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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240051

ABSTRACT

Humanity has faced three recent outbreaks of novel betacoronaviruses, emphasizing the need to develop approaches that broadly target coronaviruses. Here, we identify 55 monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent donors that bind diverse betacoronavirus spike proteins. Most antibodies targeted an S2 epitope that included the K814 residue and were non-neutralizing. However, 11 antibodies targeting the stem helix neutralized betacoronaviruses from different lineages. Eight antibodies in this group, including the six broadest and most potent neutralizers, were encoded by IGHV1-46 and IGKV3-20. Crystal structures of three antibodies of this class at 1.5-1.75-Å resolution revealed a conserved mode of binding. COV89-22 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern including Omicron BA.4/5 and limited disease in Syrian hamsters. Collectively, these findings identify a class of IGHV1-46/IGKV3-20 antibodies that broadly neutralize betacoronaviruses by targeting the stem helix but indicate these antibodies constitute a small fraction of the broadly reactive antibody response to betacoronaviruses after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Immunity ; 56(3): 669-686.e7, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246801

ABSTRACT

Pan-betacoronavirus neutralizing antibodies may hold the key to developing broadly protective vaccines against novel pandemic coronaviruses and to more effectively respond to SARS-CoV-2 variants. The emergence of Omicron and subvariants of SARS-CoV-2 illustrates the limitations of solely targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Here, we isolated a large panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) from SARS-CoV-2 recovered-vaccinated donors, which targets a conserved S2 region in the betacoronavirus spike fusion machinery. Select bnAbs showed broad in vivo protection against all three deadly betacoronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV, which have spilled over into humans in the past two decades. Structural studies of these bnAbs delineated the molecular basis for their broad reactivity and revealed common antibody features targetable by broad vaccination strategies. These bnAbs provide new insights and opportunities for antibody-based interventions and for developing pan-betacoronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
3.
iScience ; 25(9): 104914, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069197

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants poses a constant threat of escape from monoclonal antibody and vaccine countermeasures. Mutations in the ACE2 receptor binding site on the surface S protein have been shown to disrupt antibody binding and prevent viral neutralization. Here, we used a directed evolution-based approach to engineer three neutralizing antibodies for enhanced binding to S protein. The engineered antibodies showed increased in vitro functional activity in terms of neutralization potency and/or breadth of neutralization against viral variants. Deep mutational scanning revealed that higher binding affinity reduces the total number of viral escape mutations. Studies in the Syrian hamster model showed two examples where the affinity-matured antibody provided superior protection compared to the parental antibody. These data suggest that monoclonal antibodies for antiviral indications would benefit from affinity maturation to reduce viral escape pathways and appropriate affinity maturation in vaccine immunization could help resist viral variation.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(657): eabl9605, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986328

ABSTRACT

To prepare for future coronavirus (CoV) pandemics, it is desirable to generate vaccines capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibody responses to CoVs. Here, we show that immunization of macaques with SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein with a two-shot protocol generated potent serum receptor binding domain cross-neutralizing antibody responses to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. Furthermore, responses were equally effective against most SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and some were highly effective against Omicron. This result contrasts with human infection or many two-shot vaccination protocols where responses were typically more SARS-CoV-2 specific and where VOCs were less well neutralized. Structural studies showed that cloned macaque neutralizing antibodies, particularly using a given heavy chain germline gene, recognized a relatively conserved region proximal to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor binding site (RBS), whereas many frequently elicited human neutralizing antibodies targeted more variable epitopes overlapping the RBS. B cell repertoire differences between humans and macaques appeared to influence the vaccine response. The macaque neutralizing antibodies identified a pan-SARS-related virus epitope region less well targeted by human antibodies that could be exploited in rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Epitopes , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Science ; 377(6607): 728-735, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968212

ABSTRACT

The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to broadly target this group of pathogens. We used an epitope-agnostic approach to identify six monoclonal antibodies that bind to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. All six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. COV44-62 and COV44-79 broadly neutralize alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants BA.2 and BA.4/5, albeit with lower potency than receptor binding domain-specific antibodies. In crystal structures of COV44-62 and COV44-79 antigen-binding fragments with the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide, the fusion peptide epitope adopts a helical structure and includes the arginine residue at the S2' cleavage site. COV44-79 limited disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in a Syrian hamster model. These findings highlight the fusion peptide as a candidate epitope for next-generation coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Peptides/immunology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2205784119, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908386

ABSTRACT

Many neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited to ancestral severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through natural infection and vaccination have reduced effectiveness to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we show that therapeutic antibody ADG20 is able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron (B.1.1.529) as well as other SARS-related coronaviruses. We delineate the structural basis of this relatively escape-resistant epitope that extends from one end of the receptor binding site (RBS) into the highly conserved CR3022 site. ADG20 can then benefit from high potency through direct competition with ACE2 in the more variable RBS and interaction with the more highly conserved CR3022 site. Importantly, antibodies that are able to target this site generally neutralize a broad range of VOCs, albeit with reduced potency against Omicron. Thus, this conserved and vulnerable site can be exploited for the design of universal vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(637): eabi9215, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673344

ABSTRACT

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to coronaviruses (CoVs) are valuable in their own right as prophylactic and therapeutic reagents to treat diverse CoVs and as templates for rational pan-CoV vaccine design. We recently described a bnAb, CC40.8, from a CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donor that exhibits broad reactivity with human ß-CoVs. Here, we showed that CC40.8 targets the conserved S2 stem helix region of the CoV spike fusion machinery. We determined a crystal structure of CC40.8 Fab with a SARS-CoV-2 S2 stem peptide at 1.6-Å resolution and found that the peptide adopted a mainly helical structure. Conserved residues in ß-CoVs interacted with CC40.8 antibody, thereby providing a molecular basis for its broad reactivity. CC40.8 exhibited in vivo protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in two animal models. In both models, CC40.8-treated animals exhibited less weight loss and reduced lung viral titers compared to controls. Furthermore, we noted that CC40.8-like bnAbs are relatively rare in human COVID-19 infection, and therefore, their elicitation may require rational structure-based vaccine design strategies. Overall, our study describes a target on ß-CoV spike proteins for protective antibodies that may facilitate the development of pan-ß-CoV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(616): eabj5413, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406601

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern threatens the efficacy of existing vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and underscores the need for additional antibody-based tools that potently neutralize variants by targeting multiple sites of the spike protein. We isolated 216 monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 from plasmablasts and memory B cells collected from patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The three most potent antibodies targeted distinct regions of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and all three neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants. The crystal structure of the most potent antibody, CV503, revealed that it binds to the ridge region of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, competes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and has limited contact with key variant residues K417, E484, and N501. We designed bispecific antibodies by combining nonoverlapping specificities and identified five bispecific antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection at concentrations of less than 1 ng/ml. Through a distinct mode of action, three bispecific antibodies cross-linked adjacent spike proteins using dual N-terminal domain­RBD specificities. One bispecific antibody was greater than 100-fold more potent than a cocktail of its parent monoclonals in vitro and prevented clinical disease in a hamster model at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Two bispecific antibodies in our panel comparably neutralized the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants and wild-type virus. Furthermore, a bispecific antibody that neutralized the Beta variant protected hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 expressing the E484K mutation. Thus, bispecific antibodies represent a promising next-generation countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(9): 109627, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347525

ABSTRACT

The potential emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) escape mutants is a threat to the efficacy of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibody (nAb) therapies. An understanding of the antibody/S escape mutation landscape is urgently needed to preemptively address this threat. Here we describe a rapid method to identify escape mutants for nAbs targeting the S receptor binding site. We identified escape mutants for five nAbs, including three from the public germline class VH3-53 elicited by natural coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Escape mutations predominantly mapped to the periphery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) recognition site on the RBD with K417, D420, Y421, F486, and Q493 as notable hotspots. We provide libraries, methods, and software as an openly available community resource to accelerate new therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2.

10.
J Immunol ; 207(1): 344-351, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike pseudotyped virus (PSV) assays are widely used to measure neutralization titers of sera and of isolated neutralizing Abs (nAbs). PSV neutralization assays are safer than live virus neutralization assays and do not require access to biosafety level 3 laboratories. However, many PSV assays are nevertheless somewhat challenging and require at least 2 d to carry out. In this study, we report a rapid (<30 min), sensitive, cell-free, off-the-shelf, and accurate assay for receptor binding domain nAb detection. Our proximity-based luciferase assay takes advantage of the fact that the most potent SARS-CoV-2 nAbs function by blocking the binding between SARS-CoV-2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The method was validated using isolated nAbs and sera from spike-immunized animals and patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The method was particularly useful in patients with HIV taking antiretroviral therapies that interfere with the conventional PSV assay. The method provides a cost-effective and point-of-care alternative to evaluate the potency and breadth of the predominant SARS-CoV-2 nAbs elicited by infection or vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Science ; 373(6556): 818-823, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238481

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited against the receptor binding site (RBS) of the spike protein of wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are generally less effective against recent variants of concern. RBS residues Glu484, Lys417, and Asn501 are mutated in variants first described in South Africa (B.1.351) and Brazil (P.1). We analyzed their effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding, as well as the effects of two of these mutations (K417N and E484K) on nAbs isolated from COVID-19 patients. Binding and neutralization of the two most frequently elicited antibody families (IGHV3-53/3-66 and IGHV1-2), which can both bind the RBS in alternative binding modes, are abrogated by K417N, E484K, or both. These effects can be structurally explained by their extensive interactions with RBS nAbs. However, nAbs to the more conserved, cross-neutralizing CR3022 and S309 sites were largely unaffected. The results have implications for next-generation vaccines and antibody therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antigenic Variation , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2938, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236086

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing immunity to seasonal endemic coronaviruses could have profound consequences for antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, induced from natural infection or vaccination. A first step to establish whether pre-existing responses can impact SARS-CoV-2 infection is to understand the nature and extent of cross-reactivity in humans to coronaviruses. Here we compare serum antibody and memory B cell responses to coronavirus spike proteins from pre-pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors using binding and functional assays. We show weak evidence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive serum antibodies in pre-pandemic donors. However, we find evidence of pre-existing cross-reactive memory B cells that are activated during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Monoclonal antibodies show varying degrees of cross-reactivity with betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1 and endemic coronaviruses. We identify one cross-reactive neutralizing antibody specific to the S2 subunit of the S protein. Our results suggest that pre-existing immunity to endemic coronaviruses should be considered in evaluating antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(5): 806-818.e6, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184886

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have caused several human epidemics and pandemics including the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antibodies have already shown striking effectiveness against COVID-19. Nevertheless, concerns remain about antigenic drift in SARS-CoV-2 as well as threats from other sarbecoviruses. Cross-neutralizing antibodies to SARS-related viruses provide opportunities to address such concerns. Here, we report on crystal structures of a cross-neutralizing antibody, CV38-142, in complex with the receptor-binding domains from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Recognition of the N343 glycosylation site and water-mediated interactions facilitate cross-reactivity of CV38-142 to SARS-related viruses, allowing the antibody to accommodate antigenic variation in these viruses. CV38-142 synergizes with other cross-neutralizing antibodies, notably COVA1-16, to enhance neutralization of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, including circulating variants of concern B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Overall, this study provides valuable information for vaccine and therapeutic design to address current and future antigenic drift in SARS-CoV-2 and to protect against zoonotic SARS-related coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Science ; 371(6531): 823-829, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048643

ABSTRACT

The recurrent zoonotic spillover of coronaviruses (CoVs) into the human population underscores the need for broadly active countermeasures. We employed a directed evolution approach to engineer three severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies for enhanced neutralization breadth and potency. One of the affinity-matured variants, ADG-2, displays strong binding activity to a large panel of sarbecovirus receptor binding domains and neutralizes representative epidemic sarbecoviruses with high potency. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that ADG-2 employs a distinct angle of approach to recognize a highly conserved epitope that overlaps the receptor binding site. In immunocompetent mouse models of SARS and COVID-19, prophylactic administration of ADG-2 provided complete protection against respiratory burden, viral replication in the lungs, and lung pathology. Altogether, ADG-2 represents a promising broad-spectrum therapeutic candidate against clade 1 sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Binding Sites , Binding Sites, Antibody , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Directed Molecular Evolution , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 Serotherapy
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009089, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961466

ABSTRACT

Epitopes that are conserved among SARS-like coronaviruses are attractive targets for design of cross-reactive vaccines and therapeutics. CR3022 is a SARS-CoV neutralizing antibody to a highly conserved epitope on the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein that is able to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, but with lower affinity. Using x-ray crystallography, mutagenesis, and binding experiments, we illustrate that of four amino acid differences in the CR3022 epitope between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, a single mutation P384A fully determines the affinity difference. CR3022 does not neutralize SARS-CoV-2, but the increased affinity to SARS-CoV-2 P384A mutant now enables neutralization with a similar potency to SARS-CoV. We further investigated CR3022 interaction with the SARS-CoV spike protein by negative-stain EM and cryo-EM. Three CR3022 Fabs bind per trimer with the RBD observed in different up-conformations due to considerable flexibility of the RBD. In one of these conformations, quaternary interactions are made by CR3022 to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of an adjacent subunit. Overall, this study provides insights into antigenic variation and potential cross-neutralizing epitopes on SARS-like viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Antigenic Variation/genetics , Cross Reactions , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mutation , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807603

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses could have profound consequences for antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, either induced in natural infection or through vaccination. Such consequences are well established in the influenza and flavivirus fields. A first step to establish whether pre-existing responses can impact SARS-CoV-2 infection is to understand the nature and extent of cross-reactivity in humans to coronaviruses. We compared serum antibody and memory B cell responses to coronavirus spike (S) proteins from pre-pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors using a series of binding and functional assays. We found weak evidence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive serum antibodies in pre-pandemic donors. However, we found stronger evidence of pre-existing cross-reactive memory B cells that were activated on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from the donors showed varying degrees of cross-reactivity with betacoronaviruses, including SARS and endemic coronaviruses. None of the cross-reactive mAbs were neutralizing except for one that targeted the S2 subunit of the S protein. The results suggest that pre-existing immunity to endemic coronaviruses should be considered in evaluating antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Science ; 369(6506): 956-963, 2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599034

ABSTRACT

Countermeasures to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are a global health priority. We enrolled a cohort of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-recovered participants, developed neutralization assays to investigate antibody responses, adapted our high-throughput antibody generation pipeline to rapidly screen more than 1800 antibodies, and established an animal model to test protection. We isolated potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to two epitopes on the receptor binding domain (RBD) and to distinct non-RBD epitopes on the spike (S) protein. As indicated by maintained weight and low lung viral titers in treated animals, the passive transfer of a nAb provides protection against disease in high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters. The study suggests a role for nAbs in prophylaxis, and potentially therapy, of COVID-19. The nAbs also define protective epitopes to guide vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity , Antibody Specificity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Load , Virus Replication , COVID-19 Serotherapy
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