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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2996-3004, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876194

ABSTRACT

The seasonal variation and spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals in typical drinking water sources in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River were analyzed using the solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Combined with the risk entropy method, the corresponding ecological risks for aquatic organisms were evaluated. The results showed that 80% of the target pharmaceuticals were detected in the drinking water sources, with average concentrations of 0.07-13.00 ng·L-1. The concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals were lower than or comparable with those in other drinking water sources reported in China. The spatiotemporal distribution of different pharmaceuticals varied. Generally, the detection level in winter was higher than that in summer, and there was no significant difference between that upstream and that downstream. This might be mainly attributed to seasonal/regional use and emissions of the pharmaceuticals, the impact of flow rate on dilution, and the impact of temperature on biodegradation. Compared with those before the COVID-19 epidemic, the detection concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals were relatively low. The reason for this might be that the prevention and control of the epidemic reduced the use and emission of the pharmaceuticals to a certain extent, and the high rainfall and runoff strengthened the dilution of water flow. The target pharmaceuticals, especially antibiotics, posed medium or low risks to aquatic organisms (especially algae). Considering the ecological risks and genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals and the potential risks of antibiotic-resistant genes, it is suggested to strengthen the investigation, evaluation, treatment, and control of pharmaceuticals in the water environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drinking Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Aquatic Organisms , China , Drinking Water/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Risk Assessment , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
2.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(1):25-32, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865687

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the association between global epidemic of COVID-19 and local situation of imported cases from abroad to Shanghai, and then to predict the risk of imported COVID-19 epidemic from December 2020 through March 2021.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318906

ABSTRACT

Background: Solid transplant patients are susceptible to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). While the vast majority of PJP cases occur within the first 6 months after transplantation, very few PJP cases are seen beyond 1 year post transplantation (late-onset PJP). PJP and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2) share quite a few common clinical manifestations and imaging findings, making the diagnosis of PJP often underappreciated during the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, only 1 case of kidney transplantation who developed COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has been reported, but this patient also suffered from many other infections and died from respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A successful treatment of kidney patients with COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has not been reported. Case presentation: We present a case of a 55-year-old male kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 who also developed late-onset PJP. He received a combined strategy, including specific anti-pneumocystis therapy, symptomatic supportive therapy, adjusted immunosuppressive therapy, and use of antiviral/antibiotics drugs, ending with a favorable outcome. Conclusions: This case highlights the importance of prompt and differential diagnosis of PJP in kidney transplant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to clarify if kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 could be prone to develop late-onset PJP and how these patients should be treated.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318905

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic of total, IgA, IgM and IgG antibody of the confirmed COVID-19 patients during convalescent phases to understand the kinetics of antibody response among recovered patients. Methods: From March 4 to April 29, 2020, a total of 143 recovered COVID-19 patients with clear date of illness onset available were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal and anal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing. Blood samples were collected for antibodies testing. Results: A total of 275 blood samples up to 96 days after illness onset were collected from 143 recovered patients. High titers of total and IgG antibodies continued to persist for over 3 months, with 100% and 99.3% patients remaining positive for total and IgG antibody. IgM antibody declined rapidly with a median time to seronegative at 67 (95%CI: 59, 75) days after illness onset. Around 25% patients were seronegative for IgA antibody at month 3 after illness onset. No statistical significance difference was founded in the antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results during in convalescent phases. Conclusion: Similar high antibody titers of total and IgG antibody continued to persist for over 3 months among recovered COVID-19 patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results.

5.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 83, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid transplant patients are susceptible to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). While the vast majority of PJP cases occur within the first 6 months after transplantation, very few PJP cases are seen beyond 1 year post-transplantation (late-onset PJP). PJP and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2) share quite a few common clinical manifestations and imaging findings, making the diagnosis of PJP often underappreciated during the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, only 1 case of kidney transplantation who developed COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has been reported, but this patient also suffered from many other infections and died from respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A successful treatment of kidney patients with COVID-19 and late-onset PJP has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 55-year-old male kidney transplant patient with COVID-19 who also developed late-onset PJP. He received a combined treatment strategy, including specific anti-pneumocystis therapy, symptomatic supportive therapy, adjusted immunosuppressive therapy, and use of antiviral drugs/antibiotics, ending with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of prompt and differential diagnosis of PJP in kidney transplant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to clarify if kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 could be prone to develop late-onset PJP and how these patients should be treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 257-266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To appraise effective predictors for COVID-19 mortality in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1270 COVID-19 patients, including 984 admitted in Sino French New City Branch (training and internal validation sets randomly split at 7:3 ratio) and 286 admitted in Optical Valley Branch (external validation set) of Wuhan Tongji hospital, were included in this study. Forty-eight clinical and laboratory features were screened with LASSO method. Further multi-tree extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning-based model was used to rank importance of features selected from LASSO and subsequently constructed death risk prediction model with simple-tree XGBoost model. Performances of models were evaluated by AUC, prediction accuracy, precision, and F1 scores. RESULTS: Six features, including disease severity, age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were selected as predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Simple-tree XGBoost model conducted by these features can predict death risk accurately with >90% precision and >85% sensitivity, as well as F1 scores >0.90 in training and validation sets. CONCLUSION: We proposed the disease severity, age, serum levels of hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 as significant predictors for death risk of COVID-19, which may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases. KEY MESSAGES A machine learning method is used to build death risk model for COVID-19 patients. Disease severity, age, hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 are death risk factors. These findings may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325530

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Pregnant women are deductively considered to be in immunosuppressive condition for the safety of semi-allograft fetuses, which increases the risk of being infected by the virus. In this review, we analyzed the unique immunological characteristics of pregnant women and reviewed their known outcomes at different trimesters from the perspective of underlying mechanisms that have been studied and speculated so far.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimesters/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
Cell Prolif ; 54(9): e13091, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of clinically recovered patients and persistent immune symptoms in discharged patients for up to several months. Pregnant patients were shown to be a high-risk group for COVID-19. Based on these findings, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and protein retention in the placentas of pregnant women who had fully recovered from COVID-19 and cytokine fluctuations in maternal and foetal tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Remnant SARS-CoV-2 in the term placenta was detected using nucleic acid amplification and immunohistochemical staining of the SARS-CoV-2 protein. The infiltration of CD14+ macrophages into the placental villi was detected by immunostaining. The cytokines in the placenta, maternal plasma, neonatal umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid specimens at delivery were profiled using the Luminex assay. RESULTS: Residual SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and protein were detected in the term placentas of recovered pregnant women. The infiltration of CD14+ macrophages into the placental villi of the recovered pregnant women was higher than that in the controls. Furthermore, the cytokine levels in the placenta, maternal plasma, neonatal umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid specimens fluctuated significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (in one patient) and protein (in five patients) were present in the placentas of clinically recovered pregnant patients for more than 3 months after diagnosis. The immune responses induced by the virus may lead to prolonged and persistent symptoms in the maternal plasma, placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/analysis , Placenta/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Macrophages/immunology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/blood
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2299-2303, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260595

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid testing and antibody testing data from 143 recovered COVID-19 patients during the convalescent phase were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 23 (16.1%) recovered patients re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Three months after symptom onset, 100% and 99.3% of the patients remained positive for total and IgG antibodies, and the antibody levels remained high. IgM antibodies declined rapidly, with a median time to seroconversion of 67 (95% CI: 59, 75) days after onset. Approximately 25% of patients were seronegative for IgA antibodies at three months after onset. There was no statistically significant difference in antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-positive RT-PCR results during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion
13.
Sex Med ; 9(1): 100293, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019049

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There has been no report regarding the impact on male sexual life or sexual function by changes in lifestyle during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. AIM: To investigate the changes in sexual life and sexual function of Chinese men during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire was created and the survey was administered through social media to Chinese adult men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main end point was the deteriorated erectile function or ejaculatory control ability, defined by self-evaluation or by decreased International Index of Erectile Function-5 items (IIEF-5) scores or increased premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores. RESULTS: Altogether, 612 questionnaires were collected. About 322 (52.6%) subjects were unmarried. About 8.4% and 8.5% subjects reported deteriorated erectile function or ejaculation control ability by self-evaluation, whereas 31.9% and 17.9% subjects showed decreased IIEF-5 scores or increased PEDT scores. Subjects with deteriorated erectile function by self-evaluation and decreased IIEF-5 scores had higher General Anxiety Disorder-7 (P < .001 and P = .001) and higher Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score (P < .001 and P = .002) after the epidemic, decreased frequency of sexual life (P < .001 and P < .001) and physical exercise (P = .009 and .007) after the epidemic. Subjects with deteriorated ejaculation control ability by self-evaluation and increased PEDT scores had higher General Anxiety Disorder-7 (P < .001 and P < .001) and higher Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score (P < .001 and P = .002) after the epidemic. Subjects with decreased frequency of sexual life had reduced income (P < .001), increased anxiety (P < .001) and depression (P < .001). Married subjects had higher proportion of improved depression (P = .048) and increased frequency of sexual life (P = .010). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 epidemic, decreased sexual function was present in a certain proportion of adult men, and the risk factors include increased anxiety and depression, and decreased frequency of sexual life. Fang D, Peng J, Liao S, et al. An Online Questionnaire Survey on the Sexual Life and Sexual Function of Chinese Adult Men During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic. Sex Med 2021;9:100293.

14.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 1059-1071, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971816

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While the immediate care and access disruptions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have received growing attention in certain areas, the full range of gaps in cancer screenings and treatment is not yet well understood or well documented throughout the country comprehensively. METHODS: This study used a large medical claims clearinghouse database representing 5%-7% of the Medicare fee-for-service population to characterize changes in the utilization of cancer care services and gain insight into the impact of COVID-19 on the US cancer population, including identification of new patients, gaps in access to care, and disruption of treatment journeys. RESULTS: In March-July 2020, in comparison with the baseline period of March-July 2019, there is a substantial decrease in cancer screenings, visits, therapy, and surgeries, with variation by cancer type and site of service. At the peak of the pandemic in April, screenings for breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancers were lower by 85%, 75%, 74%, and 56%, respectively. Significant utilization reductions were observed in April for hospital outpatient evaluation and management (E&M) visits (-74%), new patient E&M visits (-70%), and established patient E&M visits (-60%). A decrease in billing frequency was observed for the top physician-administered oncology products, dropping in both April (-26%) and July (-31%). Mastectomies were reduced consistently in April through July, with colectomies similarly reduced in April and May and prostatectomies dipping in April and July. CONCLUSION: The current impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care in the United States has resulted in decreases and delays in identifying new cancers and delivery of treatment. These problems, if unmitigated, will increase cancer morbidity and mortality for years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Medical Oncology/trends , Medicare , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/therapy , United States/epidemiology
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 549860, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845598

ABSTRACT

One of the primary tools for diagnosing COVID-19 is the nucleic acid-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test performed on respiratory specimens. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in lower respiratory specimens (such as sputum) is higher than that for upper respiratory specimens (such as nasal and pharyngeal swabs). However, sputum specimens are usually quite viscous, requiring a homogenization process prior to nucleic acid (NA) extraction for RT-PCR. Sputum specimens from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were treated with four commonly used reagents-saline, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), proteinase K (PK), and dithiothreitol (DTT), prior to NA extraction. These reagents were then compared for their performance in diagnosing COVID-19 in real clinical practice. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in PK- or DTT-treated sputum was comparable, and higher than that in sputum treated with NALC or saline. While there was a 4.8% (1/21) false negative rate for the PK- and DTT-treated sputum, neither treatment showed any false positive cases among patients with non-COVID diseases. Moreover, sputum pretreated with saline, NALC, PK or DTT showed higher detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to pharyngeal swabs. Taken together, we provide direct evidence recommending the use of PK or DTT to pretreat sputum samples to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 detection by clinical laboratories. Moreover, our methods should help to standardize the procedure of processing sputum specimens and improve the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in these samples.

16.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4360-4369, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-819329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection represents an urgent need for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. Nucleic acid testing of respiratory tract specimens for SARS-CoV-2 is the current gold standard for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the diagnostic accuracy of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid may be lower than optimal. The detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies should be used as a serological non-invasive tool for the diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. AIM: To investigate the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG and nucleic acid detection in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 652 suspected COVID-19 patients, and 206 non-COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Integrated TCM and Western Medicine Hospital. Data on SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests and serum antibody tests were collected to investigate the diagnostic value of nucleic acid RT-PCR test kits and immunoglobulin (Ig)M/IgG antibody test kits. The χ2 test was used to compare differences between categorical variables. A 95% confidence interval (CI) was provided by the Wilson score method. All analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, United States). RESULTS: Of the 652 suspected COVID-19 patients, 237 (36.3%) had positive nucleic acid tests, 311 (47.7%) were positive for IgM, and 592 (90.8%) were positive for IgG. There was a significant difference in the positive detection rate between the IgM and IgG test groups (P < 0.001). Using the RT-PCR results as a reference, the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of IgM/IgG combined tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection were 98.5%, 95.8%, and 97.1%, respectively. Of the 415 suspected COVID-19 patients with negative nucleic acid test results, 366 had positive IgM/IgG tests with a positive detection rate of 88.2%. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that serological IgM/IgG antibody combined test had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and can be used in combination with RT-PCR for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1930

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has become a major public health problem around the world. There are limited data on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women wi

18.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-638

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has been spreading from Wuhan, China to the nationwide and worldwide. Screening and management of children with respir

19.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 495, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800918

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the most severe public health problem facing the world currently. Social distancing and avoidance of unnecessary movements are preventive strategies that are being advocated to prevent the spread of the causative virus [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2]. It is known that epileptic children need long term treatments (antiepileptic drugs and/or immunosuppressive agents) as well as close follow up due to the nature of the disease. In addition, it is clear that epilepsy can concur with other chronic illnesses which can lower body immunity. As a result, epileptic children have high risk of acquiring this novel disease due to weak/immature immune system. Of concern, the management of children with epilepsy has become more challenging during this outbreak due to the prevention measures that are being taken. Although children with controlled seizures can be managed at home, it is challenging for pediatricians when it comes to cases with uncontrolled seizures/severe cases. To this end, we provide recommendations for the management of epileptic children at home, outpatient and inpatient settings.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22041, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-787419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise method for health care, keeping fit and getting rid of diseases. It has the advantages of simple operation and few side effects. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-COV-2). Its clinical manifestations mainly include fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Clinical practice showed that Qigong had some therapeutic effects on pulmonary dysfunction caused by novel Coronavirus, but there was lacking in evidence of evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this protocol is to systematically evaluate the effects of Qigong on lung function and quality of life in COVID-19 patients, and to add evidence to evidence-based medicine for the clinical application of Qigong therapy. METHODS: Use computer to retrieve English database (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library) and Chinese database (China Knowledge Network (CNKI), Wanfang Database, VIP Information Chinese Journal Service Platform (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Database). In addition, we manually retrieve randomized controlled clinical research from Baidu academic and Google academic from its establishment to July 2020. Two researchers independently extracted and evaluated the quality of the data included in the study, using RevMan5.3 to do meta-analyses of articles included, without language restrictions. RESULTS: This research evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Qigongs influence on patients pulmonary function and life quality by index such as 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/prediction (FEV1/PRE), Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), etc. CONCLUSIONS:: This study will provide reliable evidence-based evidence for the clinical application of Qigong in the treatment of COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020191877.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Qigong/methods , Quality of Life , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
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