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1.
Digital Transformation and Social Well-Being: Promoting an Inclusive Society ; : 103-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202427

ABSTRACT

The digitalisation process in which Spanish society has been immersed over the past few years has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown situation. This has affected social services in two ways. First, it has shown that user needs can be dealt with effectively through digital interventions. Second, it has highlighted the fact that the digital represents an environment in its own right in which both social inclusion and social exclusion processes can be generated. This chapter presents some of the main results of the digital transformation process in Spain from the perspective of social welfare and social inclusion. In particular, it focuses on the consolidation of digital social work and the digital transformation of social services. The chapter concludes by presenting best practices for designing digital social intervention strategies aimed at reducing inequality and increasing social welfare in digital societies. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Antonio López Peláez, Sang-Mok Suh and Sergei Zelenev;individual chapters, the contributors.

2.
Front Artif Intell ; 5:1031450, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence in the educational domain has many uses;however, using AI specifically to enhance education and teaching in a K-12 environment poses the most significant challenges to its use. Beyond usage and application, the quality of the education is made even more arduous due to the dynamics of teaching primary and secondary school children, whose needs far exceed mere fact recollection. Utilizing prior research using AI in education and online education in the K-12 space, we explore some of the hurdles that AI applications face in K-12 teaching and provide core attributes for a "Turing Teacher," i.e., an AI powered technology for learning, specifically targeting the K-12 space. METHODS: Using a survey, which included qualitative responses during the implementation of online learning during the Covid Pandemic, we analyze the results using univariate and multivariate tests and analyzed the qualitative responses to create core attributes needed for AI powered teaching technology. RESULTS: The results present the challenges faced by any technology in an education setting and show that AI technology must help overcome negative feelings about technology in education. Further, the core attributes identified in the research must be addressed from the three stakeholder perspectives of teachers, parents and students. DISCUSSION: We present our findings and lay the groundwork for future research in the area of AI powered education. The Turing Teacher must be able to adapt and collaborate with real teachers and address the varying needs of students. In addition, we explore the use of AI technology as a means to close the digital divide in traditionally disadvantaged communities.

3.
Social Work Inhealth Emergencies: Global Perspectives ; : 35-95, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066944

ABSTRACT

Chapter 2 takes readers on a journey through world regions during the first six months of the pandemic, a period shaped by vastly different approaches between and within countries ranging from denial, mitigation to suppression. Some countries had to deal with major weather events and other disasters while also managing the health emergency. The ideologies of governments came to the fore influencing whether health or economies were prioritised, the science was accepted, and whether approaches were informed by individualism or collective responsibility. The first six months of the pandemic highlighted vast inequalities and established the global conditions for the emergence of new variants. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Patricia Fronek and Karen Smith Rotabi-Casares;individual chapters, the contributors.

6.
Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare ; 48(3):10-28, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1772431

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up the pace of the digital transition process in which we have been immersed. In a context of generalized lock-down, our organizations have been forced to go digital and many of the activities social workers perform must now be done remotely. As a result, e-social work, or digital social work, has gone from being an emerging specialization to a critical specialty across organizations and activities. In this article, we examine some basic scientific and methodological foundations to develop a science of social work from the perspective of critical realism, with special attention to digitalization. Establishing the scientific foundations of digital social work is a preliminary step for its development as a field of specialization. © 2021, Western Michigan University. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 30:30, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Etiopathogenesis of the clinical variability of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains mostly unknown. Here we investigate the role of Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/Human Leukocyte Antigen Class-I (HLA-I) interactions in the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: KIR and HLA-I genotyping and NK cell (NKc) receptors immunophenotyping in 201 symptomatic patients and 210 non-infected controls. RESULTS: NKcs with a distinctive immunophenotype, suggestive of recent activation (KIR2DS4 low CD16 low CD226 low CD56 high TIGIT high NKG2A high), expanded in patients with severe COVID-19. This was associated with a higher frequency of the functional A-telomeric activating KIR2DS4 in severe than mild/moderate patients and controls (83.7%, 55.7% and 36.2%, p<7.7x10 -9). In mild/moderate patients HLA-B*15:01 was associated with higher frequencies of activating B-telomeric KIR3DS1 compared to patients with other HLA-B*15 subtypes and non-infected controls (90.9%, 42.9% and 47.3%, p<0.002, Pc=0.022). This strongly suggests that HLA-B*15:01 specifically presenting SARS-CoV-2 peptides could form a neo-ligand interacting with KIR3DS1. Similarly, a putative neo-ligand for KIR2DS4 could arise from other HLA-I molecules presenting SARS-CoV-2 peptides expressed on infected/activated lung antigen presenting cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a crucial role of NKcs in the clinical variability of COVID-19 with specific KIR/Ligand interactions associated to disease severity.

10.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 40(4, Supplement):S12, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1141835

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people across the world and caused several thousands of deaths. Given advances in extracorporeal life support technology, ECMO for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has proven to be successful in sustaining life, however, has left a significant number of patients fully depended on devices and incapable of being weaned. Lung transplantation, as a well-established therapy for end-stage lung disease, has been considered for some patients with COVID-19 ARDS in the absence of lung recovery and the presence of findings suggestive of end-stage lung disease. Methods This is an International collaborative effort to assess the role of lung transplantation in COVID-19 ARDS. There is worldwide representation with centers from US (3), Europe (2) and Asia (1). Patients with COVID-19 ARDS supported on ECMO and/or mechanical ventilation who were deemed unweanable and developed features of end-stage lung disease were evaluated for lung transplantation. We followed ISHLT conventional recipient selection criteria recommendations and a 2 negative COVID-19 PCRs from bronchoalveaolar lavage or viral culture depending on medical urgency. Endpoints We will present demographics, intraoperative challenges, primary graft dysfunction, postoperative complications, survival and functional outcomes of patients with COVID-19 ARDS who underwent lung transplantation. Additionally, referral patterns, reasons for listing denial and waitlist outcomes will be presented. So far, this collaborative group has transplanted 17 patients. There have been no deaths on the waitlist, there was one post-transplant mortality at day 61. Ten patients have been discharged from the hospital and are doing well. Six patients are recovering well however less than 30 days post-transplantation and remain admitted.

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