Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 62
Filter
1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834266

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOmicron subvariant BA.2 circulation is rapidly increasing globally.AimWe evaluated the neutralising antibody response from vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against symptomatic infection by BA.2 or other variants.MethodsUsing 50% plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT50), we assessed neutralising antibody titres to BA.2, wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and other variants in Comirnaty or CoronaVac vaccinees, with or without prior WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Titres were also measured for non-vaccinees convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralising antibodies in BA.2 and BA.1 breakthrough infections and in BA.2 infections affecting non-vaccinees were additionally studied.ResultsIn vaccinees or prior WT-SARS-CoV-2-infected people, BA.2 and BA.1 PRNT50 titres were comparable but significantly (p < 10 - 5) lower than WT. In each group of 20 vaccinees with (i) three-doses of Comirnaty, (ii) two CoronaVac followed by one Comirnaty dose, or (iii) one dose of either vaccine after a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, ≥ 19 individuals developed detectable (PRNT50 titre ≥ 10) antibodies to BA.2, while only 15 of 20 vaccinated with three doses of CoronaVac did. Comirnaty vaccination elicited higher titres to BA.2 than CoronaVac. In people convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, a single vaccine dose induced higher BA.2 titres than three Comirnaty (p = 0.02) or CoronaVac (p = 0.00001) doses in infection-naïve individuals. BA.2 infections in previously uninfected and unvaccinated individuals elicited low (PRNT50 titre ≤ 80) responses with little cross-neutralisation of other variants. However, vaccinees with BA.1 or BA.2 breakthrough infections had broad cross-neutralising antibodies to WT viruses, and BA.1, BA.2, Beta and Delta variants.ConclusionsExisting vaccines can be of help against the BA.2 subvariant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Vaccination
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1276-1278, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785300

ABSTRACT

We studied SARS-CoV-2 genomes from travelers arriving in Hong Kong during November 2021-February 2022. In addition to Omicron and Delta variants, we detected a BA.1/BA.2 recombinant with a breakpoint near the 5' end of the spike gene in 2 epidemiologically linked case-patients. Continued surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 recombinants is needed.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329928

ABSTRACT

For SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, efficacy data for BNT162b2 but not CoronaVac are available in adolescents. Phase II/III studies focused on neutralizing antibody responses in adolescents, neglecting binding antibody and cellular responses that are also important against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we conducted a registered clinical study (NCT04800133) to establish immunobridging with various antibody and cellular immunity markers and to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of these 2 vaccines in healthy adolescents. One-dose BNT162b2 outcomes were also assessed since it had been recommended in some localities due to the risk of myocarditis. Antibodies and T cell immune responses were non-inferior or similar in adolescents receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2 (BB, N=116) and CoronaVac (CC, N=123) versus adults after 2 doses of the same vaccine (BB, N=147;CC, N=141) but not in adolescents after 1 dose of BNT162b2 (B, N=116). CC induced SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and N C-terminal domain seroconversion in more adolescents than adults. Adverse reactions were mostly mild for both vaccines and more frequent for BNT162b2. We confirmed higher S, neutralizing, avidity and Fc receptor-binding antibody responses in adolescents receiving BB than CC. This is the first study to show similar induction of strong S-specific T cells by the 2 vaccines, in addition to N- and M-specific T cells induced by CoronaVac but not BNT162b2 in adolescents. The implications of the differential ability to induce S- and non-S-specific antibody and T cell responses on the durability of protection and protection against virus variants by BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, the 2 most used SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the world, should be further investigated. Our results support the use of both vaccines in adolescents.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329649

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern spreads quickly around the world and outcompetes other circulating strains. We examined the stability of this SARS-CoV-2 variant on various surfaces and revealed that the Omicron variant is more stable than its ancestral strain on smooth and porous surfaces.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 467-470, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736706

ABSTRACT

We report surveillance conducted in 217 pestiferous rodents in Hong Kong for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA but identified 1 seropositive rodent, suggesting exposure to a virus antigenically similar to SARS-CoV-2. Potential exposure of urban rodents to SARS-CoV-2 cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rodentia
7.
Lancet ; 399(10329): 1070-1078, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to other mammals, including pet animals, has been reported. However, with the exception of farmed mink, there is no previous evidence that these infected animals can infect humans, resulting in sustained human-to-human transmission. Following a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of a pet shop worker, animals in the shop and the warehouse supplying it were tested for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this case study, viral swabs and blood samples were collected from animals in a pet shop and its corresponding warehouse in Hong Kong. Nasal swab or saliva samples from human COVID-19 patients epidemiologically linked to the pet shop and from subsequent local cases confirmed to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 delta variant were collected. Oral swabs were tested by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 and blood samples were serologically tested by a surrogate virus neutralisation test and plaque reduction neutralisation test. The SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR positive samples were sequenced by next generation viral full genome sequencing using the ISeq sequencing platform (Illumina), and the viral genomes were phylogenetically analysed. FINDINGS: Eight (50%) of 16 individually tested Syrian hamsters in the pet shop and seven (58%) of 12 Syrian hamsters in the corresponding warehouse were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in RT-qPCR or serological tests. None of the dwarf hamsters (n=75), rabbits (n=246), guinea pigs (n=66), chinchillas (n=116), and mice (n=2) were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 in RT-qPCR tests. SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes deduced from human and hamster cases in this incident all belong to the delta variant of concern (AY.127) that had not been circulating locally before this outbreak. The viral genomes obtained from hamsters were phylogenetically related with some sequence heterogeneity. Phylogenetic dating suggests infection in these hamsters occurred around Oct 14, 2021 (95% CI Sept 15 to Nov 9, 2021). Multiple zoonotic transmission events to humans were detected, leading to onward human-to-human transmission. INTERPRETATION: Pet hamsters can be naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2. The virus can circulate among hamsters and lead to human infections. Both genetic and epidemiological results strongly suggest that there was more than one hamster-to-human transmission event in this study. This incident also led to onward human transmission. Importation of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters was a likely source of this outbreak. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Food and Health Bureau, and InnoHK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Phylogeny
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321718

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan in December 2019 and has caused the pandemic respiratory disease, COVID-19. Following what is presumed to be an initial zoonotic transmission event, the virus is now spreading efficient in humans. Very little is known about the susceptibility of domestic mammals kept as pets to this virus. Samples were collected over a 13-day period from a 17 year-old neutered male Pomeranian in Hong Kong SA that was taken into isolation after two members of the household tested positive for the virus. Nasal swabs were consistently positive on the five occasions the dog was tested using quantitative RT- PCR with viral loads between 7.5xE2 to 2.6 x10E4 RNA copies per mL of sample. The dog remained asymptomatic. Cultures attempted on three RT-PCR positive nasal samples were negative. Gene sequences from samples from two household members were identical. The viral sequence from the dog differed at three nucleotide positions;two of these resulted in amino acid changes but their significance is yet to be determined. Seroconversion was not detected but this was expected given the asymptomatic infection and low virus load. The evidence suggests that this is an instance of human-to-animal transmission of SARS-COV-2. It is likely that we could see similar events in other infected households. We do not have information yet on whether this virus can cause illness in dogs but no specific signs were seen in this dog. Whether infected dogs could transmit the virus to other animals or back to humans remains unknown. In this case it did not appear to have occurred.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321486

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses detected in horseshoe bats is spreading across the world and impacting the healthcare systems and global economy 1,2 . A suitable small animal model is urgently needed to support the development of vaccines and antiviral treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 in the golden Syrian hamster model. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicated in the epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in the areas of lung consolidation on day 2 and 5 post- inoculation, followed by rapid viral clearance and tissue repairing on day 7. Viral antigen was also detected in the epithelial cells of duodenum without apparent inflammatory response on day 2. Notably, we observed that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted efficiently from the inoculated hamsters to co-housed naïve contact hamsters. The inoculated hamsters and naturally-infected hamsters lost greater than 10% of the body weight, and all animals recovered with the detection of neutralizing antibodies within 14 days. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden Syrian hamsters resemble features found in human patients with mild infections.Authors Sin Fun Sia, Li-Meng Yan, and Alex WH Chin contributed equally to this work.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328832

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant BA.2 is increasing in some areas of the world and it is important to assess how well current vaccines may protect against this infection. BioNTech Pfizer (BNT162b2) and CoronaVac are widely used COVID-19 vaccines globally. We determined the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) and PRNT90 antibody titres to BA.2 virus in sera (twenty each collected 3-5 weeks after third dose) from cohorts vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2, three doses of CoronaVac, two doses of CoronaVac followed by a third dose of BNT162b2 and those convalescent from SARS-CoV-2 (ancestral virus) (143-196 days after infection). We compared the PRNT titres to BA.2 with titres to BA.1 and ancestral virus. We demonstrate that PRNT50 and PRNT90 antibody titres to BA.2 are markedly reduced compared with those to ancestral virus and reduced as much as was observed for BA.1 virus. Those vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2 or vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac and a third dose of BNT162b2 develop PRNT antibody titres above the protective threshold from symptomatic infection. Those vaccinated with three doses of CoronaVac fail to achieve protective levels of PRNT50 antibody to BA.2 subvariant of Omicron 3-5 weeks after vaccination.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 736, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684024

ABSTRACT

Hong Kong employed a strategy of intermittent public health and social measures alongside increasingly stringent travel regulations to eliminate domestic SARS-CoV-2 transmission. By analyzing 1899 genome sequences (>18% of confirmed cases) from 23-January-2020 to 26-January-2021, we reveal the effects of fluctuating control measures on the evolution and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Hong Kong. Despite numerous importations, only three introductions were responsible for 90% of locally-acquired cases. Community outbreaks were caused by novel introductions rather than a resurgence of circulating strains. Thus, local outbreak prevention requires strong border control and community surveillance, especially during periods of less stringent social restriction. Non-adherence to prolonged preventative measures may explain sustained local transmission observed during wave four in late 2020 and early 2021. We also found that, due to a tight transmission bottleneck, transmission of low-frequency single nucleotide variants between hosts is rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Genomics , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Travel
12.
Nature ; 603(7902): 715-720, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661972

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with progressively increased transmissibility between humans is a threat to global public health. The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 also evades immunity from natural infection or vaccines1, but it is unclear whether its exceptional transmissibility is due to immune evasion or intrinsic virological properties. Here we compared the replication competence and cellular tropism of the wild-type virus and the D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants in ex vivo explant cultures of human bronchi and lungs. We also evaluated the dependence on TMPRSS2 and cathepsins for infection. We show that Omicron replicates faster than all other SARS-CoV-2 variants studied in the bronchi but less efficiently in the lung parenchyma. All variants of concern have similar cellular tropism compared to the wild type. Omicron is more dependent on cathepsins than the other variants of concern tested, suggesting that the Omicron variant enters cells through a different route compared with the other variants. The lower replication competence of Omicron in the human lungs may explain the reduced severity of Omicron that is now being reported in epidemiological studies, although determinants of severity are multifactorial. These findings provide important biological correlates to previous epidemiological observations.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsins/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endocytosis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 199-209, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to threaten public health globally. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, with respiratory and multiple organ failure. It is believed that dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines and endothelial dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of severe diseases. However, the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the role of endothelial cells are poorly understood. METHODS: Well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells were used to explore cytokine and chemokine production after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We measured the susceptibility to infection, immune response, and expression of adhesion molecules in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) exposed to conditioned medium from infected epithelial cells. The effect of imatinib on HPMVECs exposed to conditioned medium was evaluated. RESULTS: We demonstrated the production of interleukin-6, interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from the infected human airway cells after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Although HPMVECs did not support productive replication of SARS-CoV-2, treatment of HPMVECs with conditioned medium collected from infected airway cells induced an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and vascular adhesion molecules. Imatinib inhibited the upregulation of these cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in HPMVECs treated with conditioned medium. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the role of endothelial cells in the development of clinical disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the importance of endothelial cell-epithelial cell interaction in the pathogenesis of human COVID-19 diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Communication , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans
14.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 486-489, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631094

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant is rapidly becoming the dominant SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating globally. It is important to define reductions in virus neutralizing activity in the serum of convalescent or vaccinated individuals to understand potential loss of protection against infection by Omicron. We previously established that a 50% plaque reduction neutralization antibody titer (PRNT50) ≥25.6 in our live virus assay corresponded to the threshold for 50% protection from infection against wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Here we show markedly reduced serum antibody titers against the Omicron variant (geometric mean titer (GMT) < 10) compared to WT virus 3-5 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2 (GMT = 218.8) or CoronaVac vaccine (GMT = 32.5). A BNT162b2 booster dose elicited Omicron PRNT50 titers ≥25.6 in 88% of individuals (22 of 25) who previously received 2 doses of BNT162b2 and 80% of individuals (24 of 30) who previously received CoronaVac. However, few (3%) previously infected individuals (1 of 30) or those vaccinated with three doses of CoronaVac (1 of 30) met this threshold. Our findings suggest that countries primarily using CoronaVac vaccines should consider messenger RNA vaccine boosters in response to the spread of Omicron. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of different vaccines against the Omicron variant are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 258-264, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611679

ABSTRACT

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the second of three zoonotic coronaviruses to infect humans since 2002, causing severe pneumonia. Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, the causes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Covid-19, respectively, MERS-CoV is enzootic in dromedary camels, a domestic/companion animal present across Africa, the Middle East and Central or South Asia and is sporadically transmitted to humans. However, it does not transmit readily from human to human except in hospital and household settings. Human MERS disease is reported only from the Arabian Peninsula (and only since 2012 even though the virus was detected in camels from at least the early 1990's) and in travelers from this region. Remarkably, no zoonotic MERS disease has been detected in Africa or Asia, even in areas of high density of MERS-CoV infected dromedaries. Here, we review aspects of MERS biology and epidemiology that might contribute to this lack of correlation between sites of camel infection and human zoonotic disease. Since MERS-CoV or MERS-like CoV have pandemic potential, further investigations into this disparity is critical, to forestall pandemics caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 247-250, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581409

ABSTRACT

We sequenced ≈50% of coronavirus disease cases imported to Hong Kong during March-July 2021 and identified 70 cases caused by Delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The genomic diversity detected in Hong Kong was similar to global diversity, suggesting travel hubs can play a substantial role in surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293859

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019, to cause a respiratory disease (COVID-19) of varying severity in Wuhan China, subsequently spreading to other parts of China and beyond. Methods: We infected ex vivo explant cultures of the human conjunctiva, bronchus and lung, and in vitro cultures of primary human alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages with SARS-CoV-2, and assessed viral tropism, replication competence and innate immune responses, in comparison with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (pdmH1N1) virus.Findings: SARS-CoV-2 infected ciliated, mucus secreting and club cells of bronchial epithelium, spindled morphologically type I pneumocytes in the lung, and the conjunctival mucosa. Virus replication competence of SARS-CoV-2 in the bronchus was higher than that of SARS-CoV but lower than pdmH1N1. SARS-CoV-2 replication was comparable with SARS-CoV and pdmH1N1 in the lung but was lower than MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 virus was a less potent inducer of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with H5N1 and MERS-CoV. Influenza virus infection of alveolar epithelial cells increased ACE2 expression.Interpretation: The conjunctival epithelium and the conducting airways appear to be potential portals of infection of SARS-CoV-2. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 replicated comparably in the alveolar epithelium explaining the progression of infection to a primary viral pneumonia.Funding Statement: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) contract no. HHSN272201400006C and the Theme Based Research Scheme (Ref: T11-705/14N), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.Declaration of Interests: There is no conflict of interest for all authors.Ethics Approval Statement: All experiments were carried out in a Bio-safety level 3 (BSL-3) facility. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects and approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Hong Kong and the Hospital Authority (Hong Kong West) (approval no: UW 20-167).

18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 460-462, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551462

ABSTRACT

We report detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) in an asymptomatic, fully vaccinated traveler in a quarantine hotel in Hong Kong, China. The Omicron variant was also detected in a fully vaccinated traveler staying in a room across the corridor from the index patient, suggesting transmission despite strict quarantine precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine
19.
Respirology ; 27(4): 301-310, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few head-to-head evaluations of immune responses to different vaccines have been reported. METHODS: Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) antibody levels of adults receiving either two doses of BNT162b2 (n = 366) or CoronaVac (n = 360) vaccines in Hong Kong were determined. An age-matched subgroup (BNT162b2 [n = 49] vs. CoronaVac [n = 49]) was tested for plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT) and spike-binding antibody and T-cell reactivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: One month after the second dose of vaccine, BNT162b2 elicited significantly higher PRNT50 , PRNT90 , sVNT, spike receptor binding, spike N-terminal domain binding, spike S2 domain binding, spike FcR binding and antibody avidity levels than CoronaVac. The geometric mean PRNT50 titres in those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines were 251.6 and 69.45, while PRNT90 titres were 98.91 and 16.57, respectively. All of those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and 45 (91.8%) of 49 vaccinated with CoronaVac achieved the 50% protection threshold for PRNT90. Allowing for an expected seven-fold waning of antibody titres over 6 months for those receiving CoronaVac, only 16.3% would meet the 50% protection threshold versus 79.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees. Age was negatively correlated with PRNT90 antibody titres. Both vaccines induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses at 1 month post-vaccination but CoronaVac elicited significantly higher structural protein-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. CONCLUSION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 induces stronger humoral responses than CoronaVac. CoronaVac induces higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the structural protein than BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL