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1.
Am Heart J ; 247: 33-41, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory pathways during acute myocardial infarction contributes to infarct size and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The present prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy and safety of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to reduce infarct size. DESIGN: Controlled-Level EVERolimus in Acute Coronary Syndrome (CLEVER-ACS, clinicaltrials.gov NCT01529554) is a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of a 5-day course of oral everolimus on infarct size, LV remodeling, and inflammation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within 5 days of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), patients are randomly assigned to everolimus (first 3 days: 7.5 mg every day; days 4 and 5: 5.0 mg every day) or placebo, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome is the change from baseline (defined as 12 hours to 5 days after pPCI) to 30-day follow-up in myocardial infarct size as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Secondary endpoints comprise corresponding changes in cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers as well as microvascular obstruction and LV volumes assessed by CMRI. Clinical events, laboratory parameters, and blood cell counts are reported as safety endpoints at 30 days. CONCLUSION: The CLEVER-ACS trial tests the hypothesis whether mTOR inhibition using everolimus at the time of an acute STEMI affects LV infarct size following successful pPCI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Double-Blind Method , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
2.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(12): 3499-3512, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525551

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement has been frequently reported in COVID-19 as responsible of increased morbidity and mortality. Given the importance of right heart function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases, its assessment in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may add prognostic accuracy. Transthoracic echocardiography has been proposed to early predict myocardial injury and risk of death in hospitalized patients. This systematic review presents the up-to-date sum of literature regarding right ventricle ultrasound assessment. We evaluated commonly used echocardiographic parameters to assess RV function and discussed their relationship with pathophysiological mechanisms involved in COVID-19. We searched Medline and Embase for studies that used transthoracic echocardiography for right ventricle assessment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
3.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(12): 3499-3512, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320106

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement has been frequently reported in COVID-19 as responsible of increased morbidity and mortality. Given the importance of right heart function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases, its assessment in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may add prognostic accuracy. Transthoracic echocardiography has been proposed to early predict myocardial injury and risk of death in hospitalized patients. This systematic review presents the up-to-date sum of literature regarding right ventricle ultrasound assessment. We evaluated commonly used echocardiographic parameters to assess RV function and discussed their relationship with pathophysiological mechanisms involved in COVID-19. We searched Medline and Embase for studies that used transthoracic echocardiography for right ventricle assessment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
4.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 35: 100824, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in the time from the symptoms onset to first medical contact and to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) has been observed in countries with high-incidence of COVID-19 cases. We aimed to verify if there was any change in the patient delay and in the EMS response times up to the pPCI for STEMI patients in Swiss Ticino Canton. METHODS: We assessed STEMI management including time from symptoms onset to EMS call, time of EMS response, time to pPCI in Swiss Canton Ticino. Data were retrieved from the Acute-Coronary-Syndrome-Ticino-Registry. We considered the patients included in the registry from March to May 2020 (pandemic period) and then from June to August 2020 (post-pandemic period) in whom a pPCI was performed. We compared these patients to those undergoing a pPCI in the same months in the year 2016-2019. RESULTS: During the pandemic period, the time from symptoms onset to pPCI significantly increased compared to non-pandemic periods. This was due to a significant prolongation of the time from symptoms onset to EMS call, that nearly tripled. In contrast, after the pandemic period, there was a significantly shorter time from symptom onset to EMS call compared to non-pandemic years, whereas all other times remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Patients delay the call to EMS despite symptoms of myocardial infarction during the COVID-19 pandemic also in a region with a relatively low incidence of COVID-19.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 612818, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000072

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 worldwide pandemic, patients with heart failure are a high-risk group with potential higher mortality if infected. Although lockdown represents a solution to prevent viral spreading, it endangers regular follow-up visits and precludes direct medical assessment in order to detect heart failure progression and optimize treatment. Furthermore, lifestyle changes during quarantine may trigger heart failure decompensations. During the pandemic, a paradoxical reduction of heart failure hospitalization rates was observed, supposedly caused by patient reluctance to visit emergency departments and hospitals. This may result in an increased patient mortality and/or in more complicated heart failure admissions in the future. In this scenario, different telemedicine strategies can be implemented to ensure continuity of care to patients with heart failure. Patients at home can be monitored through dedicated apps, telephone calls, or devices. Virtual visits and forward triage screen the patients with signs or symptoms of decompensated heart failure. In-hospital care may benefit from remote communication platforms. After discharge, patients may undergo remote follow-up or telerehabilitation to prevent early readmissions. This review provides a comprehensive appraisal of the many possible applications of telemedicine for patients with heart failure during Coronavirus disease 2019 and elucidates practical limitations and challenges regarding specific telemedicine modalities.

6.
J Card Fail ; 26(6): 470-475, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected more than 1.8 million people worldwide, overwhelmed health care systems owing to the high proportion of critical presentations, and resulted in more than 100,000 deaths. Since the first data analyses in China, elevated cardiac troponin has been noted in a substantial proportion of patients, implicating myocardial injury as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to severe illness and mortality. Accordingly, high troponin levels are associated with increased mortality in patients with COVID-19. This brief review explores the available evidence regarding the association between COVID-19 and myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Troponin/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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