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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(47)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538334

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, over 1.5 million SARS-CoV-2-related fatalities have been recorded in the World Health Organization European Region - 90.2% in people ≥ 60 years. We calculated lives saved in this age group by COVID-19 vaccination in 33 countries from December 2020 to November 2021, using weekly reported deaths and vaccination coverage. We estimated that vaccination averted 469,186 deaths (51% of 911,302 expected deaths; sensitivity range: 129,851-733,744; 23-62%). Impact by country ranged 6-93%, largest when implementation was early.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , World Health Organization
2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(5): 599-607, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During 2009-2010, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (pH1N1) infections in England occurred in two epidemic waves. Reasons for a reported increase in case-severity during the second wave are unclear. METHODS: We analysed hospital-based surveillance for patients with pH1N1 infections in England during 2009-2010 and linked national data sets to estimate ethnicity, socio-economic status and death within 28 days of admission. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess whether changes in demographic, clinical and management characteristics of patients could explain an increase in ICU admission or death, and accounted for missing values using multiple imputation. RESULTS: During the first wave, 54/960 (6%) hospitalised patients required intensive care and 21/960 (2%) died; during the second wave 143/1420 (10%) required intensive care and 55/1420 (4%) died. In a multivariable model, during the second wave patients were less likely to be from an ethnic minority (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.42), have an elevated deprivation score (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.83), have known comorbidity (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.97) or receive antiviral therapy ≤2 days before onset (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92). Increased case-severity during the second wave was not explained by changes in demographic, clinical or management characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring changes in patient characteristics could help target interventions during multiple waves of COVID-19 or a future influenza pandemic. To understand and respond to changes in case-severity, surveillance is needed that includes additional factors such as admission thresholds and seasonal coinfections.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , England/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Female , History, 21st Century , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Young Adult
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