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2.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(10): e326-e329, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Caregivers are often at the bedside of hospitalized children posing an additional risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. We describe the implementation of caregiver COVID-19 testing before inpatient pediatric admissions and the effect on patient cohorting and bed capacity. METHODS: We implemented an ordering pathway to facilitate COVID-19 testing of caregivers of patients admitted to the inpatient units from the pediatric emergency department, elective procedural admissions, or direct admissions at a tertiary children's hospital in the Northeastern United States in August 2021. Testing was expedited by the clinical laboratory, and caregiver results were used to inform cohorting, infection prevention, and bed management decisions. RESULTS: From August 2021 to January 2022, 2558 caregiver tests were ordered through this pathway, and 83 (3.2%) were positive. Of the positive tests, 72 (86.7%) occurred after December 18, 2021, coinciding with the local Omicron variant wave. Among positives, 67 caregiver or child pairs were identified, and 36 positive caregivers had a COVID-19 negative child leading to use of isolation precautions. Reintroduction of patient cohorting increased overall bed capacity from 74% to 100% of available beds. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of COVID-19 among caregivers before admission correlated well with rates of COVID-19 positivity among asymptomatic adults in the community during the study period. Implementation of caregiver testing increased bed capacity by reintroducing cohorting of patients and identified patients needing isolation that would have been missed by patient testing alone. More research is necessary to determine the extent that routine caregiver testing mitigates the risk of nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Caregivers , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(6): e0060022, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854230

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the genome of SARS-CoV-2 can affect the performance of molecular diagnostic assays. In some cases, such as S-gene target failure, the impact can serve as a unique indicator of a particular SARS-CoV-2 variant and provide a method for rapid detection. Here, we describe partial ORF1ab gene target failure (pOGTF) on the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assays, defined by a ≥2-thermocycle delay in detection of the ORF1ab gene compared to that of the E-gene. We demonstrate that pOGTF is 98.6% sensitive and 99.9% specific for SARS-CoV-2 lineage BA.2.12.1, an emerging variant in the United States with spike L452Q and S704L mutations that may affect transmission, infectivity, and/or immune evasion. Increasing rates of pOGTF closely mirrored rates of BA.2.12.1 sequences uploaded to public databases, and, importantly, increasing local rates of pOGTF also mirrored increasing overall test positivity. Use of pOGTF as a proxy for BA.2.12.1 provides faster tracking of the variant than whole-genome sequencing and can benefit laboratories without sequencing capabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 439, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839575

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants shaped the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the discourse around effective control measures. Evaluating the threat posed by a new variant is essential for adapting response efforts when community transmission is detected. In this study, we compare the dynamics of two variants, Alpha and Iota, by integrating genomic surveillance data to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) of the variants. We use Connecticut, United States, in which Alpha and Iota co-circulated in 2021. We find that the Rt of these variants were up to 50% larger than that of other variants. We then use phylogeography to show that while both variants were introduced into Connecticut at comparable frequencies, clades that resulted from introductions of Alpha were larger than those resulting from Iota introductions. By monitoring the dynamics of individual variants throughout our study period, we demonstrate the importance of routine surveillance in the response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
5.
Med (N Y) ; 3(5): 325-334.e4, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773641

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant became a global concern due to its rapid spread and displacement of the dominant Delta variant. We hypothesized that part of Omicron's rapid rise was based on its increased ability to cause infections in persons that are vaccinated compared to Delta. Methods: We analyzed nasal swab PCR tests for samples collected between December 12 and 16, 2021, in Connecticut when the proportion of Delta and Omicron variants was relatively equal. We used the spike gene target failure (SGTF) to classify probable Delta and Omicron infections. We fitted an exponential curve to the estimated infections to determine the doubling times for each variant. We compared the test positivity rates for each variant by vaccination status, number of doses, and vaccine manufacturer. Generalized linear models were used to assess factors associated with odds of infection with each variant among persons testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Findings: For infections with high virus copies (Ct < 30) among vaccinated persons, we found higher odds that they were infected with Omicron compared to Delta, and that the odds increased with increased number of vaccine doses. Compared to unvaccinated persons, we found significant reduction in Delta positivity rates after two (43.4%-49.1%) and three vaccine doses (81.1%), while we only found a significant reduction in Omicron positivity rates after three doses (62.3%). Conclusion: The rapid rise in Omicron infections was likely driven by Omicron's escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Funding: This work was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100583, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735052

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant rose to dominance in mid-2021, likely propelled by an estimated 40%-80% increased transmissibility over Alpha. To investigate if this ostensible difference in transmissibility is uniform across populations, we partner with public health programs from all six states in New England in the United States. We compare logistic growth rates during each variant's respective emergence period, finding that Delta emerged 1.37-2.63 times faster than Alpha (range across states). We compute variant-specific effective reproductive numbers, estimating that Delta is 63%-167% more transmissible than Alpha (range across states). Finally, we estimate that Delta infections generate on average 6.2 (95% CI 3.1-10.9) times more viral RNA copies per milliliter than Alpha infections during their respective emergence. Overall, our evidence suggests that Delta's enhanced transmissibility can be attributed to its innate ability to increase infectiousness, but its epidemiological dynamics may vary depending on underlying population attributes and sequencing data availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New England/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Clin Biochem ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682991

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a challenging event for laboratory medicine and diagnostics manufacturers. We have had to confront numerous unique and previously unthinkable issues on a daily basis in order to continue offering diagnostic testing for not only Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but other testing that was significantly impacted by supply chain and staffing disruptions related to COVID-19. Out of this tremendously stressful and, at times, chaotic environment, decades of innovations and advances in testing methodologies and instrumentation became essential to handle the overwhelming volume of samples with clinically appropriate turn-around-time. Additionally, a number of novel testing approaches and technological innovations emerged to address laboratory and public health needs for widespread testing. In this review we consider both technological advances in infectious diseases testing and other innovations in sample collection, processing, automation, workflow, and testing that have embodied the laboratory response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(8): 1051-1053, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428663

ABSTRACT

Concerns persist regarding possible false-negative results that may compromise COVID-19 containment. Although obtaining a true false-negative rate is infeasible, using real-life observations, the data suggest a possible false-negative rate of ˜2.3%. Use of a sensitive, amplified RNA platform should reassure healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 182-186, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401173

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our institution experienced a change in SARS-CoV-2 testing policy as well as substantial changes in local COVID-19 prevalence, allowing for a unique examination of the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 testing and emergency department (ED) length of stay. METHODS: This was an observational interrupted time series of all patients admitted to an academic health system between March 15, 2020, and September 30, 2020. Given testing limitations from March 15 to April 24, all patients receiving SARS-CoV-2 tests were symptomatic. On April 24, testing was expanded to all ED admissions. The primary and secondary outcomes were ED length of stay and number needed to test to obtain a positive, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 70,856 patients were cared for in the EDs during the 7-month period. The testing change increased admission length of stay by 1.89 hours (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.38). The number needed to test was 2.5 patients and was highest yield on April 1, 2020, when the state positivity rate was 39.7%; however, the number needed to test exceeded 170 patients by Sept 1, 2020, at which point the state positivity rate was 0.5%. CONCLUSION: Although universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of ED admissions may meaningfully support mitigation and containment efforts, the clinical cost of testing all admissions amid low community positivity is notable. In our system, universal ED SARS-CoV-2 testing was associated with a 24% increase in admission length of stay alongside the detection of only 1 positive case every other day. Given the known harms and risks of ED boarding and crowding, solutions must be developed to support regular operational flow while balancing infection prevention needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(10): e0116721, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309803

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the marketing of manufacturers' in vitro diagnostic tests (IVDs), including assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The U.S. government's Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 regulates the studies that a clinical diagnostic laboratory needs to perform for an IVD before placing it into use. Until recently, the FDA has authorized the marketing of SARS-CoV-2 IVDs exclusively through the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) pathway. The regulatory landscape continues to evolve, and IVDs will eventually be required to pass through conventional non-EUA FDA review pathways once the emergency declaration is terminated, in order to continue to be marketed as an IVD in the United States. When FDA regulatory status of an IVD changes or is anticipated to change, the laboratory should review manufacturer information and previously performed internal verification studies to determine what, if any, additional studies are needed before implementing the non-EUA version of the IVD in accordance with CLIA regulations. Herein, the College of American Pathologists' Microbiology Committee provides guidance for how to approach regulatory considerations when an IVD is converted from EUA to non-EUA status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pathologists , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(5): 625-626, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233675

ABSTRACT

Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(3): 175-181, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate patterns of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 testing in a large health system throughout the pandemic, before and after school reopening. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional time-series study of clinical virology results from children tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Southern Connecticut and areas of New York and Rhode Island. Data collected include demographics, hospital admission, changes in percent positive tests over time, detection intervals in persistently positive children and cycle threshold values. The setting was the Yale New Haven Health System has 6 hospitals at 4 Connecticut locations, 1 hospital in Rhode Island and ambulatory locations in Connecticut, Rhode Island and New York. Participants included twenty-three-thousand one-hundred thirty-seven children ≤ 18 years of age, tested for coronavirus disease 2019 at an ambulatory testing site, the emergency department or on an inpatient unit within the Yale New Haven Health System. RESULTS: Among all tests, 3.2% were positive. Older children consistently made up the larger portion of positive pediatric cases, regardless of community prevalence. Increased pediatric cases later in the pandemic when prevalence in adults was relatively low correlates with a higher number of tests performed in children and not with an increased positivity rate. No significant changes in trends of positivity were detected after the reopening of schools. Symptomatic and asymptomatic children had similar cycle threshold values regardless of age, and a subset of children demonstrated persistent viral detection, some for as long as 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: An increase in pediatric cases documented in the late summer was predominately due to increased access to testing for children. The percent positivity in children did not change in the first 3 weeks after school opened. A subset of children has detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract for weeks after the initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rhode Island/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Cell ; 184(10): 2595-2604.e13, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163482

ABSTRACT

The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, first detected in the United Kingdom, has become a global public health concern because of its increased transmissibility. Over 2,500 COVID-19 cases associated with this variant have been detected in the United States (US) since December 2020, but the extent of establishment is relatively unknown. Using travel, genomic, and diagnostic data, we highlight that the primary ports of entry for B.1.1.7 in the US were in New York, California, and Florida. Furthermore, we found evidence for many independent B.1.1.7 establishments starting in early December 2020, followed by interstate spread by the end of the month. Finally, we project that B.1.1.7 will be the dominant lineage in many states by mid- to late March. Thus, genomic surveillance for B.1.1.7 and other variants urgently needs to be enhanced to better inform the public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1590-1592, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914663

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has emerged and rapidly evolved into a current global pandemic. Although bacterial and fungal coinfections have been associated with COVID-19, little is known about parasitic infection. We report a case of a COVID-19 patient who developed disseminated strongyloidiasis following treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and tocilizumab. Screening for Strongyloides infection should be pursued in individuals with COVID-19 who originate from endemic regions before initiating immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/parasitology , Diabetes Mellitus/parasitology , Hypertension/parasitology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/parasitology , Pneumonia, Viral/parasitology , Strongyloides stercoralis/pathogenicity , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Connecticut , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Ecuador , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/virology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/virology
17.
Am J Transplant ; 21(3): 1304-1311, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844002

ABSTRACT

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA by RT-PCR assays is the primary diagnostic test for COVID-19. Cycle threshold (CT ) values generated by some of these assays provide inversely proportional proxy measurements of viral load. The clinical implications of CT values are incompletely characterized, particularly in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 25 adult SOT recipients admitted to the Yale New Haven Health System between March 1 and May 15, 2020, analyzing 50 test results to investigate the clinical implications of SARS-CoV-2 CT values in this population. Initial CT values from upper respiratory tract samples were significantly higher in patients on tacrolimus, but were not associated with admission severity nor highest clinical acuity. Viral RNA was detected up to 38 days from symptom onset with a gradual increase in CT values over time. In five patients with serial testing, CT values <35.0 were detected >21 days after symptom onset in 4/5 and ≥27 days in 2/5, demonstrating prolonged RNA detection. These data describe SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics in SOT patients and suggest that CT values may not be useful to predict COVID-19 severity in SOT patients. SARS-CoV-2 CT values may be more useful in informing infection prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Organ Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients , Viral Load , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237127, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in unprecedented challenges for healthcare systems. One barrier to widespread testing has been a paucity of traditional respiratory viral swab collection kits relative to the demand. Whether other sample collection kits, such as widely available MRSA nasal swabs can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. METHODS: We compared simultaneous nasal MRSA swabs (COPAN ESwabs ® 480C flocked nasal swab in 1mL of liquid Amies medium) and virals wabs (BD H192(07) flexible mini-tip flocked nasopharyngeal swabs in 3mL Universal Transport Medium) for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing using Simplexa COVID-19 Direct assay on patients over a 4-day period. When the results were discordant, the viral swab sample was run again on the Cepheid Xpert Xpress ® SARS-CoV-2 assay. RESULTS: Of the 81 included samples, there were 19 positives and 62 negatives in viral media and 18 positives and 63 negative in the MRSA swabs. Amongst all included samples, there was concordance between the COPAN ESwabs ® 480C and the viral swabs in 78 (96.3%). CONCLUSION: We found a high rate of concordance in test results between COPAN ESwabs ® 480C in Amies solution and BD H192(07) nasopharyngeal swabs in in 3 mL of Universal Viral Transport medium viral media. Clinicians and laboratories should feel better informed and assured using COPAN ESwabs ® 480C to help in the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Stability , RNA, Bacterial/analysis , RNA, Bacterial/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104567, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A major expansion in SARS CoV-2 testing is urgently needed. Saliva is an attractive option as an alternative for nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), since saliva can be self-collected, is non-invasive, and sample quality is not dependent on the expertise of the collector. OBJECTIVE: To compare SARS CoV-2 positivity on paired NPS and saliva samples. STUDY DESIGN: NPS and paired saliva samples were prospectively collected from symptomatic outpatients suspected of having COVID-19 and were tested by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: In total, 35/124 (26.6 %) samples were RT-PCR positive, with 33/35 positive by NPS (sensitivity = 94.3 % (95 % CI 81.4%-99.0%)) and 30/35 by pure saliva (sensitivity = 85.7 % (95 % CI 70.6%-93.7%)), for an overall agreement of 117/124 (94.4 %). The median cycle threshold value was significantly lower for NPS than for saliva (p = 0.0331). A third or more of pure saliva samples from symptomatic patients were thick, stringy, and difficult to pipet. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time RT-PCR of pure saliva had an overall sensitivity for SARS CoV-2 RNA detection of 85.7 % when compared to simultaneously collected NPS. Our study highlighted the need to optimize collection and processing before saliva can be used for high volume testing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Saliva/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
20.
J Appl Lab Med ; 5(6): 1194-1205, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was formally characterized as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Since that time, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented demand for healthcare resources. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in laboratory test utilization in the setting of increasing local incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective assessment of laboratory test order and specimen container utilization at a single, urban tertiary care medical center. Data were extracted from the laboratory information system database over a 10-week period, spanning the primordial inflection of COVID-19 incidence in our region. Total testing volumes were calculated during the first 2 and last 2 weeks of the observation period and used as reference points to examine the absolute and relative differences in test order volume between the prepandemic and COVID-19 surge periods. RESULTS: Between February 2, 2020, and April 11, 2020, there were 873 397 tests ordered and final verified. The in-house SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity rate for admitted patients in the last week of the observation period was 30.8%. Significant increases in workload were observed in the send-out laboratory section and for COVID-19 diagnosis (PCR) and management-related testing. Otherwise, there was a net decrease in overall demand across nearly all laboratory sections. Increases in testing were noted for tests related to COVID-19 management. Viral transport media and citrated blue top containers demonstrated increases in utilization. CONCLUSION: Increasing local incidence of COVID-19 had a profound impact on laboratory operations. While volume increases were seen for laboratory tests related to COVID-19 diagnostics and management, including some with limited evidence to support their use, overall testing volumes decreased substantially. During events such as COVID-19, monitoring of such patterns can help inform laboratory management, staffing, and test stewardship recommendations for managing resource and supply availability.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Services/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data
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