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Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 241: 113949, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757396


Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion was estimated to cause 2.31 million deaths worldwide in 2019; cardiovascular disease is a substantial contributor to the global burden. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between household air pollution (24-h gravimetric kitchen and personal particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC)) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in dried blood spots among 107 women in rural Honduras using wood-burning traditional or Justa (an engineered combustion chamber) stoves. A suite of 6 additional markers of systemic injury and inflammation were considered in secondary analyses. We adjusted for potential confounders and assessed effect modification of several cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) 24-h-average personal PM2.5 concentration was 115 µg/m3 (65,154 µg/m3) for traditional stove users and 52 µg/m3 (39, 81 µg/m3) for Justa stove users; kitchen PM2.5 and BC had similar patterns. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were associated with higher levels of CRP (e.g., a 25% increase in personal PM2.5 was associated with a 10.5% increase in CRP [95% CI: 1.2-20.6]). In secondary analyses, results were generally consistent with a null association. Evidence for effect modification between pollutant measures and four different cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure) was inconsistent. These results support the growing evidence linking household air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Wood/analysis , Wood/chemistry
Vaccine ; 40(2): 298-305, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655211


BACKGROUND: Lyme disease incidence is increasing, despite current prevention options. New Lyme disease vaccine candidates are in development, however, investigation of the acceptability of a Lyme disease vaccine among potential consumers is needed prior to any vaccine coming to market. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study to estimate willingness to receive a potential Lyme disease vaccine and factors associated with willingness. METHODS: The web-based survey was administered to a random sample of Connecticut, Maryland, Minnesota, and New York residents June-July 2018. Survey-weighted descriptive statistics were conducted to estimate the proportion willing to receive a potential Lyme disease vaccine. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of sociodemographic characteristics and Lyme disease vaccine attitudes with willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 3313 respondents (6% response rate). We estimated that 64% of residents were willing to receive a Lyme disease vaccine, while 30% were uncertain and 7% were unwilling. Compared to those who were willing, those who were uncertain were more likely to be parents, adults 45-65 years old, non-White, have less than a bachelor's degree, or have safety concerns about a potential Lyme disease vaccine. Those who were unwilling were also more likely to be non-White, have less than a bachelor's degree, or have safety concerns about a potential Lyme disease vaccine. In addition, the unwilling had low confidence in vaccines in general, had low perceived risk of contracting Lyme disease, and said they would not be influenced by a positive recommendation from a healthcare provider. DISCUSSION: Overall, willingness to receive a Lyme disease vaccine was high. Effective communication by clinicians regarding safety and other vaccine parameters to those groups who are uncertain will be critical for increasing vaccine uptake and reducing Lyme disease incidence.

COVID-19 , Lyme Disease Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 68, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181086


RATIONALE: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has suspended many non-COVID-19 related research activities. Where restarting research activities is permitted, investigators need to evaluate the risks and benefits of resuming data collection and adapt procedures to minimize risk. OBJECTIVES: In the context of the multicountry Household Air Pollution Intervention (HAPIN) trial conducted in rural, low-resource settings, we developed a framework to assess the risk of each trial activity and to guide protective measures. Our goal is to maximize the integrity of reseach aims while minimizing infection risk based on the latest scientific understanding of the virus. METHODS: We drew on a combination of expert consultations, risk assessment frameworks, institutional guidance and literature to develop our framework. We then systematically graded clinical, behavioral, laboratory and field environmental health research activities in four countries for both adult and child subjects using this framework. National and local government recommendations provided the minimum safety guidelines for our work. RESULTS: Our framework assesses risk based on staff proximity to the participant, exposure time between staff and participants, and potential viral aerosolization while performing the activity. For each activity, one of four risk levels, from minimal to unacceptable, is assigned and guidance on protective measures is provided. Those activities that can potentially aerosolize the virus are deemed the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a systematic, procedure-specific approach to risk assessment for each trial activity, we were able to protect our participants and research team and to uphold our ability to deliver on the research commitments we have made to our staff, participants, local communities, and funders. This framework can be tailored to other research studies conducted in similar settings during the current pandemic, as well as potential future outbreaks with similar transmission dynamics. The trial is registered with NCT02944682 on October 26. 2016 .

Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design