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1.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(7): 2229-2237, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921556

ABSTRACT

Rapid and flexible plasmid construct generation at scale is one of the most limiting first steps in drug discovery projects. These hurdles can partly be overcome by adopting modular DNA design principles, automated sequence fragmentation, and plasmid assembly. To this end we have designed a robust, multimodule golden gate based cloning platform for construct generation with a wide range of applications. The assembly efficiency of the system was validated by splitting sfGFP and sfCherry3C cassettes and expressing them in E. coli followed by fluorometric assessment. To minimize timelines and cost for complex constructs, we developed a software tool named FRAGLER (FRAGment recycLER) that performs codon optimization, multiple sequence alignment, and automated generation of fragments for recycling. To highlight the flexibility and robustness of the platform, we (i) generated plasmids for SarsCoV2 protein reagents, (ii) automated and parallelized assemblies, and (iii) built modular libraries of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) variants. Applying the new assembly framework, we have greatly streamlined plasmid construction and increased our capacity for rapid generation of complex plasmids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli , Cloning, Molecular , DNA/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Plasmids/genetics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Synthetic Biology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911338

ABSTRACT

The tremendous impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on societal, political, and economic rhythms has given rise to a significant overall shift from pre- to post-pandemic policies. Restrictions, stay-at-home regulations, and lockdowns have directly influenced day-to-day urban transportation flow. The rise of door-to-door services and the demand for visiting medical facilities, grocery stores, and restaurants has had a significant impact on urban transportation modal demand, further impacting zonal parking demand distribution. This study reviews the overall impacts of the pandemic on urban transportation with respect to a variety of policy changes in different cities. The parking demand shift was investigated by exploring the during- and post-COVID-19 parking policies of distinct metropolises. The detailed data related to Melbourne city parking, generated by the Internet of things (IoT), such as sensors and devices, are examined. Empirical data from 2019 (16 March to 26 May) and 2020 (16 March to 26 May) are explored in-depth using explanatory data analysis to demonstrate the demand and average parking duration shifts from district to district. The results show that the experimental zones of Docklands, Queensbery, Southbanks, Titles, and Princess Theatre areas have experienced a decrease in percentage change of vehicle presence of 29.2%, 36.3%, 37.7%, 23.7% and 40.9%, respectively. Furthermore, on-street level analysis of Princess Theatre zone, Lonsdale Street, Exhibition Street, Spring Street, and Little Bourke Street parking bays indicated a decrease in percentage change of vehicle presence of 38.7%, 56.4%, 12.6%, and 35.1%, respectively. In conclusion, future potential policymaking frameworks are discussed that could provide further guidance in stipulating epidemic prevention and control policies, particularly in relation to parking regulations during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335580

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of Ludangshen Oral Liquid for treatment of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter method. Methods: 200 convalescent COVID-19 patients who had symptoms related to decreased digestive and respiratory function were randomly divided to either receive Ludangshen Oral Liquid or placebo for 2 weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms including fatigue, anorexia, abdominal distension, loose stools, and shortness of breath were assessed by visual analogue scale and observed at before and after treatment. The improvement and resolution rates of clinical symptoms were evaluated. Full analysis set (FAS) and per-protocol set (PPS) were used for statistical analyses. Adverse events were recorded during the study. Results: 8 patients did not complete the study. After 2 weeks of treatment, both FAS and PPS results showed that patients in Ludangshen group had significantly lower score of fatigue, anorexia, loose stools, and shortness of breath than placebo group ( P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in distention ( P > 0.05). The improvement rate of fatigue, anorexia, distension, loose stools and shortness of breath were significantly higher in Ludangshen group ( P < 0.05), as well as the resolution rates ( P < 0.05) except for shortness of breath ( P > 0.05). There were two cases of adverse events, with one nose bleeding in Ludangshen group and one headache in placebo group. Conclusion: The study suggested that two weeks of Ludangshen Oral Liquid treatment may have certain effects for convalescent COVID-19 patients on improving digestive and respiratory symptoms including fatigue, anorexia, loose stools and shortness of breath, which may be one of the choices for management of convalescent COVID-19 patients with digestive and respiratory symptoms.

4.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 42, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Ludangshen oral liquid for treatment of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter method. METHODS: 200 convalescent COVID-19 patients who had symptoms related to decreased digestive and respiratory function were randomly divided to either receive Ludangshen oral liquid or placebo for 2 weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms including fatigue, anorexia, abdominal distension, loose stools, and shortness of breath were assessed by visual analogue scale and observed at before and after treatment. The improvement and resolution rates of clinical symptoms were evaluated. Full analysis set (FAS) and per-protocol set (PPS) were used for statistical analyses. Adverse events were recorded during the study. RESULTS: 8 patients did not complete the study. After 2 weeks of treatment, both FAS and PPS results showed that patients in Ludangshen group had significantly lower score of fatigue, anorexia, loose stools, and shortness of breath than placebo group (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in distention (P > 0.05). The improvement rate of fatigue, anorexia, distension, loose stools and shortness of breath were significantly higher in Ludangshen group (P < 0.05), as well as the resolution rates (P < 0.05) except for shortness of breath (P > 0.05). There were two cases of adverse events, with one nose bleeding in Ludangshen group and one headache in placebo group. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that two weeks of Ludangshen oral liquid treatment may have certain effects for convalescent COVID-19 patients on improving digestive and respiratory symptoms including fatigue, anorexia, loose stools and shortness of breath, which may be one of the choices for management of convalescent COVID-19 patients with digestive and respiratory symptoms.

5.
Iran. Red Crescent Med.J. ; 4(22)20200401.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1726651

ABSTRACT

Background: Mainland China has adopted the most decisive and proactive measures to contain the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, which helps control the spread of the virus across the country. Objectives: Early epidemiological investigations found that the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic was more critical in Hubei province (Hubei) than in rest parts of mainland China (Rest of China). A cross-sectional study was conducted to answer this urgent question and provide implications for the world. Methods: Infected cases from Mainland China were divided into two groups: Hubei and the Rest of China. Prevention, quarantine, and treatment were basedonThe Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards. Totalconfirmedcases, daily severe cases, total deaths, and total discharged cases were collected from January 20 to March 4 for statistical analysis. Results: Hubei accounted for 83.9% of China's total confirmed cases and 96.3% of China's total deaths. The percentage of severe cases and the rate of fatality in Hubei were higher than those in the Rest of China (P < 0.01). Daily severe cases in Hubei hit the peak at 11, 246 cases on February 18, compared to 989 cases on February 10 in the Rest of China. The percentages of daily severe cases in both regions declined throughout the epidemic, from 23.3% to 8.6% in Hubei compared to 15.0% to 1.3% in the Rest of China. The latest fatality rate in Hubei was 4.30%, which was much higher than 0.85% in the Rest of China. Up to March 4, 64.7% of China's total confirmed cases were cured, 3.86% died, and 31.5% were under treatment. Conclusions: The implications for the world are cutting off the sources of infection and transmission routes, early detection, early isolation, and early treatment that can prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the severity and fatality rate.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324552

ABSTRACT

Background: With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinial characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia Methods: : We abstracted and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 83 death cases with COVID-19 pneumonia in East hospital of Wuhan university Renmin hospital,between January 26, 2020, and February 28, 2020. Results: : Of the 83 deaths, none was the medical staff. The mean age was 71.8 years (SD 13.2;range, 34-97 years) and 53(63.9%) were male. The median from onset to admission was 10 days (IQR 7-14: range, 2-43 days), to death was 17days (IQR 14-21: range, 6-54 days). Most deaths (66[80%]) had underlying comorbid diseases, the most of which was hypertension [47(57%)]. The main initial symptoms of these 83 deaths were shortness of breath(98.8%), fever(94%) and myalgia or fatigue(90.4%). Laboratory analyses showed the lymphocytopenia in 69(83%) deaths, hypoalbuminemia in 77(93%) deaths, the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase in 79(95%) deaths, procalcitonin in 69(83%) deaths and C-reactive protein in 79(95%) deaths. All 83 patients received antiviral treatment, 81(97.6%) deaths received antibiotic therapy, and 54(65.1%) deaths received glucocorticoid therapy and 20(24.1%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Most of the deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia were elderly patients with underlying comorbid diseases, especially those over 70 years of age. The time of death was mostly 15-21 days after the onset of the disease. More care should be given to the elderly in the further prevention and control strategies of COVID-19.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324158

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December, 2019. As drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 remain in development, accurate virus detection plays a crucial role in the current public health crisis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits have been reliably used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been considered as a simpler and rapid alternative. However, as these kits have only been developed and applied clinically within a short timeframe, their clinical performance has not been adequately evaluated to date. We describe a comparative study between a newly developed cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA) kit (Kit A) and five RT-qPCR kits (Kits B–F) to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy. Methods: Fifty-two clinical samples were used including throat swabs (n=30), nasal swabs (n=7), nasopharyngeal swabs (n=7) and sputum specimens (n=8), comprising confirmed (n=26) and negative cases (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 detection was simultaneously performed on each sample using six nucleic acid amplification kits. The sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy for each kit were assessed using clinical manifestation and molecular diagnoses as the reference standard. Reproducibility for RT-qPCR kits was evaluated in triplicate by three different operators using a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive sample. On the basis of the six kits’ evaluation results, CPA kit (Kit A) and two RT-qPCR Kits (Kit B and F) were applied to the SARS-CoV-2 detection in close-contacts of COVID-19 patients. Results: For Kit A, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV/NPV and accuracy were 100%. Among the five RT-qPCR kits, Kits B, C and F had good agreement with the clinical diagnostic reports (Kappa≥0.75);Kits D and E were less congruent (0.4≤Kappa<0.75). Differences between all kits were statistically significant (P<0.001). The reproducibility of RT-qPCR kits was determined using a coefficients of variation (CV) between 0.95% and 2.57%, indicating good reproducibility. Conclusions: This is the first comparative study to evaluate CPA and RT-qPCR kits’ specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could serve as a reference for clinical laboratories, thus informing testing protocols amid the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2;COVID-19;nucleic acid detection;real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR);cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA)

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308234

ABSTRACT

Background: As of July 24 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases was > 15.4 millions, with over 640,000 deaths. The present study aimed to carry out an epidemiological analysis of confirmed cases and asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City to provide scientific reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods The epidemiological information of the 462 confirmed cases and 45 asymptomatic infections from January 19th to June 30th was collected in Shenzhen City, Southern China, and a descriptive analysis was performed. Results A total of 462 confirmed COVID-19 cases from January 19 to April 30, 2020 were reported in Shenzhen City, including 423 domestic cases (91.56%) and 39 imported cases (8.44%) who came back from other countries. Among domestic cases, the majority were cases imported from Hubei Province (n = 312, 67.53%), followed by local ones (n = 69, 14.94%). During the same period, a total of 45 asymptomatic infections were reported in Shenzhen City, including 31 local ones (68.89%) and 14 imported from abroad (31.11%). The proportion of asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City was increasing over time (Z = 13.1888, P  < 0.0001). The total number of local asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City exceeded as the same pattern as that in other provinces ( χ 2  = 118.830, P  < 0.0001). The proportion of asymptomatic infections among cases imported from abroad was higher than that of the same in domestic cases ( χ 2  = 22.5121, P  < 0.0001, OR  = 4.8983, 95%: 2.4052, 9.9756). No statistical significance was noted in the proportions of asymptomatic infections among imported cases from different countries ( χ 2  = 7.7202, P  = 0.6561). Conclusions The majority of COVID-19 cases in Shenzhen City were imported cases who came back from Hubei Province in the early stage (before 1st March, 2020) and from abroad in the later stage (after 1st April, 2020). Scientific and effective prevention and control measures have resulted in only a few local infections in Shenzhen City. Asymptomatic infections accounted for an increasing proportion among cases imported from abroad, indicating that the prevention measures carried out in Shenzhen City did avoid the import of infected cases. Improving the detection capability to identify asymptomatic infections as early as possible will be of significance for the control outbreak of COVID-19.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 552-555, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655962

ABSTRACT

We identified an individual who was coinfected with two SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the Beta and Delta variants. The ratio of the relative abundance between the two variants was maintained at 1:9 (Beta:Delta) in 14 days. Furthermore, possible evidence of recombinations in the Orf1ab and Spike genes was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 799150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643526

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate and characterize the putative Elizabethkingia anophelis contaminant isolated from throat and anal swab samples of patients from three fever epidemic clusters, which were not COVID-19 related, in Shenzhen, China, during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Bacteria were cultured from throat (n = 28) and anal (n = 3) swab samples from 28 fever adolescent patients. The isolated bacterial strains were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the VITEK2 automated identification system. Nucleic acids were extracted from the patient samples (n = 31), unopened virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as the patient samples (n = 35, blank samples) and from unopened throat swab collection kits of two other manufacturers (n = 22, control samples). Metagenomic sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detection were performed. Blood serum collected from patients (n = 13) was assessed for the presence of antibodies to E. anophelis. The genomic characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility, and heat resistance of E. anophelis isolates (n = 31) were analyzed. Results: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and VITEK2 as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. DNA sequence analysis confirmed isolates to be E. anophelis. The patients' samples and blank samples were positive for E. anophelis. Control samples were negative for E. anophelis. The sera from a sub-sample of 13 patients were antibody-negative for isolated E. anophelis. Most of the isolates were highly homologous and carried multiple ß-lactamase genes (bla B, bla GOB, and bla CME). The isolates displayed resistance to nitrofurans, penicillins, and most ß-lactam drugs. The bacteria survived heating at 56°C for 30 min. Conclusion: The unopened commercial virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as those used to swab patients were contaminated with E. anophelis. Patients were not infected with E. anophelis and the causative agent for the fevers remains unidentified. The relevant authorities were swiftly notified of this discovery and subsequent collection kits were not contaminated. DNA sequence-based techniques are the definitive method for Elizabethkingia species identification. The E. anophelis isolates were multidrug-resistant, with partial heat resistance, making them difficult to eradicate from contaminated surfaces. Such resistance indicates that more attention should be paid to disinfection protocols, especially in hospitals, to avoid outbreaks of E. anophelis infection.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6496-6505, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544293

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is not only a medical issue but also a sophisticated social problem. We propose a network dynamics model of epidemic transmission introducing a heterogeneous control factor. The proposed model applied the classical susceptible- exposed-infectious-recovered model to the network based on effective distance and was modified by introducing a heterogeneous control factor with temporal and spatial characteristics. International aviation data were approximately used to estimate the flux fraction matrix, and the effective distance was calculated. Through parameter estimation and simulation, the theoretical values of the modified model fit well with practical values. By adjusting the parameters and observing the change of the results, we found that the modified model is more in line with the actual needs and has higher credibility in the comprehensive analysis. The assessment shows that the number of confirmed cases worldwide will reach about 20 million optimistically. In severe cases, the peak value will exceed 80 million, and the late stage of the epidemic shows a long tail shape, lasting more than one and a half years. The effective way to control the global epidemic is to strengthen international cooperation and to impose international travel restrictions and other measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Primary Prevention/methods , Computer Simulation , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(8):3927, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1498172

ABSTRACT

Based on the meteorological forecast data from the National Meteorological Bureau, this study developed an AERMOD-based pollution forecasting model for iron and steel plants, simulated air quality impacts of a typical iron and steel plant located in Hebei Province during the controlled period(from February to March in 2020) and the uncontrolled period(from April to October in 2020) of the COVID-19 epidemic, and validated the model with real monitoring air quality data. In case of adverse wind direction, the results showed that the average contribution of SO2, NOx and PM10 from the plant to three state-controlled monitoring stations were 20.19~33.81%, 17.49~23.46% and 2.02~2.69% respectively during the controlled period, and 13.43~21.01%, 11.09~20.92% and 1.20~2.22% during the uncontrolled period. The correlation coefficients between the forecast values of SO2, NOx and PM10 emission of the plant and the real monitoring values of the three state-controlled monitoring stations were higher in the controlled period(the highest values are 0.43,0.48 and 0.29, respectively, at individual monitoring station) compared with the uncontrolled period(the highest values are 0.42,0.39 and 0.07, respectively) due to the less interference from other anthropogenic emission sources during the controlled period.

14.
JAMIA Open ; 4(3): ooaa074, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We developed COVID-19 Outbreak Simulator (https://ictr.github.io/covid19-outbreak-simulator/) to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of preventative and interventive measures to prevent and battle COVID-19 outbreaks for specific populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our simulator simulates the entire course of infection and transmission of the virus among individuals in heterogeneous populations, subject to operations and influences, such as quarantine, testing, social distancing, and community infection. It provides command-line and Jupyter notebook interfaces and a plugin system for user-defined operations. RESULTS: The simulator provides quantitative estimates for COVID-19 outbreaks in a variety of scenarios and assists the development of public health policies, risk-reduction operations, and emergency response plans. DISCUSSION: Our simulator is powerful, flexible, and customizable, although successful applications require realistic estimation and robustness analysis of population-specific parameters. CONCLUSION: Risk assessment and continuity planning for COVID-19 outbreaks are crucial for the continued operation of many organizations. Our simulator will be continuously expanded to meet this need.

15.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(10): 777-784, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349769

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic, which has caused unprecedented damage to human health and life. The present study aimed to carry out and discover asymptomatic infected individuals in Shenzhen, China. The data will provide the control measures to stop COVID-19 prevalence. Methods: The study was a retrospective review of medical records from 462 confirmed patients with COVID-19 and 45 asymptomatic infected individuals in Shenzhen from January 19 to April 30, 2020; this is a retrospective, observational multicenter study. Results: A total of 462 confirmed cases were diagnosed in Shenzhen from January 19 to April 30, 2020. The cohort included 423 domestic cases (91.56%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.67-93.76) and 39 (8.44%, 95% CI: 6.24-11.33) imported cases from other countries. Moreover, a total of 45 asymptomatic infections were found, encompassing 31 (68.89%, 95% CI: 54.34-80.47) local infections and 14 (31.11%, 95% CI: 19.53-45.66) individuals imported from other countries. The proportion of asymptomatic infected persons in Shenzhen is continuously increasing (Z = 13.19, p < 0.0001). The total number of local asymptomatic infections was more than that in other provinces (χ2 = 118.83, p < 0.0001). The proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals among cases imported from other countries was higher than the domestic cases (χ2 = 22.51, p < 0.0001, odds ratio = 4.90, 95% CI: 2.40-9.98). Conclusions: The proportion of asymptomatic infection is increasing. Hence, development and application of the diagnosis method with high sensitivity and specificity play a critical role in reducing COVID-19 global epidemics.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
16.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1466-1475, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide, causing significant mortality. There is a mechanistic relationship between intracellular coronavirus replication and deregulated autophagosome-lysosome system. We performed transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients and identified the aberrant upregulation of genes in the lysosome pathway. We further determined the capability of two circulating markers, namely microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) and (p62/SQSTM1) p62, both of which depend on lysosome for degradation, in predicting the emergence of moderate-to-severe disease in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization for supplemental oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analyses showed that LC3B was associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, independent of age, sex and clinical risk score. A decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml increased the risk of oxygen and ventilatory requirement (adjusted odds ratio: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-22.0; P = 0.04). Serum concentrations of p62 in the moderate-to-severe group were significantly lower in patients aged 50 or below. In conclusion, lysosome function is deregulated in PBMCs isolated from COVID-19 patients, and the related biomarker LC3B may serve as a novel tool for stratifying patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 from those with asymptomatic or mild disease. COVID-19 patients with a decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml will require early hospital admission for supplemental oxygen therapy and other respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Autophagy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Cycle , Cholesterol/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050473, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 testing on shortening the duration of quarantines for COVID-19 and to identify the most effective choices of testing schedules. DESIGN: We performed extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of quarantine strategies when one or more SARS-CoV-2 tests were administered during the quarantine. Simulations were based on statistical models for the transmissibility and viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the sensitivities of available testing methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of perturbations in model assumptions on the outcomes of optimal strategies. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 testing can effectively reduce the length of a quarantine without compromising safety. A single reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) test performed before the end of quarantine can reduce quarantine duration to 10 days. Two tests can reduce the duration to 8 days, and three highly sensitive RT-PCR tests can justify a 6-day quarantine. More strategic testing schedules and longer quarantines are needed if tests are administered with less-sensitive RT-PCR tests or antigen tests. Shorter quarantines can be used for applications that tolerate a residual postquarantine transmission risk comparable to a 10-day quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: Testing could substantially reduce the length of isolation, reducing the physical and mental stress caused by lengthy quarantines. With increasing capacity and lowered costs of SARS-CoV-2 tests, test-assisted quarantines could be safer and more cost-effective than 14-day quarantines and warrant more widespread use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19 Testing , Computer Simulation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 11(2):123-127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1310266

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the factors influencing the death of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Wuhan city of China. Methods The clinical data of 71 COVID-19 death cases admitted and treated in the Third Hospital of Wuhan were retrospectively analyzed. and SPSS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis to compare the laboratory results in different periods of the disease. Results Males (64.79%. 46/71) accounted for a large proportion of the 71 cases of COVID-19 deaths in Wuhan city of China. The median age was 70.0 years old. 81.69% (58/71) were over 60 years old. People with underlying diseases accounted for 76.06% (54/71). the most common underlying disease was hypertension (53.52%. 38/71). and the most common clinical symptom was fever (85.91%. 61/71). The majority of the patients were severe type (56.34%. 40/71) at the time when they were admitted to the hospital. According to the laboratory results. their lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [469.50 (454.50~552.75) U/L], blood glucose [9.95 (6.83~13.95) mmol/L] at the end stage were higher than that at admission with LDH [144.00 (123.75~273.25) U/L] and blood glucose [6.60 (5.20~10.70) mmol/L] (Z= -3.298, -2.542, both P < 0.05). Blood gas analysis at the end stage showed that their pH value [7.31 (7.27~7.34)]. oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) [45.00 (35.00~56.00) mm Hg] were lower than that at admission with the pH value [7.38 (7.34~7.41)] and PaO2 [82.50 (77.50~88.50) mm Meanwhile. their partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) [59.00 (48.75~60.75) mm Hg] was higher than that at admission [42.00 (37.25~48.75) mm Hg] (Z= -2.906. -3.296. -3.206. all P < 0.05). Conclusions Elder age and combined underlying diseases account for a higher proportion of deaths. Lung injury. hypoxemia. myocardial injury, and abnormal glucose metabolism caused by the disease are the major causes of death in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan city of China.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 640782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247895

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a matter of international concern as the disease is spreading exponentially. Statistics showed that infected patients in China who received combined treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine and modern medicine exhibited lower fatality rate and relatively better clinical outcomes. Both Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen Capsule (LHQWC) and Jin-Hua-Qing-Gan Granule (JHQGG) have been recommended by China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID-19 and have played a vital role in the prevention of a variety of viral infections. Here, we desired to analyze the broad-spectrum anti-viral capacities of LHQWC and JHQGG, and to compare their pharmacological functions for rational clinical applications. Based on literature mining, we found that both LHQWC and JHQGG were endowed with multiple antiviral activities by both targeting viral life cycle and regulating host immune responses and inflammation. In addition, from literature analyzed, JHQGG is more potent in modulating viral life cycle, whereas LHQWC exhibits better efficacies in regulating host anti-viral responses. When translating into clinical applications, oral administration of LHQWC could be more beneficial for patients with insufficient immune functions or for patients with alleviated symptoms after treatment with JHQGG.

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