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1.
Sci Adv ; 8(28): eabn4188, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949919

ABSTRACT

Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) constitutes an attractive antiviral capable of targeting a wide range of coronaviruses using ACE2 as their receptor. Using structure-guided approaches, we developed a series of bivalent ACE2-Fcs harboring functionally and structurally validated mutations that enhance severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor binding domain recognition by up to ~12-fold and remove angiotensin enzymatic activity. The lead variant M81 potently cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including Omicron, at subnanomolar half-maximal inhibitory concentration and was capable of robust Fc-effector functions, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and complement deposition. When tested in a stringent K18-hACE2 mouse model, Fc-enhanced ACE2-Fc delayed death by 3 to 5 days or effectively resolved lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings via the combined effects of neutralization and Fc-effector functions. These data add to the demonstrated utility of soluble ACE2 as a valuable SARS-CoV-2 antiviral and indicate that Fc-effector functions may constitute an important component of ACE2-Fc therapeutic activity.

2.
iScience ; 25(7): 104528, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945337

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells starts by binding the Spike glycoprotein (S) to the ACE2 receptor. The S-ACE2 interaction is a potential target for therapies against COVID-19 as demonstrated by the development of immunotherapies blocking this interaction. VE607 - a commercially available compound composed of three stereoisomers - was described as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-1. Here, we show that VE607 broadly inhibits pseudoviral particles bearing the Spike from major VOCs (D614G, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron - BA.1, and BA.2) as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations. In silico docking, mutational analysis, and smFRET revealed that VE607 binds to the receptor binding domain (RBD)-ACE2 interface and stabilizes RBD in its "up" conformation. Prophylactic treatment with VE607 did not prevent SARS-CoV-2-induced mortality in K18-hACE2 mice, but it did reduce viral replication in the lungs by 37-fold. Thus, VE607 is an interesting lead for drug development for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2047144, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740685

ABSTRACT

There remains an unmet need for globally deployable, low-cost therapeutics for the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Previously, we reported on the isolation and in vitro characterization of a potent single-domain nanobody, NIH-CoVnb-112, specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the molecular basis for the observed broad in vitro neutralization capability of NIH-CoVnb-112 against variant SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. The structure of NIH-CoVnb-112 bound to SARS-CoV-2 RBD reveals a large contact surface area overlapping the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding site, which is largely unencumbered by the common RBD mutations. In an in vivo pilot study, we demonstrate effective reductions in weight loss, viral burden, and lung pathology in a Syrian hamster model of COVID-19 following nebulized delivery of NIH-CoVnb-112. These findings support the further development of NIH-CoVnb-112 as a potential adjunct preventative therapeutic for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Abbreviations: ACE2 - angiotensin converting enzyme 2BSA - buried surface areaCDR - complementary determining regionRBD - receptor binding domainRBM - receptor-binding motifSARS-CoV-2 - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Protein Binding , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327387

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells starts by binding of the Spike glycoprotein (S) to the ACE2 receptor. The S-ACE2 interaction is a potential target for therapies against COVID-19 as demonstrated by the development of immunotherapies blocking this interaction. Here, we present the commercially available VE607, comprised of three stereoisomers, that was originally described as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-1. We show that VE607 specifically inhibits infection of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 S-expressing pseudoviral particles as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2. VE607 stabilizes the receptor binding domain (RBD) in its “up” conformation. In silico docking and mutational analysis map the VE607 binding site at the RBD-ACE2 interface. The IC 50 values are in the low micromolar range for pseudoparticles derived from SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan/D614G as well as from variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron), suggesting that VE607 has potential for the development of drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infections.

5.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110368, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649284

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that both neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector functions of antibodies contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether Fc-effector functions alone can protect against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we isolated CV3-13, a non-neutralizing antibody, from a convalescent individual with potent Fc-mediated effector functions. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of CV3-13 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals that the antibody binds from a distinct angle of approach to an N-terminal domain (NTD) epitope that only partially overlaps with the NTD supersite recognized by neutralizing antibodies. CV3-13 does not alter the replication dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice, but its Fc-enhanced version significantly delays virus spread, neuroinvasion, and death in prophylactic settings. Interestingly, the combination of Fc-enhanced non-neutralizing CV3-13 with Fc-compromised neutralizing CV3-25 completely protects mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our data demonstrate that efficient Fc-mediated effector functions can potently contribute to the in vivo efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110210, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568559

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of concern for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can transmit more efficiently and partially evade protective immune responses, thus necessitating continued refinement of antibody therapies and immunogen design. Here, we elucidate the structural basis and mode of action for two potent SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, CV3-1 and CV3-25, which remain effective against emerging variants of concern in vitro and in vivo. CV3-1 binds to the (485-GFN-487) loop within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the "RBD-up" position and triggers potent shedding of the S1 subunit. In contrast, CV3-25 inhibits membrane fusion by binding to an epitope in the stem helix region of the S2 subunit that is highly conserved among ß-coronaviruses. Thus, vaccine immunogen designs that incorporate the conserved regions in the RBD and stem helix region are candidates to elicit pan-coronavirus protective immune responses.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292885

ABSTRACT

Soluble Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) constitutes an attractive antiviral receptor decoy that targets the vulnerable site on SARS-CoV-2 spike (S). Here, using structure-guided approaches, we developed divalent ACE2 molecules by grafting the extracellular ACE2-domain onto a human IgG1 or IgG3 (ACE2-Fc). These ACE2-Fcs harbored structurally validated mutations that enhance S binding and remove enzymatic activity. The lead variant bound tightly to S, mediated in vitro neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) with sub-nanomolar IC50 and was capable of robust Fc-effector functions, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis and complement deposition. When tested in a stringent K18-hACE2 mouse model, the lead variant prevented or delayed lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prophylactic or therapeutic setting utilizing the combined effect of neutralization and Fc-effector functions. These data confirm the utility of ACE2-Fcs as valuable agents in preventing and eliminating SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrate that ACE2-Fc therapeutic activity require Fc-effector functions.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101151, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377741

ABSTRACT

The seasonal nature of outbreaks of respiratory viral infections with increased transmission during low temperatures has been well established. Accordingly, temperature has been suggested to play a role on the viability and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Spike glycoprotein is known to bind to its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate viral fusion. Using biochemical, biophysical, and functional assays to dissect the effect of temperature on the receptor-Spike interaction, we observed a significant and stepwise increase in RBD-ACE2 affinity at low temperatures, resulting in slower dissociation kinetics. This translated into enhanced interaction of the full Spike glycoprotein with the ACE2 receptor and higher viral attachment at low temperatures. Interestingly, the RBD N501Y mutation, present in emerging variants of concern (VOCs) that are fueling the pandemic worldwide (including the B.1.1.7 (α) lineage), bypassed this requirement. This data suggests that the acquisition of N501Y reflects an adaptation to warmer climates, a hypothesis that remains to be tested.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry , Humans , Interferometry , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Temperature , Thermodynamics
9.
Immunity ; 54(9): 2143-2158.e15, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364125

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are effective in treating COVID-19, but the mechanism of immune protection is not fully understood. Here, we applied live bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor the real-time effects of NAb treatment during prophylaxis and therapy of K18-hACE2 mice intranasally infected with SARS-CoV-2-nanoluciferase. Real-time imaging revealed that the virus spread sequentially from the nasal cavity to the lungs in mice and thereafter systemically to various organs including the brain, culminating in death. Highly potent NAbs from a COVID-19 convalescent subject prevented, and also effectively resolved, established infection when administered within three days. In addition to direct neutralization, depletion studies indicated that Fc effector interactions of NAbs with monocytes, neutrophils, and natural killer cells were required to effectively dampen inflammatory responses and limit immunopathology. Our study highlights that both Fab and Fc effector functions of NAbs are essential for optimal in vivo efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Testis/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Brain/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , Luminescent Measurements , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Testis/virology
10.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904976

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on an interaction between the receptor-binding domain of its trimeric spike glycoprotein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. A better understanding of the spike/ACE2 interaction is still required to design anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Here, we investigated the degree of cooperativity of ACE2 within both the SARS-CoV-2 and the closely related SARS-CoV-1 membrane-bound S glycoproteins. We show that there exist differential inter-protomer conformational transitions between both spike trimers. Interestingly, the SARS-CoV-2 spike exhibits a positive cooperativity for monomeric soluble ACE2 binding when compared to the SARS-CoV-1 spike, which might have more structural restraints. Our findings can be of importance in the development of therapeutics that block the spike/ACE2 interaction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Internalization
11.
Viruses ; 12(10):1104, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-800549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on an interaction between the receptor-binding domain of its trimeric spike glycoprotein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. A better understanding of the spike/ACE2 interaction is still required to design anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Here, we investigated the degree of cooperativity of ACE2 within both the SARS-CoV-2 and the closely related SARS-CoV-1 membrane-bound S glycoproteins. We show that there exist differential inter-protomer conformational transitions between both spike trimers. Interestingly, the SARS-CoV-2 spike exhibits a positive cooperativity for monomeric soluble ACE2 binding when compared to the SARS-CoV-1 spike, which might have more structural restraints. Our findings can be of importance in the development of therapeutics that block the spike/ACE2 interaction.

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