two and three, peak COVID-19 case counts were associated with a maximum HH adherence of 51%, only marginally above the pre-pandemic baseline. After the end of wave one (from 1 July 2020 to 31 May 2021) the median HH performance was only 49% (interquartile range 47%-50%). Figure 1. Hand hygiene adherence across 13 acute care hospitals in comparison to overall new daily COVID-19 cases in Ontario Conclusion Initial improvements in HH adherence preceding the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were not sustained, possibly due to increasing comfort and reduced anxiety associated with providing care to COVID-19 patients leading to a perception of reduced COVID-19 transmission risk. These findings highlight the need for HH monitoring to be tied to longitudinal unit-led quality improvement in order to achieve durable changes in practice. Disclosures Susy S. Hota, MSc MD FRCPC, Finch Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support) Susy S. Hota, MSc MD FRCPC, Finch Therapeutics (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2112-2115, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562012

ABSTRACT

After BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination, antibody levels to spike, receptor-binding domain, and virus neutralization were examined in 149 nursing home residents and 110 healthcare worker controls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive nursing home residents' median post-second vaccine dose antibody neutralization titers are one-quarter that of SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1873, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043028

ABSTRACT

The development of alternative isothermal amplification assays including multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) may address speed and portability limitations of real-time PCR (rt-PCR) methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 MCDA assay and compared its speed and sensitivity to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and rt-PCR. Two MCDA assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 N gene and ORF1ab were designed. The fastest time to detection and sensitivity of MCDA was compared to LAMP and rt-PCR using DNA standards and transcribed RNA. For the N gene, MCDA was faster than LAMP and rt-PCR by 10 and 20 min, respectively with fastest time to detection at 5.2 min. rt-PCR had the highest sensitivity with the limit of detection at 10 copies/µl compared with MCDA (100 copies/µl) and LAMP (500 copies/µl). For ORF1ab, MCDA and LAMP had similar speed with fastest time to detection at 9.7 and 8.4 min, respectively. LAMP was more sensitive for ORF1ab detection with 50 copies/µl compared to MCDA (500 copies/µl). In conclusion, different nucleic acid amplification methods provide different advantages. MCDA is the fastest nucleic acid amplification method for SARS-CoV-2 while rt-PCR is the most sensitive. These advantages should be considered when determining the most suitable nucleic acid amplification methods for different applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
8.
BMJ Open Quality ; 9(Suppl 1):A9-A10, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-955455

ABSTRACT

6 Figure 1Current state process map[Figure omitted. See PDF]Abstract 6 Figure 2Fishbone barriers to removal[Figure omitted. See PDF]Abstract 6 Figure 3Driver diagram and priority matrix[Figure omitted. See PDF]Abstract 6 Figure 4Criteria and decision support tool[Figure omitted. See PDF]ResultsWe completed eight appropriateness audits (n=212 patients) at two hospitals between December 2019 – March 2020. During user testing, eight physicians applied the new criteria and decision-support tool to five mock cases at 92% (37/40) fidelity. After implementing changes, mean precaution appropriateness increased from 30% (24/80) to 64% (85/132), (p<0.001). Out of 35 physicians surveyed, 22 (63%) were aware of new criteria;of those, 19 (86%) found the new criteria useful. However, there was no special-cause variation in DC precautions >5 days.ConclusionsDiscontinuing prolonged DC precautions is important to conserve vital resources, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. We reduced these incidents by implementing standard discontinuation criteria and a decision support tool. Our next step is to adapt these tools to standardize precaution removal for COVID-19 patients.

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