Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Diabetes Ther ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787895

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research is ongoing to increase our understanding of how much a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects someone's risk of becoming seriously unwell following a COVID-19 infection. In this study we set out to determine the relative likelihood of death following COVID-19 infection in people with T2DM when compared to those without T2DM. This was conducted as an urban population study and based in the UK. METHODS: Analysis of electronic health record data was performed relating to people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation (population 2.82 million) who had a recorded diagnosis of T2DM and subsequent COVID-19 confirmed infection. Each individual with T2DM (n = 13,807) was matched with three COVID-19-infected non-diabetes controls (n = 39,583). Data were extracted from the Greater Manchester Care Record (GMCR) database for the period 1 January 2020 to 30 June 2021. Social disadvantage was assessed through Townsend scores. Death rates were compared in people with T2DM to their respective non-diabetes controls; potential predictive factors influencing the relative likelihood of admission were ascertained using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: For individuals with T2DM, their mortality rate after a COVID-19 positive test was 7.7% vs 6.0% in matched controls; the relative risk (RR) of death was 1.28. From univariate analysis performed within the group of individuals with T2DM, the likelihood of death following a COVID-19 recorded infection was lower in people taking metformin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hypertension were associated with increased mortality and had odds ratios of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.97) and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.68-2.20), respectively. Likelihood of death following a COVID-19 infection was also higher in those people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe enduring mental illness but not with asthma, and in people taking aspirin/clopidogrel/insulin. Smoking in people with T2DM significantly increased mortality rate (odds ratio of 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.65). In a combined analysis of patients with T2DM and controls, multiple regression modelling indicated that the factors independently relating to a higher likelihood of death (accounting for 26% of variance) were T2DM, age, male gender and social deprivation (higher Townsend score). CONCLUSION: Following confirmed infection with COVID-19 a number of factors are associated with mortality in individuals with T2DM. Prescription of metformin, SGLT2is or GLP-1 agonists and non-smoking status appeared to be associated with a reduced the risk of death for people with T2DM. Age, male sex and social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of death.

2.
Diabetes Ther ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since early 2020 the whole world has been challenged by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated global pandemic (Covid-19). People with diabetes are particularly at high risk of becoming seriously unwell after contracting this virus. METHODS: This population-based study included people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation who had a recorded diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and subsequent Covid-19 infection. Each individual with T1DM (n = 862) or T2DM (n = 13,225) was matched with three Covid-19-infected non-diabetes controls. RESULTS: For individuals with T1DM, hospital admission rate in the first 28 days after a positive Covid-19 test was 10% vs 4.7% in age/gender-matched controls [relative risk (RR) 2.1]. For individuals with T2DM, hospital admission rate after a positive Covid-19 test was 16.3% vs 11.6% in age/gender-matched controls (RR 1.4). The average Townsend score was higher in T2DM (1.8) vs matched controls (0.4), with a higher proportion of people with T2DM observed in the top two quintiles of greatest disadvantage (p < 0.001). For Covid-19-infected individuals with T1DM, factors influencing admission likelihood included age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, HbA1c, low HDL-cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and being of African/mixed ethnicity. In Covid-19-infected individuals with T2DM, factors related to a higher admission rate included age, Townsend index, comorbidity with COPD/asthma and severe mental illness (SMI), lower eGFR. Metformin prescription lowered the likelihood. For multivariate analysis in combined individuals with T2DM/controls, factors relating to higher likelihood of admission were having T2DM/age/male gender/diagnosed COPD/diagnosed hypertension/social deprivation (higher Townsend index) and non-white ethnicity (all groups). CONCLUSION: In a UK population we have confirmed a significantly higher likelihood of admission in people with diabetes following Covid-19 infection. A number of factors mediate that increased likelihood of hospital admission. For T2DM, the majority of factors related to increased admission rate are common to the general population but more prevalent in T2DM. There was a protective effect of metformin in people with T2DM.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327785

ABSTRACT

Background: Online consultations (OCs) allow patients to contact their care provider online, and have been promoted as a way to address increasing workload and decreasing workforce capacity in primary care. Globally, OCs have been rolled out rapidly due to policy initiatives and the COVID-19 pandemic, though there is a lack of evidence regarding how their design and implementation influence care outcomes. Objective Informed by existing theories, synthesise quantitative and qualitative research on: 1) outcomes of OCs in primary care;2) how these are influenced by OC system design and implementation. Methods We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, NTIS, HMIC, and ZETOC from 2010 to November 2021. We included quantitative and qualitative studies of real-world OC use in primary care, written in English, and published 2010 onwards. Quantitative data were transformed into qualitative themes. For objective 1 we used thematic synthesis informed by the Institute of Medicine domains of healthcare quality. For objective 2 we used Framework Analysis informed by the NASSS framework and Realistic Evaluation. Critical appraisal was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and strength of evidence judged using GRADE-CERQual. Results We synthesised 62 studies (quantitative n=32, qualitative n=12, mixed methods n=18) in nine countries covering 30 unique OC systems, 13 of which used Artificial Intelligence (AI). Twenty-six were published in 2020 onwards, and 11 were post-COVID-19. There was no quantitative evidence for negative impacts of OCs on patient safety, and qualitative studies suggested perceptions of OC safety varied. Some participants believed OCs improved safety, particularly when patients could describe their queries using unstructured free-text. Staff workload decreased when sufficient resources were allocated to implement OCs, and patients used them for simple problems or could describe their queries using free-text. Staff workload increased when OCs were not integrated with other software or organisational workflows, and patients used them for complex queries. OC systems that required patients to describe their queries using multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) increased workload for both them and staff. Health costs were reduced when patients used OCs for simple queries, and increased when used for complex ones. Patients using OCs were more likely to be female, younger, native speakers, with higher socioeconomic status than those not using OCs. However, OCs increased primary care access for patients with mental health conditions, verbal communication difficulties, and barriers to attending in-person appointments. Access also increased by providing a timely response to patient queries. Patient satisfaction increased when using OCs due to better primary care access, though could decrease when using MCQ formats. Conclusions This is the first theoretically-informed synthesis of research on OCs in primary care, and includes studies conducted during COVID-19. It contributes new knowledge that in addition to producing positive outcomes such as increased access and patient satisfaction, they can also have negative outcomes such as increased workload and costs. These negative outcomes can be mitigated by appropriate OC system design (e.g. free-text format), incorporating advanced technologies (e.g. AI), and integration into technical and organisational workflows (e.g. timely responses).

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(2): 1248-1255, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555496

ABSTRACT

People with severe mental illness (SMI; including schizophrenia/psychosis, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD)) experience large disparities in physical health. Emerging evidence suggests this group experiences higher risks of infection and death from COVID-19, although the full extent of these disparities are not yet established. We investigated COVID-19 related infection, hospitalisation and mortality among people with SMI in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort study. Overall, 447,296 participants from UKB (schizophrenia/psychosis = 1925, BD = 1483 and MDD = 41,448, non-SMI = 402,440) were linked with healthcare and death records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine differences in COVID-19 outcomes by diagnosis, controlling for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. In unadjusted analyses, higher odds of COVID-19 mortality were seen among people with schizophrenia/psychosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00-7.34), BD (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.00-6.35), and MDD (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.69-2.33) compared to people with no SMI. Higher odds of infection and hospitalisation were also seen across all SMI groups, particularly among people with schizophrenia/psychosis (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.32-1.96; OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.47-4.72) and BD (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.85; OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.22-4.73). In fully adjusted models, mortality and hospitalisation odds remained significantly higher among all SMI groups, though infection odds remained significantly higher only for MDD. People with schizophrenia/psychosis, BD and MDD have higher risks of COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation and mortality. Only a proportion of these disparities were accounted for by pre-existing demographic characteristics or comorbidities. Vaccination and preventive measures should be prioritised in these particularly vulnerable groups.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101175, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance of temporal trends in clinically treated self-harm is an important component of suicide prevention in the dynamic context of COVID-19. There is little evidence beyond the initial months following the onset of the pandemic, despite national and regional restrictions persisting to mid-2021. METHODS: Descriptive time series analysis utilizing de-identified, primary care health records of 2.8 million patients from the Greater Manchester Care Record. Frequencies of self-harm episodes between 1st January 2019 and 31st May 2021 were examined, including stratification by sex, age group, ethnicity, and index of multiple deprivation quintile. FINDINGS: There were 33,444 episodes of self-harm by 13,148 individuals recorded during the study period. Frequency ratios of incident and all episodes of self-harm were 0.59 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.69) and 0.69 (CI 0.63 to 0.75) respectively in April 2020 compared to February 2020. Between August 2020 and May 2021 frequency ratios were 0.92 (CI 0.88 to 0.96) for incident episodes and 0.86 (CI 0.84 to 0.88) for all episodes compared to the same months in 2019. Reductions were largest among men and people living in the most deprived neighbourhoods, while an increase in all-episode self-harm was observed for adolescents aged 10-17. INTERPRETATION: Reductions in primary care-recorded self-harm persisted to May 2021, though they were less marked than in April 2020 during the first national lockdown. The observed reductions could represent longer term reluctance to seek help from health services. Our findings have implications for the ability for services to offer recommended care for patients who have harmed themselves.

9.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(10): e543-e550, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, research on the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of the population and the health-care system is scarce. We aimed to investigate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice health-care usage, and the subsequent diagnoses of common physical and mental health conditions in a deprived UK population. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected primary care data that was recorded in the Salford Integrated Record between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2020. We extracted the weekly number of clinical codes entered into patient records overall, and for six high-level categories: symptoms and observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, operations and procedures, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Negative binomial regression models were applied to monthly counts of first diagnoses of common conditions (common mental health problems, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), and corresponding first prescriptions of medications indicative of these conditions. We used these models to predict the expected numbers of first diagnoses and first prescriptions between March 1 and May 31, 2020, which were then compared with the observed numbers for the same time period. FINDINGS: Between March 1 and May 31, 2020, 1073 first diagnoses of common mental health problems were reported compared with 2147 expected cases (95% CI 1821 to 2489) based on preceding years, representing a 50·0% reduction (95% CI 41·1 to 56·9). Compared with expected numbers, 456 fewer diagnoses of circulatory system diseases (43·3% reduction, 95% CI 29·6 to 53·5), and 135 fewer type 2 diabetes diagnoses (49·0% reduction, 23·8 to 63·1) were observed. The number of first prescriptions of associated medications was also lower than expected for the same time period. However, the gap between observed and expected cancer diagnoses (31 fewer; 16·0% reduction, -18·1 to 36·6) during this time period was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this deprived urban population, diagnoses of common conditions decreased substantially between March and May 2020, suggesting a large number of patients have undiagnosed conditions. A rebound in future workload could be imminent as COVID-19 restrictions ease and patients with undiagnosed conditions or delayed diagnosis present to primary and secondary health-care services. Such services should prioritise the diagnosis and treatment of these patients to mitigate potential indirect harms to protect public health. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , General Practice/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL