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1.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 19: 495-506, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253814

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study aimed at reporting about the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR), an instrument based on a multidimensional approach to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD), including a range of threatening or traumatic experiences and significant losses, besides the spectrum of peri-traumatic stress reactions and post-traumatic stress symptoms that may occur. Methods: A sample of 87 Health Care Workers (HCWs) employed in the COVID-19 Emergency Department at the Virgen de la Arrixaca and Reina Sofia Hospitals (Murcia, Spain) during the pandemic, was consecutively recruited and fulfilled the TALS-SR. Assessments also included the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), to examine post-traumatic stress symptoms and probable PTSD. Nineteen HCWs fulfilled the TALS-SR again after three weeks from baseline for test-retest reliability. Results: This study provides evidence of good internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of the TALS-SR. Strong support for the internal validity structure was obtained, with positive and significant correlations between the five symptomatologic domains and the symptomatologic total score. Significant and good correlations between the TALS-SR symptomatologic domains and the IES-R total and single domains' scores were found. The Questionnaire also demonstrated to discriminate between subjects with and without PTSD, with subjects with PTSD showing significantly higher mean scores in each domain of the TALS-SR. Conclusion: This study validates the Spanish version of TALS-SR, providing a useful instrument for a spectrum approach to PTSD and confirms the potential utility of this psychometric tool in both clinical practice and research settings.

2.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(7-8): 797-808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187164

ABSTRACT

The potentially traumatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in subjects with pre-existing mental disorders is still unclear, especially regarding its long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with mental disorders, during the 3rd wave of the infection (T0, March-April 2021) while strict containment measures were applied in Italy, and after 3 months (T1, June-July 2021), with reduced restrictive measures. A total sample of 527 subjects, with different DSM-5 diagnoses, was consecutively enrolled at nine Italian psychiatric outpatient services. Assessments at T0 included: the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). These two latter were repeated at T1. Results showed that at T0, 43.6% of the sample reported symptoms of PTSD, with females (p = .004), younger subjects (p = .011), unemployed/students (p = .011), and living with their parental families (p = .017), resulting more affected. Differences in PTSD rates emerged across diagnostic groups ranging from 10% in patients with psychoses up to 59% in those with feeding and eating disorders. An improvement at T1 emerged in all diagnostic groups for the IES-R scores, while WSAS scores improved only in subjects with mood disorders. In conclusions, subjects with mental disorders presented relevant rates of PTSD and PTSS at 1-year into the pandemic. Further long-term studies are needed to follow-up the course of pandemic traumatic burden especially in patients with severe mental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Italy/epidemiology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847316

ABSTRACT

During the 2020 first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, general practitioners (GPs) represented the first line of primary care and were highly exposed to the pandemic risks, with a consequent risk of developing a wide range of mental health symptoms. However, scant data are still available on factors associated with a worse outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate mental health symptoms in 139 GPs in the aftermath of the first COVID-19 national lockdown in Italy, detecting groups of subjects with different depressive, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity. The impact of the mental health symptoms on quality of life and individual functioning were also evaluated. A cluster analysis identified three groups with mild (44.6%), moderate (35.3%), and severe psychopathological burden (20.1%). Higher symptom severity was related to younger age, fewer years in service as GPs, working in a high incidence area for the pandemic, having a relative at risk of medical complications due to COVID-19, besides more severe global functioning impairment, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress. The present findings showed that GPs, forced to perform their professional activity in extremely stressful conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, were at high risk of developing mental health problems and a worse quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(7):4007, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762158

ABSTRACT

During the 2020 first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, general practitioners (GPs) represented the first line of primary care and were highly exposed to the pandemic risks, with a consequent risk of developing a wide range of mental health symptoms. However, scant data are still available on factors associated with a worse outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate mental health symptoms in 139 GPs in the aftermath of the first COVID-19 national lockdown in Italy, detecting groups of subjects with different depressive, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity. The impact of the mental health symptoms on quality of life and individual functioning were also evaluated. A cluster analysis identified three groups with mild (44.6%), moderate (35.3%), and severe psychopathological burden (20.1%). Higher symptom severity was related to younger age, fewer years in service as GPs, working in a high incidence area for the pandemic, having a relative at risk of medical complications due to COVID-19, besides more severe global functioning impairment, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress. The present findings showed that GPs, forced to perform their professional activity in extremely stressful conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, were at high risk of developing mental health problems and a worse quality of life.

5.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17: 242-252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence highlights the susceptibility of Healthcare Workers to develop psychopathological sequelae, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression, in the current COronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, but little data have been reported in the acute phase of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To explore Healthcare Workers' mental health reactions in the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the first European epicenter (Lodi/Codogno, Italy), with particular attention to post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and their interplay with other psychological outcomes. METHODS: 74 Healthcare Workers employed at the Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale of Lodi (Lombardy, Italy) were recruited and assessed by means of the Impact of Event Scale- Revised, the Professional Quality of Life Scale-5, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item, the Resilience Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compared across three subgroups of the sample (No PTSD, PTSD only, PTSD and depression). RESULTS: A total of 31% of subjects endorsed a diagnosis of PTSD and 28.4% reported PTSD comorbid with major depression. Females were more prone to develop post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Subjects with PTSD and depression groups showed high levels of PTSD, depression, burnout and impairment in functioning. Anxiety symptoms were higher in both PTSD and depression and PTSD groups rather than in the No PTSD group. CONCLUSION: Our results showed high rates of PTSD and depression among Healthcare Workers and their comorbidity overall being associated with worse outcomes. Current findings suggest that interventions to prevent and treat psychological implications among Healthcare Workers facing infectious outbreaks are needed.

6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687146

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic and the related containment measures can represent a traumatic experience, particularly for populations living in high incidence areas and individuals with mental disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms since the end of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave and Italy's national lockdown in subjects with mood or anxiety disorders living in 2 regions with increasing pandemic incidence.Methods: 102 subjects with a DSM-5 anxiety or mood disorder were enrolled from June to July 2020 and assessed at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1) with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale. At T1, subjects were also assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report for PTSD.Results: At T0, subjects from the high COVID-19 incidence area showed higher levels of traumatic symptoms than those from the low COVID-19 incidence area (P < .001), with a decrease at T1 with respect to T0 (P = .001). Full or partial DSM-5 PTSD related to the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in 23 subjects (53.5%) from the high COVID-19 incidence area and in 9 (18.0%) from the low COVID-19 incidence area (P < .001).Conclusions: Subjects with mood or anxiety disorders presented relevant rates of PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in the aftermath of the lockdown, and in most cases these persisted after 3 months. The level of exposure to the pandemic emerged as a major risk factor for PTSD development. Further long-term studies are needed to follow up the course of traumatic burden.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Mood Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cost of Illness , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health Recovery/trends , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
7.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e8, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is recognized to be at high risk for developing negative psychopathological sequelae to potentially traumatic events. Nevertheless, scant data are still available about the effects of the COVID-19 emergency on the clinical course of BD. The present study examined prospectively the development and trajectories of post-traumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among subjects with BD that were followed in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at the time of pandemic onset. METHODS: A cohort of 89 subjects with BD was enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and assessed at baseline (T0), 2-months (T1), and 6-months (T2) follow-up. A K-means cluster analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of depressive, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms during the three time points. RESULTS: We identified three trajectories: the Acute reaction (13.5%); the Increasing severity (23.6%); and the Low symptoms (62.9%) groups, respectively. In the Acute reaction group a significant prevalence of female gender was reported with respect to the Low symptoms one. Subjects in the Increasing severity group reported significantly lower employment rate, and higher rate of relatives at risk for COVID-19 medical complications. Subjects in the Increasing Severity group reported higher rates of previous hospitalization and manic symptoms at baseline than those included in the Low symptoms one. CONCLUSIONS: Our results describe three distinct symptom trajectories during the COVID-19 emergency in a cohort of subjects suffering from BD, suggesting the need of a long-term follow-up for detecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Depression , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
8.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 69: 103154, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore gender and occupational role impact on work-related Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, burnout and global functioning in a sample of emergency healthcare workers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: 126 healthcare workers of the Emergency Department, including Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Room and Emergency Medicine, of a major University Hospital in central Italy were recruited. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were assessed by means of the: Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) to explore Post-Traumatic Stress Spectrum Symptoms, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) Scale to assess Compassion Satisfaction, Burnout and Compassion Fatigue and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to measure global functioning. RESULTS: The present findings showed females were more prone to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, particularly re-experiencing (p = .010) and hyperarousal (p = .026) symptoms and medical doctors reporting higher Burnout (p < .001) and lower Compassion Satisfaction (p = .009) mean scores than nurses. Higher levels of functioning impairment emerged amongst medical doctors rather than nurses, in both social (p = .029) and private (p = .020) leisure activities. Linear correlations highlighted relationships between the TALS-SR, ProQOL and WSAS scores. Finally, medical doctor status was significantly associated with lower Compassion Satisfaction (p = .029) and higher Burnout (p = .015). CONCLUSION: Our results highlight high post-traumatic stress symptoms and burnout levels in emergency healthcare workers with a relevant impact of female gender and occupational role, supporting the need for preventive strategies, also in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Empathy , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(4): 189-197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence highlights healthcare workers (HCWs) facing outbreaks, particularly the ongoing covid-19 pandemic, are at increased risk of negative mental health outcomes, particularly post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), anxiety and depression. Data from previous outbreaks highlighted the risk for a negative impact on HCWs' social and occupational functioning, but scant data have investigated this issue in the framework of the covid-19 pandemic. A number of effective interventions have been proposed to support mental health and well-being of HCWs in emerging infectious outbreaks, but it is important to acknowledge the differential impact of mental disorders on different dimensions of functioning. METHODS: The study explored the associations between work and social functioning and PTSS, depression and anxiety in a sample of 265 frontline HCWs employed at a major university hospital in Italy (Pisa), facing the first period of the covid-19 pandemic. Individuals were assessed by means of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for PTSS, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to assess work and social functioning. RESULTS: Higher levels of functioning impairment were found among individuals with moderate to severe acute PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms with respect to those without. Acute PTSS and depressive symptoms were predictive factors of impairment in each domain of functioning analyzed. Anxiety symptoms were associated with impairment in both work and home management activities. Frontline activity was associated with impairment in both private and social leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term perspective studies are warranted to better investigate the psychopathological burden on HCWs' work and social functioning and to promote adequate intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Family Relations , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty , Workload
10.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1879552, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142598

ABSTRACT

Background: Peritraumatic distress as assessed by the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI), has been consistently shown to predict the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after the exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. Objective: The present study aims to validate the Italian version of the PDI in a sample of Healthcare Workers (HCWs) exposed to COVID-19 related potentially traumatizing events. Method: N = 265 HCWs who repeatedly experienced the deaths of patients during COVID-19 emergency in Italy, were enrolled from the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Pisa, Italy). They completed the PDI, Impact Event Scale - revised (IES-R) and the reactions to losses or upsetting events Trauma and Loss Spectrum - Self Report (TALS-SR) domain. Results: Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .874. The PDI correlated strongly with measures that was conceptually close (TALS-SR reactions to losses or upsetting events domain; r = .723, p < .001). Participants who scored above the cut-off for PTSD reported significantly higher PDI scores than those who did not (6.47 ± 5.25 vs. 19.11 ± 8.291, p < 0.001). The one-month test-retest reliability (n = 21) was excellent (ICC = .997). Finally, factor analyses revealed that the PDI exhibited a single-factor structure. Conclusions: the Italian version of the PDI showed good psychometric proprieties and may be used to detect those at risk for developing PTSD.


Antecedentes: Se ha demostrado sistemáticamente que el distrés peritraumático, evaluado por el Inventario de Distrés Peritraumático (PDI), predice el desarrollo del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) después de la exposición a un evento potencialmente traumático.Objetivo: El presente estudio tiene por objeto validar la versión italiana del PDI en una muestra de Trabajadores de la Salud (TSP) expuestos a eventos potencialmente traumatizantes relacionados con COVID-19.Método: N=265 trabajadores de la salud que experimentaron repetidamente la muerte de pacientes durante la emergencia de COVID-19 en Italia, fueron enrolados en la Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Pisa, Italia). Completaron el PDI, Escala de Evento de Impacto - revisada (IES-R) y el Trauma y Espectro de Pérdidas- Auto reporte, dominio de las reacciones a las pérdidas o eventos perturbadores (TALS-SR).Resultados: La consistencia interna fue buena con un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,874. El PDI se correlacionó fuertemente con medidas que eran conceptualmente cercanas, (dominio de las reacciones a las pérdidas o eventos perturbadores TALS-SR; r=.723, p<.001). Los participantes que puntuaron por encima del límite para el TEPT reportaron puntuaciones de PDI significativamente más altas que los que no lo hicieron (6,47±5,25 vs. 19,11±8,291, p<0,001). La confiabilidad del test de un mes (n=21) fue excelente (ICC=.997). Finalmente, los análisis factoriales revelaron que el PDI exhibía una estructura de un solo factor.Conclusiones: la versión italiana del PDI mostró buenas propiedades psicométricas y puede ser usada para detectar a aquellos en riesgo de desarrollar TEPT.

11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 8, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067254

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The literature agrees on the impact of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children but there is less clarity about the real extent and gender differences of this psychopathological risk. The recent Covid-19 outbreak highlighted new burdens for researchers on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and clear evidence-based knowledge on this issue is timely needed. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we present a synthesis of the updated evidence on PTSD rates in parents of children with severe diseases. We also aim to try to understand if research in this field has been refined over time with the long-term intent to better face the new challenges of Covid-19 in the paediatric field. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was searched. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they assessed PTSD in parents of children diagnosed with physical illnesses. DATA EXTRACTION: Of 240 studies, 4 were included. RESULTS: Analysis of the 4 studies revealed 2 studies with PTSD rates around 20% and in line with previous best-evidence. All 4 studies tried to provide more data on fathers, however, all the studies present the lack of a control group. LIMITATIONS: The limited number of studies, which also differ widely in the methodology used. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological errors evidenced in all the 4 studies limit their reliability, making the understanding of the paediatric caregiver's concern regarding PTSD still difficult. More sound research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Child , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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