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1.
AIDS ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n = 39 and n = 43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. RESULTS: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells (p = 0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells (p = 0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p = 0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p = 0.008), and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PWH and HIV-negative participants that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

2.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1103-1116, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931425

ABSTRACT

The chr12q24.13 locus encoding OAS1-OAS3 antiviral proteins has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility. Here, we report genetic, functional and clinical insights into this locus in relation to COVID-19 severity. In our analysis of patients of European (n = 2,249) and African (n = 835) ancestries with hospitalized versus nonhospitalized COVID-19, the risk of hospitalized disease was associated with a common OAS1 haplotype, which was also associated with reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance in a clinical trial with pegIFN-λ1. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro studies reveal the functional contribution of two associated OAS1 exonic variants comprising the risk haplotype. Derived human-specific alleles rs10774671-A and rs1131454 -A decrease OAS1 protein abundance through allele-specific regulation of splicing and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We conclude that decreased OAS1 expression due to a common haplotype contributes to COVID-19 severity. Our results provide insight into molecular mechanisms through which early treatment with interferons could accelerate SARS-CoV-2 clearance and mitigate against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/metabolism , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Pathog Immun ; 7(1): 95-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924851

ABSTRACT

Background: Efforts to understand the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccine status, and treatment on the development and persistence of Long COVID have intensified. Methods: We report 4 sequential cases from a post-COVID cohort study demonstrating variability in outcomes following differentially timed nirmatrelvir therapy, received as part of clinical care. Results: In the first case, the participant experienced symptomatic rebound and developed Long COVID despite early initiation of antiviral therapy. In the next 2 cases, participants reported improvement in persistent COVID symptoms when nirmatrelvir was taken 25 and 60 days following initial symptom onset. In the final case, an individual with presumed Long COVID for 2 years reported substantial improvement in chronic symptoms when taking nirmatrelvir following SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Conclusions: These anecdotes suggest that systematic study of antiviral therapy for Long COVID is warranted.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households have emerged as important venues for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Little is known, however, regarding the magnitude and determinants of household transmission in increasingly vaccinated populations. METHODS: From September 2020 to January 2022, symptomatic non-hospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RNA detection were identified within 5 days of symptom onset; all individuals resided with at least one other SARS-CoV-2-uninfected household member. These infected persons (cases) and their household members (contacts) were subsequently followed with questionnaire-based measurement and serial nasal specimen collection. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 cases and their 74 household contacts. Among the contacts, 32 (43%) became infected, of whom 5/32 (16%) were asymptomatic; 81% of transmissions occurred by 5 days after the case's symptom onset. From 21 unvaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts was 18/40 (45%; 95% CI: 29, 62), most of whom were unvaccinated. From 21 vaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 14/34 (41%; 95% CI: 25, 59) among all contacts and 12/29 (41%; 95% CI: 24, 61) among vaccinated contacts. At least one co-morbid condition among cases and 10 or more days of RNA detection in cases were associated with increased risk of infection among contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Among households including individuals with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, both vaccinated-to-vaccinated and unvaccinated-to-unvaccinated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to household contacts was common. Because vaccination alone did not notably reduce risk of infection, household contacts will need to employ additional interventions to avoid infection.

5.
JCI Insight ; 7(15)2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902172

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute coronavirus disease 2019 could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We did not observe a significant elevation in plasma markers of bacterial translocation during PASC. However, we observed higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as ß-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared with those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. The higher ß-glucan correlated with higher inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neurotoxic properties. Mechanistically, ß-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via Dectin-1) and activating Syk/NF-κB signaling. Using a Dectin-1/NF-κB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-κB signaling compared with plasma from negative controls. This higher NF-κB signaling was abrogated by piceatannol (Syk inhibitor). These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Glucans , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Syk Kinase
6.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(5)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The biologic mechanisms underlying neurologic postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC) are incompletely understood. METHODS: We measured markers of neurologic injury (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], neurofilament light chain [NfL]) and soluble markers of inflammation among a cohort of people with prior confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at early and late recovery after the initial illness (defined as less than and greater than 90 days, respectively). The primary clinical outcome was the presence of self-reported CNS PASC symptoms during the late recovery time point. We compared fold changes in marker values between those with and without CNS PASC symptoms using linear mixed-effects models and examined relationships between neurologic and immunologic markers using rank linear correlations. RESULTS: Of 121 individuals, 52 reported CNS PASC symptoms. During early recovery, those who went on to report CNS PASC symptoms had elevations in GFAP (1.3-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 1.04-1.63, p = 0.02), but not NfL (1.06-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 0.89-1.26, p = 0.54). During late recovery, neither GFAP nor NfL levels were elevated among those with CNS PASC symptoms. Although absolute levels of NfL did not differ, those who reported CNS PASC symptoms demonstrated a stronger downward trend over time in comparison with those who did not report CNS PASC symptoms (p = 0.041). Those who went on to report CNS PASC also exhibited elevations in interleukin 6 (48% higher during early recovery and 38% higher during late recovery), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (19% higher during early recovery), and tumor necrosis factor α (19% higher during early recovery and 13% higher during late recovery). GFAP and NfL correlated with levels of several immune activation markers during early recovery; these correlations were attenuated during late recovery. DISCUSSION: Self-reported neurologic symptoms present approximately 4 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with elevations in markers of neurologic injury and inflammation at earlier time points. Some inflammatory pathways seem to be involved months after acute infection. Additional work will be needed to better characterize these processes and to identify interventions to prevent or treat this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861744

ABSTRACT

Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as postacute sequelae of COVID-19, but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults more than 8 weeks after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. We enrolled 102 participants at a median of 7.2 months following COVID-19 onset; 47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years, and 41% of participants were women. Female sex, hospitalization, IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, and C-reactive protein were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4 of 47 participants (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared with 0 of 55 participants without symptoms; those with effusions had a median of 4 symptoms compared with a median of 1 symptom in those without effusions. There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters or other biomarkers. Among adults more than 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation, and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying postacute sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 772-781, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As SARS-CoV-2 is known to invade neural cell mitochondria, a plasma system for quantifying central nervous system proteins in living humans was used to investigate neuropathogenic mechanisms of long-COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mitochondrial proteins (MPs) in enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) and astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) were quantified in resolved acute COVID-19 without post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), PASC without neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP), PASC with NP and healthy controls. RESULTS: NDEV and ADEV mean levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were higher in all PASC sub-groups than controls, but only N levels were higher in PASC with than without NP. Exosome marker CD81-normalized NDEV mean levels of subunit 6 of MP respiratory chain complex I and subunit 10 of complex III, and neuroprotective MPs Humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were decreased significantly in PASC with NP but not in PASC without NP relative to controls. NDEV levels of MPs voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were decreased in PASC without and with NP, whereas those of calcium channel MPs mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), sodium/calcium exchanger (NCLX) and leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) were decreased only in PASC with NP. ADEV levels of MCU and NCLX only were increased in PASC without and with NP. INTERPRETATION: Abnormal NDEV and ADEV levels of SARS-CoV-2 N and S1 protein and MPs correlate with NP and may be biomarkers for long-COVID prognostics and therapeutic trials. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:772-781.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mitochondrial Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Trends Immunol ; 43(4): 268-270, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729846

ABSTRACT

Intense investigation into the predictors and determinants of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), including 'long COVID', is underway. Recent studies provide clues to the mechanisms that might drive this condition, with the goal of identifying host or virus factors that can be intervened upon to prevent or reverse PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to fully understand the impact of variable COVID-19 experiences and the optimal management of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We characterized the variability in the acute illness experience and ongoing recovery process from participants in a COVID-19 recovery cohort study in Northern California in 2020. METHOD: We completed 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews with adults with confirmed positive SARV-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test result, had recovered or were recovering from acute infection, and underwent serial evaluations. We purposefully sampled English- and Spanish-speaking adults with asymptomatic, mild, and severe symptomatic infection, including those who were hospitalized and those with HIV co-infection. We used a thematic analysis to analyze interviews and identify salient themes. RESULTS: After integrating the thematic analysis with clinical data, we identified key themes: (1) across symptom profiles and severity, experiencing COVID-19 was associated with psychological distress; (2) symptomatic infection carried uncertainty in symptom presentation and ongoing recovery (e.g., long COVID); and (3) health information-seeking behavior was facilitated by access to medical care and uncertainty with the recovery process. CONCLUSION: Our data informs the emerging field of "long COVID" research and shows a need to provide information and continuous support to persons with post-acute sequelae to ensure they feel secure along the path to recovery.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab640, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for the presence of postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of adults with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity at ≥2 weeks past onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 were symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 were symptomatic and hospitalized. During the postacute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping, and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared with pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple subphenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various subgroups of PASC.

17.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is mounting evidence for the presence of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS We assembled a cohort of adults with documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positivity who were ≥ 2 weeks past onset of COVID-19 symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 symptomatic and hospitalized. During the post-acute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared to pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSION Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple sub-phenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various sub-groups of PASC.

18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(2): 221-226, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624961

ABSTRACT

Cognitive post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) can occur after mild COVID-19. Detailed clinical characterizations may inform pathogenesis. We evaluated 22 adults reporting cognitive PASC and 10 not reporting cognitive symptoms after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection through structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and optional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations (53%). Delayed onset of cognitive PASC occurred in 43% and associated with younger age. Cognitive PASC participants had a higher number of pre-existing cognitive risk factors (2.5 vs. 0; p = 0.03) and higher proportion with abnormal CSF findings (77% vs. 0%; p = 0.01) versus controls. Cognitive risk factors and immunologic mechanisms may contribute to cognitive PASC pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cognition/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Personnel , Risk Factors , Young Adult
19.
Transl Res ; 241: 1-12, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575279

ABSTRACT

The current era of COVID-19 is characterized by emerging variants of concern, waning vaccine- and natural infection-induced immunity, debate over the timing and necessity of vaccine boosting, and the emergence of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a result, there is an ongoing need for research to promote understanding of the immunology of both natural infection and prevention, especially as SARS-CoV-2 immunology is a rapidly changing field, with new questions arising as the pandemic continues to grow in complexity. The next phase of COVID-19 immunology research will need focus on clearer characterization of the immune processes defining acute illness, development of a better understanding of the immunologic processes driving protracted symptoms and prolonged recovery (ie, post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection), and a growing focus on the impact of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions on the long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we address what is known about the long-term immune consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and propose how experience studying the translational immunology of other infections might inform the approach to some of the key questions that remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
20.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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