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Nat Microbiol ; 6(1): 51-58, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926541


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-3 and individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that can be asymptomatic, mild, moderate or severe4,5. In the early phase of infection, T- and B-cell counts are substantially decreased6,7; however, IgM8-11 and IgG12-14 are detectable within 14 d after symptom onset. In COVID-19-convalescent individuals, spike-specific neutralizing antibodies are variable3,15,16. No specific drug or vaccine is available for COVID-19 at the time of writing; however, patients benefit from treatment with serum from COVID-19-convalescent individuals17,18. Nevertheless, antibody responses and cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals are largely unknown. Here, we show that the majority of COVID-19-convalescent individuals maintained SARS-CoV-2 spike S1- and S2-specific antibodies with neutralizing activity against the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, and that some of the antibodies cross-neutralized SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or both pseudotyped viruses. Convalescent individuals who experienced severe COVID-19 showed higher neutralizing antibody titres, a faster increase in lymphocyte counts and a higher frequency of CXCR3+ T follicular help (TFH) cells compared with COVID-19-convalescent individuals who experienced non-severe disease. Circulating TFH cells were spike specific and functional, and the frequencies of CXCR3+ TFH cells were positively associated with neutralizing antibody titres in COVID-19-convalescent individuals. No individuals had detectable autoantibodies. These findings provide insights into neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals and facilitate the treatment and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-761


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that first manifested in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and which has subseque

Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 485, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732887


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that has spread worldwide. Methods: This was a retrospective case series involving 218 patients admitted to three tertiary hospitals in the Loudi, Shaoyang, and Xiangtan areas of China from January 21 to June 27, 2020, who were confirmed by RT-PCR to have SARS-CoV-2. The patients' clinical characteristics, laboratory results, treatments, and prognoses based on clinical classification were recorded. Poor outcome was defined as admission to an ICU, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results: The patients were classified into four clinical groups based on disease severity, namely mild (10/218, 5%), moderate (146/218, 67%), severe (24/218, 11%), or critical (14/218, 6%); 24 (11%) asymptomatic cases were also included in the study. The most common symptoms were self-reported cough (162/218, 74%), fever (145/218, 67%), sputum production (99/218, 45%), and fatigue (77/218, 35%). Among the 218 patients, 192 (88%) received lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-alpha inhalation, and 196 (90%) patients received traditional Chinese medicine. Among the severe and critical patients, 25 (11%) were admitted to an ICU with or without mechanical ventilation, and one patient died. The presence of diabetes [relative risk (RR), 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-6.8; p = 0.007) or other comorbidities (RR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.9-17.8; p = 0.002) was independently associated with poor outcome. To date, 20 (9%) patients have retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after recovering and being discharged. Conclusion: The majority of patients in this case series were clinically classified as having moderate COVID-19. Older patients tended to present with greater levels of clinical severity. The prognosis for patients who were elderly or had diabetes or other chronic comorbidities was relatively poor.