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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 289-292, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term sensitivity for detection of total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 METHODS: From week 41, 2020, through week 26, 2021, all Danish blood donations were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the Wantai assay. The results were linked with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results from the Danish Microbiological Database (MiBa). RESULTS: During the study period, 105,646 non-vaccinated Danish blood donors were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and 3,806 (3.6%) had a positive PCR test before the blood donation. Among the donors with a positive PCR test, 94.2% subsequently also had a positive antibody test. The time between the positive PCR test and the antibody test was up to 15 months and there was no evidence of a decline in proportion with detectable antibodies over time. A negative serological result test was associated with a higher incidence of re-infection (Incidence Rate Ratio = 0.102 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.039-0.262)). CONCLUSION: Among healthy blood donors, 94.2% developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after infection, and a lack of detectable antibodies was associated with re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
4.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 219-228, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies presenting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection fatality rate (IFR) for healthy individuals are warranted. We estimate IFR by age and comorbidity status using data from a large serosurvey among Danish blood donors and nationwide data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years donating blood October 2020-February 2021 were tested with a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody assay. IFR was estimated for weeks 11 to 42, 2020 and week 43, 2020 to week 6, 2021, representing the first 2 waves of COVID-19 epidemic in Denmark. RESULTS: In total, 84944 blood donors were tested for antibodies. The seroprevalence was 2% in October 2020 and 7% in February 2021. Among 3898039 Danish residents aged 17-69 years, 249 deaths were recorded. The IFR was low for people <51 years without comorbidity during the 2 waves (combined IFR=3.36 per 100000 infections). The IFR was below 3‰ for people aged 61-69 years without comorbidity. IFR increased with age and comorbidity but declined from the first to second wave. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, the IFR was very low among people <51 years without comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2962-e2969, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of individuals succumbing to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are elderly, infection fatality rate (IFR) estimates for the age group ≥70 years are still scarce. To this end, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among retired blood donors and combined it with national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survey data to provide reliable population-based IFR estimates for this age group. METHODS: We identified 60 926 retired blood donors aged ≥70 years in the rosters of 3 regionwide Danish blood banks and invited them to fill in a questionnaire on COVID-19-related symptoms and behaviors. Among 24 861 (40.8%) responders, we invited a random sample of 3200 individuals for blood testing. Overall, 1201 (37.5%) individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Wantai) and compared with 1110 active blood donors aged 17-69 years. Seroprevalence 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Among retired (aged ≥70 years) and active (aged 17-69 years) blood donors, adjusted seroprevalences were 1.4% (95% CI, .3-2.5%) and 2.5% (95% CI, 1.3-3.8%), respectively. Using available population data on COVID-19-related fatalities, IFRs for patients aged ≥70 years and for 17-69 years were estimated at 5.4% (95% CI, 2.7-6.4%) and .083% (95% CI, .054-.18%), respectively. Only 52.4% of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive retired blood donors reported having been sick since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 IFR in the age group >69 years is estimated to be 65 times the IFR for people aged 18-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13153, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281729

ABSTRACT

Reports of persistent symptoms after hospitalization with COVID-19 have raised concern of a "long COVID" syndrome. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for acute and persistent symptoms in non-hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed COVID-19. We conducted a cohort study of non-hospitalized participants identified via the Danish Civil Registration System with a SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR-test and available biobank samples. Participants received a digital questionnaire on demographics and COVID-19-related symptoms. Persistent symptoms: symptoms > 4 weeks (in sensitivity analyses > 12 weeks). We included 445 participants, of whom 34% were asymptomatic. Most common acute symptoms were fatigue, headache, and sneezing, while fatigue and reduced smell and taste were most severe. Persistent symptoms, most commonly fatigue and memory and concentration difficulties, were reported by 36% of 198 symptomatic participants with follow-up > 4 weeks. Risk factors for persistent symptoms included female sex (women 44% vs. men 24%, odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1, p = 0.003) and BMI (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2, p = 0.001). In conclusion, among non-hospitalized PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients one third were asymptomatic while one third of symptomatic participants had persistent symptoms illustrating the heterogeneity of disease presentation. These findings should be considered in health care planning and policy making related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2962-e2969, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of individuals succumbing to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are elderly, infection fatality rate (IFR) estimates for the age group ≥70 years are still scarce. To this end, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among retired blood donors and combined it with national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survey data to provide reliable population-based IFR estimates for this age group. METHODS: We identified 60 926 retired blood donors aged ≥70 years in the rosters of 3 regionwide Danish blood banks and invited them to fill in a questionnaire on COVID-19-related symptoms and behaviors. Among 24 861 (40.8%) responders, we invited a random sample of 3200 individuals for blood testing. Overall, 1201 (37.5%) individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Wantai) and compared with 1110 active blood donors aged 17-69 years. Seroprevalence 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Among retired (aged ≥70 years) and active (aged 17-69 years) blood donors, adjusted seroprevalences were 1.4% (95% CI, .3-2.5%) and 2.5% (95% CI, 1.3-3.8%), respectively. Using available population data on COVID-19-related fatalities, IFRs for patients aged ≥70 years and for 17-69 years were estimated at 5.4% (95% CI, 2.7-6.4%) and .083% (95% CI, .054-.18%), respectively. Only 52.4% of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive retired blood donors reported having been sick since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 IFR in the age group >69 years is estimated to be 65 times the IFR for people aged 18-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 249-253, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has tremendous consequences for our societies. Knowledge of the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to accurately monitor the spread of the epidemic and to calculate the infection fatality rate (IFR). These measures may help the authorities make informed decisions and adjust the current societal interventions. The objective was to perform nationwide real-time seroprevalence surveying among blood donors as a tool to estimate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and the population-based IFR. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years giving blood 6 April to 3 May were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G antibodies using a commercial lateral flow test. Antibody status was compared between geographical areas, and an estimate of the IFR was calculated. Seroprevalence was adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity taking the uncertainties of the test validation into account when reporting the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The first 20 640 blood donors were tested, and a combined adjusted seroprevalence of 1.9% (95% CI, .8-2.3) was calculated. The seroprevalence differed across areas. Using available data on fatalities and population numbers, a combined IFR in patients <70 years is estimated at 89 per 100 000 (95% CI, 72-211) infections. CONCLUSIONS: The IFR was estimated to be slightly lower than previously reported from other countries not using seroprevalence data. The IFR is likely severalfold lower than the current estimate. We have initiated real-time nationwide anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveying of blood donations as a tool in monitoring the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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