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1.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Breast ; 59: 102-109, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant worldwide health crisis. Breast cancer patients with COVID-19 are fragile and require particular clinical care. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with COVID-19 and the risks associated with anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: The medical records of breast cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected among 9559 COVID-19 patients from seven designated hospitals from 13th January to 18th March 2020 in Hubei, China. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: Of the 45 breast cancer patients with COVID-19, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer. Univariate analysis showed that age over 75 and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 (logistic regression model: RR = 13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P = 0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR = 13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P = 0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia and higher LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels than other patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our breast cancer cohort, the severity of COVID-19 could be associated with baseline factors such as age over 75 and ECOG scores. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, reflected by neutropenia and elevated LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutropenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , C-Reactive Protein , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Advanced Materials Technologies ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1267441

ABSTRACT

As a core part of personal protective equipment (PPE), filter materials play a key role in individual protection, especially in the fight against the COVID‐19. Here, a high‐performance multiscale cellulose fibers‐based filter material is introduced for protective clothing, which overcomes the limitation of mutual exclusion of filtration and permeability in cellulose‐based filter materials. With the hierarchical biomimetic structure design and the active surface of multiscale cellulose fibers, high PM2.5 removal efficiency of ≈92% is achieved with the high moisture transmission rate of 8 kg m−2 d−1. Through a simple and effective dip‐coating and roll‐to‐roll process, the hierarchical filter materials can be made on a large scale and further fabricated into high‐quality protective clothing by industrial production equipment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Advanced Materials Technologies is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

4.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(3): 100061, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164618

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. Rapid and accurate detection of the causative virus SARS-CoV-2 is vital for the treatment and control of COVID-19. In this study, the comparative sensitivity of different respiratory specimen types were retrospectively analyzed using 3,552 clinical samples from 410 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Guangdong CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Except for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the sputum possessed the highest positive rate (73.4%-87.5%), followed by nasal swabs (53.1%-85.3%) for both severe and mild cases during the first 14 days after illness onset (d.a.o.). Viral RNA could be detected in all BALF samples collected from the severe group within 14 d.a.o. and lasted up to 46 d.a.o. Moreover, although viral RNA was negative in the upper respiratory samples, it was also positive in BALF samples in most cases from the severe group during treatment. Notably, no viral RNA was detected in BALF samples from the mild group. Despite typical ground-glass opacity observed via computed tomographic scans, no viral RNA was detected in the first three or all upper respiratory tract specimens from some COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, sputum is most sensitive for routine laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, followed by nasal swabs. Detection of viral RNA in BALF improves diagnostic accuracy in severe COVID-19 patients.

5.
Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 10(6):435-438, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125305

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze inflammatory indicators and T lymphocyte subsets in severe patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e22980, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990917

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, causing significant stress on the medical system. We explored the risk factors for condition changes in COVID-19 pneumonia patients after admission.The patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at 2 medical centers in Hunan Province were studied, and those whose conditions changed after admission were compared. Their clinical characteristics and experimental indicators were compared using SPSS software and R language to build a disease risk prediction model.Patients with condition changes after admission were older and had more blood cell abnormalities and impaired organ function (decreased albumin, elevated D-dimer) than normal patients. We found that age, neutrophil ratio, D-dimer, chest Computed tomograpgy (CT) changes, and glucocorticoid use were risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia after admission.Elderly patients are more susceptible to disease changes after COVID-19 pneumonia; COVID-19 pneumonia patients who develop disease changes after admission have higher neutrophil ratios, increased D-dimer levels, chest imaging changes, and glucocorticoid usage. Additional research is needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(6): 1003-1011, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820587

ABSTRACT

A recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China was found to be caused by a 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2 or HCoV-19). We previously reported the clinical features of 12 patients with 2019-nCoV infections in Shenzhen, China. To further understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and find better ways to monitor and treat the disease caused by 2019-nCoV, we measured the levels of 48 cytokines in the blood plasma of those 12 COVID-19 patients. Thirty-eight out of the 48 measured cytokines in the plasma of 2019-nCoV-infected patients were significantly elevated compared to healthy individuals. Seventeen cytokines were linked to 2019-nCoV loads. Fifteen cytokines, namely M-CSF, IL-10, IFN-α2, IL-17, IL-4, IP-10, IL-7, IL-1ra, G-CSF, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, HGF and PDGF-BB, were strongly associated with the lung-injury Murray score and could be used to predict the disease severity of 2019-nCoV infections by calculating the area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics. Our results suggest that 2019-nCoV infections trigger extensive changes in a wide array of cytokines, some of which could be potential biomarkers of disease severity of 2019-nCoV infections. These findings will likely improve our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of this emerging disease. Our results also suggest that modulators of cytokine responses may play a therapeutic role in combating the disease once the functions of these elevated cytokines have been characterized.

9.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-562

ABSTRACT

Background: Ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (CoVID-19) results in fast increasing patient number in China and many other countries. Published article

10.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(11): 1505-1511, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The authors retrospectively investigated adverse events (AEs) by data-mining a self-reporting database to better understand toxicities, especially since it has been used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to detect the risk signals from the data in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adverse event reporting system database (FAERS). The definition relied on system organ class (SOCs) and preferred terms (PTs) by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). RESULTS: The search retrieved 1,598 baricitinib-associated cases within the reporting period: 86 PTs with significant disproportionality were retained. Infections including 'herpes zoster,' 'oral herpes,' and 'herpes virus infection' were found at a similar rate to those reported in trials, and such events were rare. Reports emerged for several thrombotic adverse events, while these events were also rare. Unexpected safety signals as opportunistic infections were detected. Serious outcomes as death and life-threatening outcomes accounted for 9.76% of the reported cases. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of these AEs does not appear above the background expected. These data are consistent with routine clinical observations and suggest the importance of pharmacovigilance.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Data Mining , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Purines , Pyrazoles , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Young Adult
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 904-913, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are a high-risk population in the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19, and examined risk factors for mortality in this population. METHODS: We did a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study of 205 patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and with a pathological diagnosis of a malignant tumour in nine hospitals within Hubei, China, from Jan 13 to March 18, 2020. All patients were either discharged from hospitals or had died by April 20, 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and cancer histories were compared between survivors and non-survivors by use of χ2 test. Risk factors for mortality were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13 and Mar 18, 2020, 205 patients with cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled (median age 63 years [IQR 56-70; range 14-96]; 109 [53%] women). 183 (89%) had solid tumours and 22 (11%) had haematological malignancies. The median duration of follow-up was 68 days (IQR 59-78). The most common solid tumour types were breast (40 [20%] patients), colorectal (28 [14%]), and lung cancer (24 [12%]). 54 (30%) of 182 patients received antitumour therapies within 4 weeks before symptom onset. 30 (15%) of 205 patients were transferred to an intensive care unit and 40 (20%) died during hospital admission. Patients with haematological malignancies had poorer prognoses than did those with solid tumours: nine (41%) of 22 patients with haematological malignancies died versus 31 (17%) of 183 patients with solid tumours (hazard ratio for death 3·28 [95% CI 1·56-6·91]; log rank p=0·0009). Multivariable regression analysis showed that receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset (odds ratio [OR] 3·51 [95% CI 1·16-10·59]; p=0·026) and male sex (OR 3·86 [95% CI 1·57-9·50]; p=0·0033) were risk factors for death during admission to hospital. INTERPRETATION: Patients with cancer and COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had a high case-fatality rate. Unfavourable prognostic factors, including receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset and male sex, might help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of fatal outcomes. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(1): 7-8, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-261149

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 era, Chinese hospitals have developed a system that enables vulnerable cancer patients to continue to receive high-quality medical care, optimising their survival whilst protecting them. This includes use of digital quick codes, fever clinics and optimal scheduling. We wish to share our experiences working with patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 119-127.e4, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-170708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first reported in Wuhan, December 2019, and continuously poses a serious threat to public health, highlighting the urgent need of identifying biomarkers for disease severity and progression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19. METHODS: Forty-eight cytokines in the plasma samples from 50 COVID-19 cases including 11 critically ill, 25 severe, and 14 moderate patients were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical data. RESULTS: Levels of 14 cytokines were found to be significantly elevated in COVID-19 cases and showed different expression profiles in patients with different disease severity. Moreover, expression levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, hepatocyte growth factor, monokine-induced gamma IFN, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, which were shown to be highly associated with disease severity during disease progression, were remarkably higher in critically ill patients, followed by severe and then the moderate patients. Serial detection of the 5 cytokines in 16 cases showed that continuously high levels were associated with deteriorated progression of disease and fatal outcome. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 were excellent predictors for the progression of COVID-19, and the combination of the 2 cytokines showed the biggest area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics calculations with a value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we report biomarkers that are highly associated with disease severity and progression of COVID-19. These findings add to our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Chemokine CCL7/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 317, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus is transmissible from human to human. Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this case report, we describe our experience in detection of SARS-COV-2 from a confirmed patient using nucleic acid test of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) samples but not nasopharyngeal swabs. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of severely ill SARS-COV-2 infected 46-year-old man with fever, coughing and chest tightness. We performed viral detection using his BALF samples and imaging method (CT) for confirmation. The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages. Other medication was also given to him in combination for anti-inflammation, intestinal microbial regulation, phlegm elimination, liver protection and pulmonary fibrosis prevention purposes. We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration. The patient was cured and discharged. CONCLUSION: This case report described an effective supportive medication scheme to treat SARS-COV-2 infected patient and emphasized the necessity of detection of the viral genome using BALF samples and its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(4): 272-276, 2020 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-49404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19; previously known as 2019-nCoV) was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, which has subsequently affected more than 200 countries worldwide including Europe, North America, Oceania, Africa and other places. The number of infected people is rapidly increasing, while the diagnostic method of COVID-19 is only by nucleic acid testing. OBJECTIVE: To explain the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging manifestations and to judge diagnostic value of COVID-19 by analyzing the clinical data of COVID-19 suspected and confirmed patients in a non-outbreak, Shanghai, China. To clarify the early epidemiology and clinical characteristics about COVID-19. METHODS: Cross-sectional, single-center case reports of the 86 patients screened at Zhoupu Hospital in Pudong New District, Shanghai, China, from January 23 to February 16, 2020. Epidemiology, demography, clinical, laboratory and chest CTs were collected and analyzed. The screened patients were divided into COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 based on nucleic acid test results. RESULTS: Of the 86 screened patients, 11 were confirmed (12.8%) by nucleic acid testing (mean age 40.73 ± 11.32, 5 males). No significant differences were found in clinical symptoms including fever, cough, dyspnea, sore throat, and fatigue (P > 0.05). No statistical difference was observed in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) between the two groups (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ) of patients (P = 0.402), while the white blood cell count and lymphocyte count of the confirmed patients were slightly lower than those of the suspected patients (P < 0.05). Some non-COVID-19 chest CTs also showed subpleural lesions, such as ground-glass opacities (GGO) combined with bronchiectasis; or halo nodules distributed under the pleura with focal GGO; consolidation of subpleural distribution or combined with air bronchi sign and vascular bundle sign, etc. CONCLUSION: The early clinical manifestations and imaging findings of COVID-19 are not characteristic in non-outbreak areas. Etiological testing should be performed as early as possible for clinically suspected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1192-1198, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9104

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus. The virus has been named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease it causes has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). More than 16% of patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the fatality ratio was 1%-2%. No specific treatment has been reported. Herein, we examined the effects of favipiravir (FPV) versus lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) for the treatment of COVID-19. Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who received oral FPV (Day 1: 1600 mg twice daily; Days 2-14: 600 mg twice daily) plus interferon (IFN)-α by aerosol inhalation (5 million international unit (IU) twice daily) were included in the FPV arm of this study, whereas patients who were treated with LPV/RTV (Days 1-14: 400 mg/100 mg twice daily) plus IFN-α by aerosol inhalation (5 million IU twice daily) were included in the control arm. Changes in chest computed tomography (CT), viral clearance, and drug safety were compared between the two groups. For the 35 patients enrolled in the FPV arm and the 45 patients in the control arm, all baseline characteristics were comparable between the two arms. A shorter viral clearance median time was found for the FPV arm versus the control arm (4 d (interquartile range (IQR): 2.5-9) versus 11 d (IQR: 8-13), P < 0.001). The FPV arm also showed significant improvement in chest CT compared with the control arm, with an improvement rate of 91.43% versus 62.22% (P = 0.004). After adjustment for potential confounders, the FPV arm also showed a significantly higher improvement rate in chest CT. Multivariable Cox regression showed that FPV was independently associated with faster viral clearance. In addition, fewer adverse events were found in the FPV arm than in the control arm. In this open-label before-after controlled study, FPV showed better therapeutic responses on COVID-19 in terms of disease progression and viral clearance. These preliminary clinical results provide useful information of treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(3): 364-374, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019-nCoV infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and rapidly spread to many provinces in China as well as other countries. Here we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as potential biomarkers for predicting disease severity in 2019-nCoV-infected patients in Shenzhen, China. All 12 cases of the 2019-nCoV-infected patients developed pneumonia and half of them developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, decreased percentage of lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased CD8 count. The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury. Our results suggest a number of potential diagnosis biomarkers and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs for potential repurposing treatment of 2019-nCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Injury , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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