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1.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1302, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738125

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

2.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1293-1301, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720840

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and has caused a worldwide pandemic due to the lack of any pre-existing immunity. Accurate serology testing is urgently needed to help diagnose infection, determine past exposure of populations and assess the response to a future vaccine. The landscape of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. In this study, we utilized the luciferase immunoprecipitation system to assess the antibody responses to 15 different SARS-CoV-2 antigens in patients with COVID-19. We identified new targets of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and show that nucleocapsid, open reading frame (ORF)8 and ORF3b elicit the strongest specific antibody responses. ORF8 and ORF3b antibodies, taken together as a cluster of points, identified 96.5% of COVID-19 samples at early and late time points of disease with 99.5% specificity. Our findings could be used to develop second-generation diagnostic tests to improve serological assays for COVID-19 and are important in understanding pathogenicity.

3.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107725, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276452

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, which is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic. There is currently a lack of knowledge about the antibody response elicited from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One major immunological question concerns antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We address this question by analyzing plasma from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV and from infected or immunized mice. Our results show that, although cross-reactivity in antibody binding to the spike protein is common, cross-neutralization of the live viruses may be rare, indicating the presence of a non-neutralizing antibody response to conserved epitopes in the spike. Whether such low or non-neutralizing antibody response leads to antibody-dependent disease enhancement needs to be addressed in the future. Overall, this study not only addresses a fundamental question regarding antigenicity differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV but also has implications for immunogen design and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Sf9 Cells , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
4.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203367

ABSTRACT

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Masks/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exhalation/physiology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Shedding
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